§ 178.55Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.
(a)Type, spinning process, size and service pressure. A DOT 4B240ET cylinder is a brazed type cylinder made from electric resistance welded tubing. The maximum water capacity of this cylinder is 12 pounds or 333 cubic inches and the service must be 240 psig. The maximum outside diameter of the shell must be five inches and maximum length of the shell is 21 inches. Cylinders closed in by a spinning process are authorized.
(b)Steel. Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Plain carbon steel content may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulfur, 0.050. The addition of other elements for alloying effect is prohibited.
(c)Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.
(d)Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Heads may be attached to shells by lap brazing or may be formed integrally. The thickness of the bottom of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. Such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and the floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position. Seams must conform to the following:
(1) Circumferential seams must be by brazing only. Heads must be attached to shells by the lap brazing method and must overlap not less than four times the wall thickness. Brazing material must have a melting point of not less than 1000 °F. Heads must have a driving fit with the shell unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head and be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration of the joint by the brazing material is secured. Brazed joints may be repaired by brazing.
(2) Longitudinal seams in shell must be by electric resistance welded joints only. No repairs to longitudinal joints is permitted.
(3) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(e)Welding or brazing. Only the attachment, by welding or brazing, to the tops and bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings is authorized. Provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.
(f)Wall thickness. The wall stress must be at least two times the service pressure and may not exceed 18,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness is 0.044 inch. Calculation must be made by the following formula:
S = [P(1.3D2 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)
S = wall stress in psig;
P = 2 times service pressure;
D = outside diameter in inches;
d = inside diameter in inches.
(g)Heat treatment. Heads formed by drawing or pressing must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Cylinders with integral formed heads or bases must be subjected to a normalizing operation. Normalizing and brazing operations may be combined, provided the operation is carried out at a temperature in excess of the upper critical temperature of the steel.
(h)Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:
(1) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by brazing or by welding or by threads. A fitting, boss, or pad must be of steel suitable for the method of attachment employed, and which need not be identified or verified as to analysis, except that if attachment is by welding, carbon content may not exceed 0.25 percent. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean cut, even without checks, and tapped to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.
(2) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.
(i)Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:
(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.
(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.
(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:
(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.
(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.
(5) Each 1000 cylinders or less successively produced each day must constitute a lot. One cylinder must be selected from each lot and hydrostatically tested to destruction. If this cylinder bursts below five times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five times the service pressure then the entire lot must be rejected. All cylinders constituting a lot must be of identical size, construction heat-treatment, finish, and quality.
(j)Flattening test. Following the hydrostatic test, one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, must be subjected to a flattening test that is between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 1/2 inch radius.
(k)Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:
(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less in the case of cylinders of capacity greater than 86 cubic inches and out of each lot of 500 or less for cylinders having a capacity of 86 cubic inches or less.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 3/16 inch thick.
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.
(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(l)Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Acceptable results for the physical and flattening tests are an elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and a yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance the flattening test is required, without cracking, to six times the wall thickness with a weld 90° from the direction of the applied load. Two rings cut from the ends of length of pipe used in production of a lot may be used for the flattening test provided the rings accompany the lot which they represent in all thermal processing operations. At least one of the rings must pass the flattening test.
(m)Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions:
(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least 1 minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, cylinders which are leaking must be rejected.
(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.
(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.
(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, he should design his apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.
(n)Rejected cylinders. Repairs of rejected cylinders is authorized. Cylinders that are leaking must be rejected, except that:
(1) Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping, and plugging.
(2) Brazed joints may be rebrazed.
(3) Subsequent to the operations noted in paragraphs (n)(1) and (n)(2) of this section, acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.
(o)Marking. Markings on each cylinder must be by stamping plainly and permanently on shoulder, top head, neck or valve protection collar which is permanently attached to the cylinders and forming an integral part thereof, provided that cylinders not less than 0.090 inch thick may be stamped on the side wall adjacent to top head.