49 CFR 178.345-3 - Structural integrity.

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§ 178.345-3 Structural integrity.
(a) General requirements and acceptance criteria.
(1) The maximum calculated design stress at any point in the cargo tank wall may not exceed the maximum allowable stress value prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), or 25 percent of the tensile strength of the material used at design conditions.
(2) The relevant physical properties of the materials used in each cargo tank may be established either by a certified test report from the material manufacturer or by testing in conformance with a recognized national standard. In either case, the ultimate tensile strength of the material used in the design may not exceed 120 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength specified in either the ASME Code or the ASTM standard to which the material is manufactured.
(3) The maximum design stress at any point in the cargo tank must be calculated separately for the loading conditions described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Alternate test or analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used in place of the procedures described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, if the methods are accurate and verifiable. TTMA RP 96-01, Structural Integrity of DOT 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 Cylindrical Cargo Tanks, may be used as guidance in performing the calculations.
(4) Corrosion allowance material may not be included to satisfy any of the design calculation requirements of this section.
(b) ASME Code design and construction. The static design and construction of each cargo tank must be in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code. The cargo tank design must include calculation of stresses generated by the MAWP, the weight of the lading, the weight of structures supported by the cargo tank wall and the effect of temperature gradients resulting from lading and ambient temperature extremes. When dissimilar materials are used, their thermal coefficients must be used in the calculation of thermal stresses.
(1) Stress concentrations in tension, bending and torsion which occur at pads, cradles, or other supports must be considered in accordance with appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code.
(2) Longitudinal compressive buckling stress for ASME certified vessels must be calculated using paragraph UG-23(b) in Section VIII of the ASME Code. For cargo tanks not required to be certified in accordance with the ASME Code, compressive buckling stress may be calculated using alternative analysis methods which are accurate and verifiable. When alternative methods are used, calculations must include both the static loads described in this paragraph and the dynamic loads described in paragraph (c) of this section.
(3) Cargo tank designers and manufacturers must consider all of the conditions specified in § 173.33(c) of this subchapter when matching a cargo tank's performance characteristic to the characteristic of each lading transported.
(c) Shell design. Shell stresses resulting from static or dynamic loadings, or combinations thereof, are not uniform throughout the cargo tank motor vehicle. The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral normal operating loadings can occur simultaneously and must be combined. The vertical, longitudinal and lateral extreme dynamic loadings occur separately and need not be combined.
(1) Normal operating loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the cargo tank shell resulting from normal operating loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:
S = 0.5(Sy Sx) ±[0.25(Sy−Sx)2 SS2]0.5
Where:
(i) S = effective stress at any given point under the combination of static and normal operating loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.
(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.
(iii) Sx = The following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:
(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;
(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from normal operating longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case, the forces applied must be 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:
(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;
(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;
(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and
(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and
(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from normal operating vertical accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.
(iv) SS = The following shear stresses generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:
(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;
(B) The vertical shear stress generated by a normal operating accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;
(C) The lateral shear stress generated by a normal operating lateral accelerative force equal to 0.2 times the vertical reaction at each suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and
(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this section.
(2) Extreme dynamic loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the cargo tank shell resulting from extreme dynamic loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:
S = 0.5(Sy Sx) ±[0.25(Sy − Sx)2 SS 2]0.5
Where:
(i) S = effective stress at any given point under a combination of static and extreme dynamic loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.
(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.
(iii) Sx = the following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:
(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the tank wall;
(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from extreme longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case the forces applied must be 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or the anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:
(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;
(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;
(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and
(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and
(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or the anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.
(iv) SS = The following shear stresses generated by static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:
(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;
(B) The vertical shear stress generated by an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;
(C) The lateral shear stress generated by an extreme lateral accelerative force equal to 0.4 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and
(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv)(C) of this section.
(d) In no case may the minimum thickness of the cargo tank shells and heads be less than that prescribed in § 178.346-2, § 178.347-2, or § 178.348-2, as applicable.
(e) For a cargo tank mounted on a frame or built with integral structural supports, the calculation of effective stresses for the loading conditions in paragraph (c) of this section may include the structural contribution of the frame or the integral structural supports.
(f) The design, construction, and installation of an attachment, appurtenance to a cargo tank, structural support member between the cargo tank and the vehicle or suspension component must conform to the following requirements:
(1) Structural members, the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures and external circumferential reinforcement devices must be used as sites for attachment of appurtenances and other accessories to the cargo tank, when practicable.
(2) A lightweight attachment to a cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, brake line clip, skirting structure, lamp mounting bracket, or placard holder must be of a construction having lesser strength than the cargo tank wall materials and may not be more than 72 percent of the thickness of the material to which it is attached. The lightweight attachment may be secured directly to the cargo tank wall if the device is designed and installed in such a manner that, if damaged, it will not affect the lading retention integrity of the tank. A lightweight attachment must be secured to the cargo tank shell or head by continuous weld or in such a manner as to preclude formation of pockets which may become sites for corrosion.
(3) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section, the welding of any appurtenance to the cargo tank wall must be made by attachment of a mounting pad so that there will be no adverse effect upon the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank if any force less than that prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applied from any direction. The thickness of the mounting pad may not be less than that of the shell or head to which it is attached, and not more than 1.5 times the shell or head thickness. However, a pad with a minimum thickness of 0.187 inch may be used when the shell or head thickness is over 0.187 inch. If weep holes or tell-tale holes are used, the pad must be drilled or punched at the lowest point before it is welded to the tank. Each pad must:
(i) Be fabricated from material determined to be suitable for welding to both the cargo tank material and the material of the appurtenance or structural support member; a Design Certifying Engineer must make this determination considering chemical and physical properties of the materials and must specify filler material conforming to the requirements of the ASME Code (incorporated by reference; see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius no greater than the outside radius of the cargo tank at the attachment location.
(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each direction from any point of attachment of an appurtenance or structural support member. This dimension may be measured from the center of the structural member attached.
(iv) Have rounded corners, or otherwise be shaped in a manner to minimize stress concentrations on the shell or head.
(v) Be attached by continuous fillet welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity may only be for the purpose of preventing an intersection between the fillet weld and the tank or jacket seam weld.
[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37059, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55173, 55174 and 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, 2009]

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

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  • 2014-07-11; vol. 79 # 133 - Friday, July 11, 2014
    1. 79 FR 40590 - Hazardous Materials: Compatibility With the Regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (RRR)
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      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
      Final rule.
      Effective date: October 1, 2014. Voluntary compliance date: PHMSA is authorizing voluntary compliance beginning July 11, 2014. Delayed compliance date: Unless otherwise specified, compliance with the amendments adopted in this final rule is required beginning July 13, 2015. Incorporation by reference date: The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in this rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of October 1, 2014.
      49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177 and 178

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United States Code

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 49 CFR 178 after this date.

  • 2014-08-25; vol. 79 # 164 - Monday, August 25, 2014
    1. 79 FR 50742 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With International Standards (RRR)
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      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration
      Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM).
      Comments must be received by October 24, 2014.
      49 CFR Parts 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 178, and 180