47 CFR 25.209 - Antenna performance standards.

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§ 25.209 Antenna performance standards.
(a) The gain of any antenna to be employed in transmission from an earth station in the fixed-satellite service shall lie below the envelope defined below:
(1) In the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit as it appears at the particular earth station location, for earth stations not operating in the Ka-band or conventional Ku-band:
29-25log10θ dBi For 1.5° ≤ θ ≤ 7°
8 dBi For 7° < θ ≤ 9.2°
32-25log10θ dBi For 9.2° < θ ≤ 48°
−10 dBi For 48° < θ ≤ 180°
where θ is the angle in degrees from the axis of the main lobe, and dBi refers to dB relative to an isotropic radiator. For the purposes of this section, the peak gain of an individual sidelobe may not exceed the envelope defined above for θ between 1.5 and 7.0 degrees. For θ greater than 7.0 degrees, the envelope may be exceeded by no more than 10% of the sidelobes, provided no individual sidelobe exceeds the gain envelope given above by more than 3 dB.
(2) In the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit as it appears at the particular earth station location, for earth stations operating in the Ka-band or conventional Ku-band:
29-25log10θ dBi For 1.5° ≤ θ ≤ 7°
8 dBi For 7° < θ ≤ 9.2°
32-25log10θ dBi For 9.2° < θ ≤ 48°
−10 dBi For 48° < θ ≤ 85°
0 dBi For 85° < θ ≤ 180°
(3) In all other directions, or in the plane of the horizon including any out-of-plane potential terrestrial interference paths, for all earth stations not operating in the Ka-band or conventional Ku-band:
Outside the main beam, the gain of the antenna shall lie below the envelope defined by:
32-25log10θ dBi For 3° < θ ≤ 48°
−10 dBi For 48° < θ ≤ 180°
where θ and dBi are defined above. For the purposes of this section, the envelope may be exceeded by no more than 10% of the sidelobes provided no individual sidelobe exceeds the gain envelope given above by more than 6 dB. The region of the main reflector spillover energy is to be interpreted as a single lobe and shall not exceed the envelope by more than 6 dB.
(4) In all other directions, or in the plane of the horizon including any out-of-plane potential terrestrial interference paths, for all earth stations operating in the Ka-band or conventional Ku-band:
Outside the main beam, the gain of the antenna shall lie below the envelope defined by:
32-25log10θ dBi For 3° < θ ≤ 48°
−10 dBi For 48° < θ ≤ 85°
0 dBi For 85° < θ ≤ 180°
where θ and dBi are defined above. For the purposes of this section, the envelope may be exceeded by no more than 10% of the sidelobes provided no individual sidelobe exceeds the gain envelope given above by more than 6 dB. The region of the main reflector spillover energy is to be interpreted as a single lobe and shall not exceed the envelope by more than 6 dB.
(5) Elliptical earth station antennas may be operated only when the major axis of the antenna is aligned with the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit as it appears at the particular earth station location.
(b) The off-axis cross-polarization gain of any antenna to be employed in transmission from an earth station to a space station in the domestic fixed-satellite service shall be defined as follows:
(1) In the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit as it appears at the particular earth station location:
19-25log10θ dBi For 1.8° < θ ≤ 7°
−2 dBi For 7° < θ ≤ 9.2°
where θ is the angle in degrees from the axis of the main lobe, and dBi refers to dB relative to an isotropic radiator.
(2) In all other directions, or in the plane of the horizon including any out-of-plane potential terrestrial interference paths:
19-25log10θ dBi For 3° < θ ≤ 7°
−2 dBi For 7° < θ ≤ 9.2°
where θ and dBi are defined above.
(c)
(1) Earth station antennas licensed for reception of radio transmissions from a space station in the fixed-satellite service are protected from radio interference caused by other space stations only to the degree to which harmful interference would not be expected to be caused to an earth station employing an antenna conforming to the referenced patterns defined in paragraphs (a) and
(b) of this section, and protected from radio interference caused by terrestrial radio transmitters identified by the frequency coordination process only to the degree to which harmful interference would not be expected to be caused to an earth station conforming to the reference pattern defined in paragraphs (a)(3) and (a)(4) of this section.
(2) 17/24 GHz BSS telemetry earth stations are protected from harmful interference caused by other space stations to the extent set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS are protected from harmful interference caused by other space stations to the extent set forth in § 25.224 of this part.
(d) The patterns specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall apply to all new earth station antennas initially authorized after February 15, 1985 and shall apply to all earth station antennas after March 11, 1994.
(e) The operations of any earth station with an antenna not conforming to the standards of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall impose no limitations upon the operation, location or design of any terrestrial station, any other earth station, or any space station beyond those limitations that would be expected to be imposed by an earth station employing an antenna conforming to the reference patterns defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
(f) An earth station with an antenna not conforming to the standards of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section will be authorized only if the applicant meets its burden of demonstrating that its antenna will not cause unacceptable interference. For ESVs in the C-band, this demonstration must comply with the procedures set forth in § 25.221. For ESVs in the Ku-band, this demonstration must comply with the procedures set forth in § 25.222. For VMES, this demonstration shall comply with the procedures set forth in § 25.226. For feeder-link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS, this demonstration must comply with the procedures set forth in § 25.223. For other FSS earth stations, this demonstration must comply with the procedures set forth in §§ 25.218 or 25.220. In any case, the Commission will impose appropriate terms and conditions in its authorization of such facilities and operations.
(g) The antenna performance standards of small antennas operating in the 12/14 GHz band with diameters as small as 1.2 meters starts at 1.25° instead of 1° as stipulated in paragraph (a) of this section.
(h)
(1) The gain of any antennas to be employed in transmission from a gateway earth station antenna operating in the frequency bands 10.7-11.7 GHz, 12.75-13.15 GHz, 13.2125-13.25 GHz, 13.8-14.0 GHz, and 14.4-14.5 GHz and communicating with NGSO FSS satellites shall lie below the envelope defined as follows:
29 − 25log10 (θ) dBi − 10 dBi
1B ≤ θ ≤ 36B
36B ≤ θ ≤ 180B
Where: θ is the angle in degrees from the axis of the main lobe, and dBi refers to dB relative to an isotropic radiator.
(2) For the purposes of this section, the peak gain of an individual sidelobe may not exceed the envelope defined in paragraph (h)(1) of this section.
[48 FR 40255, Sept. 6, 1983, as amended at 50 FR 2675, Jan. 18, 1985; 50 FR 39004, Sept. 26, 1985; 58 FR 13420, Mar. 11, 1993; 66 FR 10630, Feb. 16, 2001; 70 FR 32255, June 2, 2005; 72 FR 50029, Aug. 29, 2007; 73 FR 70901, Nov. 24, 2008; 74 FR 57099, Nov. 4, 2009]

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