40 CFR Part 50, Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

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Appendix P to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone
1. General
(a) This appendix explains the data handling conventions and computations necessary for determining whether the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone (O3) specified in § 50.15 are met at an ambient O3 air quality monitoring site. Ozone is measured in the ambient air by a reference method based on appendix D of this part, as applicable, and designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter, or by an equivalent method designated in accordance with part 53 of this chapter. Data reporting, data handling, and computation procedures to be used in making comparisons between reported O3 concentrations and the levels of the O3 standards are specified in the following sections. Whether to exclude, retain, or make adjustments to the data affected by exceptional events, including stratospheric O3 intrusion and other natural events, is determined by the requirements under §§ 50.1, 50.14 and 51.930.
(b) The terms used in this appendix are defined as follows:
8-hour average is the rolling average of eight hourly O3 concentrations as explained in section 2 of this appendix.
Annual fourth-highest daily maximum refers to the fourth highest value measured at a monitoring site during a particular year.
Daily maximum 8-hour average concentration refers to the maximum calculated 8-hour average for a particular day as explained in section 2 of this appendix.
Design values are the metrics (i.e., statistics) that are compared to the NAAQS levels to determine compliance, calculated as shown in section 3 of this appendix.
O3 monitoring season refers to the span of time within a calendar year when individual States are required to measure ambient O3 concentrations as listed in part 58 appendix D to this chapter.
Year refers to calendar year.
2. Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone
2.1Data Reporting and Handling Conventions
Computing 8-hour averages. Hourly average concentrations shall be reported in parts per million (ppm) to the third decimal place, with additional digits to the right of the third decimal place truncated. Running 8-hour averages shall be computed from the hourly O3 concentration data for each hour of the year and shall be stored in the first, or start, hour of the 8-hour period. An 8-hour average shall be considered valid if at least 75% of the hourly averages for the 8-hour period are available. In the event that only 6 or 7 hourly averages are available, the 8-hour average shall be computed on the basis of the hours available using 6 or 7 as the divisor. 8-hour periods with three or more missing hours shall be considered valid also, if, after substituting one-half the minimum detectable limit for the missing hourly concentrations, the 8-hour average concentration is greater than the level of the standard. The computed 8-hour average O3 concentrations shall be reported to three decimal places (the digits to the right of the third decimal place are truncated, consistent with the data handling procedures for the reported data).
Daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations. (a) There are 24 possible running 8-hour average O3 concentrations for each calendar day during the O3 monitoring season. The daily maximum 8-hour concentration for a given calendar day is the highest of the 24 possible 8-hour average concentrations computed for that day. This process is repeated, yielding a daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentration for each calendar day with ambient O3 monitoring data. Because the 8-hour averages are recorded in the start hour, the daily maximum 8-hour concentrations from two consecutive days may have some hourly concentrations in common. Generally, overlapping daily maximum 8-hour averages are not likely, except in those non-urban monitoring locations with less pronounced diurnal variation in hourly concentrations.
(b) An O3 monitoring day shall be counted as a valid day if valid 8-hour averages are available for at least 75% of possible hours in the day (i.e., at least 18 of the 24 averages). In the event that less than 75% of the 8-hour averages are available, a day shall also be counted as a valid day if the daily maximum 8-hour average concentration for that day is greater than the level of the standard.
2.2Primary and Secondary Standard-related Summary Statistic
The standard-related summary statistic is the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour O3 concentration, expressed in parts per million, averaged over three years. The 3-year average shall be computed using the three most recent, consecutive calendar years of monitoring data meeting the data completeness requirements described in this appendix. The computed 3-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentrations shall be reported to three decimal places (the digits to the right of the third decimal place are truncated, consistent with the data handling procedures for the reported data).
2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary Ozone Standards
(a) The primary and secondary O3 ambient air quality standards are met at an ambient air quality monitoring site when the 3-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentration is less than or equal to 0.075 ppm.
(b) This comparison shall be based on three consecutive, complete calendar years of air quality monitoring data. This requirement is met for the 3-year period at a monitoring site if daily maximum 8-hour average concentrations are available for at least 90% of the days within the O3 monitoring season, on average, for the 3-year period, with a minimum data completeness requirement in any one year of at least 75% of the days within the O3 monitoring season. When computing whether the minimum data completeness requirements have been met, meteorological or ambient data may be sufficient to demonstrate that meteorological conditions on missing days were not conducive to concentrations above the level of the standard. Missing days assumed less then the level of the standard are counted for the purpose of meeting the data completeness requirement, subject to the approval of the appropriate Regional Administrator.
(c) Years with concentrations greater than the level of the standard shall be included even if they have less than complete data. Thus, in computing the 3-year average fourth maximum concentration, calendar years with less than 75% data completeness shall be included in the computation if the 3-year average fourth-highest 8-hour concentration is greater than the level of the standard.
(d) Comparisons with the primary and secondary O3 standards are demonstrated by examples 1 and 2 in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) respectively as follows:
Example 1—Ambient Monitoring Site Attaining the Primary and Secondary O3 Standards
Year Percent valid days (within the required monitoring season) 1st Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 2nd Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 3rd Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 4th Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 5th Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm)
2004 100 0.092 0.090 0.085 0.079 0.078
2005 96 0.084 0.083 0.075 0.072 0.070
2006 98 0.080 0.079 0.077 0.076 0.060
Average 98 0.075
(1) As shown in Example 1, this monitoring site meets the primary and secondary O3 standards because the 3-year average of the annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentrations (i.e., 0.075666 * * * ppm, truncated to 0.075 ppm) is less than or equal to 0.075 ppm. The data completeness requirement is also met because the average percent of days within the required monitoring season with valid ambient monitoring data is greater than 90%, and no single year has less than 75% data completeness. In Example 1, the individual 8-hour averages used to determine the annual fourth maximum have also been truncated to the third decimal place.
Example 2—Ambient Monitoring Site Failing to Meet the Primary and Secondary O3 Standards
Year Percent valid days (within the required monitoring season) 1st Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 2nd Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 3rd Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 4th Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm) 5th Highest daily max 8-hour Conc. (ppm)
2004 96 0.105 0.103 0.103 0.103 0.102
2005 74 0.104 0.103 0.092 0.091 0.088
2006 98 0.103 0.101 0.101 0.095 0.094
Average 89 0.096
As shown in Example 2, the primary and secondary O3 standards are not met for this monitoring site because the 3-year average of the fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentrations (i.e., 0.096333 * * * ppm, truncated to 0.096 ppm) is greater than 0.075 ppm, even though the data capture is less than 75% and the average data capture for the 3 years is less than 90% within the required monitoring season. In Example 2, the individual 8-hour averages used to determine the annual fourth maximum have also been truncated to the third decimal place.
3. Design Values for Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone
The air quality design value at a monitoring site is defined as that concentration that when reduced to the level of the standard ensures that the site meets the standard. For a concentration-based standard, the air quality design value is simply the standard-related test statistic. Thus, for the primary and secondary standards, the 3-year average annual fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour average O3 concentration is also the air quality design value for the site.
[73 FR 16511, Mar. 27, 2008]

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