40 CFR Part 86, Appendix XVI to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With Periodically...Oxidizer Systems Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R

View PDF at GPO Pt. 86, App. XVI
Appendix XVI to Part 86—Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer Systems Certifying to the Provisions of Part 86, Subpart R
(a) Gaseous-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure.
(1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs, the calculation procedures specified in Chapter 5 of the California Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by reference (see § 86.1).
(b) Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Vehicles Equipped with Periodically Regenerating Trap Oxidizer Systems.
(1) Exhaust Emissions. (i) The provisions of § 86.1777 apply to vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating trap oxidizer systems, except that the following shall apply instead of the requirements in § 86.144-94(a):
(ii) The final reported test results shall be computed by the use of the following formula:
(iii) For light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks:
Ywm = 0.43 ((Yct Ys) / (Dct Ds)) 0.57 ((Yht Ys) / (Dht Ds)).
(iv) For purposes of adjusting emissions for regeneration:
Re = ((Yr1 − Yct) (Yr2 − Ys) (Yr3 − Yht)) / (Dct Ds Dht).
Yr = Ywm Re.
Where:
Ywm = Weighted mass emissions of each pollutant, i.e., HC, CO, NOX or CO , in grams per vehicle mile.
Yct = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
Yht = Mass emissions as calculated from the “transient” phase of the hot start test in grams per test phase.
Ys = Mass emissions as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
Dct = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
Dht = The measured distance from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in miles.
Ds = The measured driving distance from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
Yr = Regeneration emission test.
Re = Mass emissions of each pollutant attributable to regeneration in grams per mile.
Yr1 = Mass emissions, during a regeneration emission test, as calculated from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
Yr2 = Mass emissions, during a regeneration emission test, as calculated from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase.
Yr3 = Mass emissions, during a regeneration emission test, as calculated from the “transient” phase of the hot start test in grams per test phase.
(2) Particulate Emissions. (i) The provisions of § 86.1778 apply to vehicles equipped with periodically regenerating trap oxidizer systems, except that the following shall apply instead of the requirements § 86.145-82(a):
(ii) The final reported test results for the mass particulate (Mp) in grams/mile shall be computed as follows.
(iii) For purposes of adjusting emissions for regeneration:
Mp = 0.43(Mp1 Mp2) / (Dct Ds) 0.57 (Mp3 Mp2) / (Dht Ds)
Re = ((Mpr1 − Mp1) (Mpr2 − Mp2) (Mpr3 − Mp3) / (Dct Ds Dht)
Mpr = Mp Re
Where:
(1) Mp1 = Mass of particulate determined from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(2) Mp2 = Mass of particulate determined from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(3) Mp3 = Mass of particulate determined from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(4) Dct = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
(5) Ds = The measured driving distance from the “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in miles.
(6) Dht = The measured driving distance from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in miles.
(7) Mpr = Regeneration emission test
(8) Re = Mass of particulate attributable to regeneration in grams/mile.
(9) Mpr1 = Mass of particulate determined, during a regeneration emission test, from the “transient” phase of the cold start test in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(10) Mpr2 = Mass of particulate determined, during a regeneration emission test, from “stabilized” phase of the cold start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(11) Mpr3 = Mass of particulate determined, during a regeneration emission test, from the “transient” phase of the hot start test, in grams per test phase. (See § 86.110-94(d)(1) for determination.)
(c) Fuel Economy Calculations for Gaseous Fuels Based on the Cold Start CVS-1975 Federal Test Procedure.
(1) Assume the fuel meets HD-5 specifications (95% C3H8, 5% nC4H10, by volume).
(i) Physical constants of Propane and Normal Butane:
Component Mol. Wt. Sp. Gr. Liquid density (lb/gal @ 60 °F) Liquid density of Hd-5 (lb/gal @ 60 °F)
C3H8 44.094 0.508 4.235 × 0.95 = 4.0233
nC4H10 58.12 0.584 4.868 × 0.05 = 0.2434
___
4.2667
(ii) Density of the HD-5 fuel:
(0.95 × 4.235) (0.05 × 4.868) = 4.267 lb/gal @ 60 °F
(iii) Molecular Weights:
(A)
Species Mol. Wt.
* Average ratio of Hydrogen to carbon atoms in HD-5 fuel.
C 12.01115
H 1.00797
0 15.9994
CO 28.01055
CO2 44.00995
CH2.658* 14.6903
(B)
C3H8 8/3 = 2.666×0.95 (% propane) = 2.533
nC4H10 10/4 = 2.5×0.05 (% Butane) = 0.125
2.568
(iv) Weight of Carbon in:
CO = wt. of CO × (12.01115 / 28.01055) = wt CO × (0.429)
CO2 = wt. of CO2 × (12.01115 / 44.00995) wt CO2 × (0.273)
CH2.658 = wt. of CH2.658 × (12.01115 / 14.6903) = wt CH2.658 × (0.818)
(v) Wt. of Carbon per gallon of LPG:
wt. of carbon = 4.2667 lbs/gal × 453.59 gms/lb × 0.818 = 1583 grams C/gal HD-5
(vi) Fuel economy:
Where:
HC = CVS HC in grams/mile
CO = CVS CO in grams/mile
CO2 = CVS CO2 in grams/mile
For gasoline:
= 2421 / ((0.866)(HC) (0.429)(CO) (0.273)(CO2))
For Natural Gas:
= 1535 / ((0.759)(HC) (0.429)(CO) (0.273)(CO2))
[62 FR 31265, June 6, 1997]

Title 40 published on 2013-07-01

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