(a) No inference concerning the admissibility of a deposition in evidence shall be drawn because of favorable action on the notice to take depositions.
(b) Except as provided in this paragraph and in § 1.319, objection may be made at the hearing to receiving in evidence any deposition or part thereof for any reason which would require the exclusion of the evidence if the witness were then present and testifying.
(1) Objections to the competency of a witness, or the competency, relevancy or materiality of testimony are waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of depositions if (and only if) the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.
(2) Objection on the ground of privilege is waived by failure to make it before or during the taking of depositions.
(c) A party shall not be deemed to make a person his own witness for any purpose by taking his deposition. The introduction in evidence of the deposition or any part thereof for any purpose other than that of contradicting or impeaching the deponent makes the deponent the witness of the party introducing the deposition, but this shall not apply to the use by an adverse party of a deposition as described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. At the hearing any party may rebut any relevant evidence contained in a deposition whether introduced by him or by any other party.
(d) At the hearing (or in a pleading), any part or all of a deposition, so far as admissible, may be used against any party who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had due notice thereof, in accordance with any one of the following provisions:
(1) Any deposition may be used by any party for the purpose of contradicting or impeaching the testimony of deponent as a witness.
(2) The deposition of a party or of any one who at the time of taking the deposition was an officer, director, or managing agent of a public or private corporation, partnership or association which is a party may be used by an adverse party for any purpose.
(3) To the extent that the affirmative direct case of a party is made in writing pursuant to § 1.248(d), the deposition of any witness, whether or not a party, may be used by any party for any purpose, provided the witness is made available for cross-examination. In all cases, the deposition of a witness, whether or not a party, may be used by any party for any purpose if the presiding officer finds: (i) That the witness is dead; or (ii) that the witness is out of the United States, unless it appears that the absence of the witness was procured by the party offering the deposition; or (iii) that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, sickness, infirmity, or imprisonment; or (iv) upon application and notice, that such exceptional circumstances exist as to make it desirable in the interest of justice and with due regard to the importance of presenting the testimony of witnesses orally in open hearing, to allow the deposition to be used.
(4) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a party, an adverse party may require him to introduce all of it which is relevant to the part introduced, and any party may introduce any other parts.
(5) Substitution of parties does not affect the right to use depositions previously taken; and, when an action in any hearing has been dismissed and another action involving the same subject matter is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or successors in interest, all depositions lawfully taken and duly filed in the former action may be used in the latter as if originally taken therefor.
[33 FR 463, Jan. 12, 1968, as amended at 41 FR 14874, Apr. 8, 1976]
Title 47 published on 2012-10-01
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