49 CFR 192.620 - Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.

§ 192.620 Alternative maximum allowable operating pressure for certain steel pipelines.
(a) How does an operator calculate the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure? An operator calculates the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure by using different factors in the same formulas used for calculating maximum allowable operating pressure under § 192.619(a) as follows:
(1) In determining the alternative design pressure under § 192.105, use a design factor determined in accordance with § 192.111(b), (c), or (d) or, if none of these paragraphs apply, in accordance with the following table:
Class location Alternative design factor (F)
1 0.80
2 0.67
3 0.56
(i) For facilities installed prior to December 22, 2008, for which § 192.111(b), (c), or (d) applies, use the following design factors as alternatives for the factors specified in those paragraphs: § 192.111(b)−0.67 or less; 192.111(c) and (d)−0.56 or less.
(ii) [Reserved]
(2) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure is the lower of the following:
(i) The design pressure of the weakest element in the pipeline segment, determined under subparts C and D of this part.
(ii) The pressure obtained by dividing the pressure to which the pipeline segment was tested after construction by a factor determined in the following table:
Class location Alternative test factor
1 For Class 2 alternative maximum allowable operating pressure segments installed prior to December 22, 2008 the alternative test factor is 1.25.
1 1.25
2 1 1.50
3 1.50
(b) When may an operator use the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section? An operator may use an alternative maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section if the following conditions are met:
(1) The pipeline segment is in a Class 1, 2, or 3 location;
(2) The pipeline segment is constructed of steel pipe meeting the additional design requirements in § 192.112;
(3) A supervisory control and data acquisition system provides remote monitoring and control of the pipeline segment. The control provided must include monitoring of pressures and flows, monitoring compressor start-ups and shut-downs, and remote closure of valves per paragraph (d)(3) of this section;
(4) The pipeline segment meets the additional construction requirements described in § 192.328;
(5) The pipeline segment does not contain any mechanical couplings used in place of girth welds;
(6) If a pipeline segment has been previously operated, the segment has not experienced any failure during normal operations indicative of a systemic fault in material as determined by a root cause analysis, including metallurgical examination of the failed pipe. The results of this root cause analysis must be reported to each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the pipeline is in service at least 60 days prior to operation at the alternative MAOP. An operator must also notify a State pipeline safety authority when the pipeline is located in a State where PHMSA has an interstate agent agreement, or an intrastate pipeline is regulated by that State; and
(7) At least 95 percent of girth welds on a segment that was constructed prior to December 22, 2008, must have been non-destructively examined in accordance with § 192.243(b) and (c).
(c) What is an operator electing to use the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure required to do? If an operator elects to use the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section for a pipeline segment, the operator must do each of the following:
(1) Notify each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the pipeline is in service of its election with respect to a segment at least 180 days before operating at the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. An operator must also notify a State pipeline safety authority when the pipeline is located in a State where PHMSA has an interstate agent agreement, or an intrastate pipeline is regulated by that State.
(2) Certify, by signature of a senior executive officer of the company, as follows:
(i) The pipeline segment meets the conditions described in paragraph (b) of this section; and
(ii) The operating and maintenance procedures include the additional operating and maintenance requirements of paragraph (d) of this section; and
(iii) The review and any needed program upgrade of the damage prevention program required by paragraph (d)(4)(v) of this section has been completed.
(3) Send a copy of the certification required by paragraph (c)(2) of this section to each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the pipeline is in service 30 days prior to operating at the alternative MAOP. An operator must also send a copy to a State pipeline safety authority when the pipeline is located in a State where PHMSA has an interstate agent agreement, or an intrastate pipeline is regulated by that State.
(4) For each pipeline segment, do one of the following:
(i) Perform a strength test as described in § 192.505 at a test pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section or
(ii) For a pipeline segment in existence prior to December 22, 2008, certify, under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, that the strength test performed under § 192.505 was conducted at test pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section, or conduct a new strength test in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section.
(5) Comply with the additional operation and maintenance requirements described in paragraph (d) of this section.
(6) If the performance of a construction task associated with implementing alternative MAOP that occurs after December 22, 2008, can affect the integrity of the pipeline segment, treat that task as a “covered task”, notwithstanding the definition in § 192.801(b) and implement the requirements of subpart N as appropriate.
(7) Maintain, for the useful life of the pipeline, records demonstrating compliance with paragraphs (b), (c)(6), and (d) of this section.
(8) A Class 1 and Class 2 pipeline location can be upgraded one class due to class changes per § 192.611(a)(3)(i). All class location changes from Class 1 to Class 2 and from Class 2 to Class 3 must have all anomalies evaluated and remediated per: The “original pipeline class grade” § 192.620(d)(11) anomaly repair requirements; and all anomalies with a wall loss equal to or greater than 40 percent must be excavated and remediated. Pipelines in Class 4 may not operate at an alternative MAOP.
(d) What additional operation and maintenance requirements apply to operation at the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure? In addition to compliance with other applicable safety standards in this part, if an operator establishes a maximum allowable operating pressure for a pipeline segment under paragraph (a) of this section, an operator must comply with the additional operation and maintenance requirements as follows:
To address increased risk of a maximum allowable operating pressure based on higher stress levels in the following areas: Take the following additional step:
(1) Identifying and evaluating threats Develop a threat matrix consistent with § 192.917 to do the following:(i) Identify and compare the increased risk of operating the pipeline at the increased stress level under this section with conventional operation; and
(ii) Describe and implement procedures used to mitigate the risk.
(2) Notifying the public (i) Recalculate the potential impact circle as defined in § 192.903 to reflect use of the alternative maximum operating pressure calculated under paragraph (a) of this section and pipeline operating conditions; and
(ii) In implementing the public education program required under § 192.616, perform the following:
(A) Include persons occupying property within 220 yards of the centerline and within the potential impact circle within the targeted audience; and
(B) Include information about the integrity management activities performed under this section within the message provided to the audience.
(3) Responding to an emergency in an area defined as a high consequence area in § 192.903 (i) Ensure that the identification of high consequence areas reflects the larger potential impact circle recalculated under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.
(ii) If personnel response time to mainline valves on either side of the high consequence area exceeds one hour (under normal driving conditions and speed limits) from the time the event is identified in the control room, provide remote valve control through a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, other leak detection system, or an alternative method of control.
(iii) Remote valve control must include the ability to close and monitor the valve position (open or closed), and monitor pressure upstream and downstream.
(iv) A line break valve control system using differential pressure, rate of pressure drop or other widely-accepted method is an acceptable alternative to remote valve control.
(4) Protecting the right-of-way (i) Patrol the right-of-way at intervals not exceeding 45 days, but at least 12 times each calendar year, to inspect for excavation activities, ground movement, wash outs, leakage, or other activities or conditions affecting the safety operation of the pipeline.
(ii) Develop and implement a plan to monitor for and mitigate occurrences of unstable soil and ground movement.
(iii) If observed conditions indicate the possible loss of cover, perform a depth of cover study and replace cover as necessary to restore the depth of cover or apply alternative means to provide protection equivalent to the originally-required depth of cover.
(iv) Use line-of-sight line markers satisfying the requirements of § 192.707(d) except in agricultural areas, large water crossings or swamp, steep terrain, or where prohibited by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission orders, permits, or local law.
(v) Review the damage prevention program under § 192.614(a) in light of national consensus practices, to ensure the program provides adequate protection of the right-of-way. Identify the standards or practices considered in the review, and meet or exceed those standards or practices by incorporating appropriate changes into the program.
(vi) Develop and implement a right-of-way management plan to protect the pipeline segment from damage due to excavation activities.
(5) Controlling internal corrosion (i) Develop and implement a program to monitor for and mitigate the presence of, deleterious gas stream constituents.
(ii) At points where gas with potentially deleterious contaminants enters the pipeline, use filter separators or separators and gas quality monitoring equipment.
(iii) Use gas quality monitoring equipment that includes a moisture analyzer, chromatograph, and periodic hydrogen sulfide sampling.
(iv) Use cleaning pigs and sample accumulated liquids. Use inhibitors when corrosive gas or liquids are present.
(v) Address deleterious gas stream constituents as follows:
(A) Limit carbon dioxide to 3 percent by volume;
(B) Allow no free water and otherwise limit water to seven pounds per million cubic feet of gas; and
(C) Limit hydrogen sulfide to 1.0 grain per hundred cubic feet (16 ppm) of gas, where the hydrogen sulfide is greater than 0.5 grain per hundred cubic feet (8 ppm) of gas, implement a pigging and inhibitor injection program to address deleterious gas stream constituents, including follow-up sampling and quality testing of liquids at receipt points.
(vi) Review the program at least quarterly based on the gas stream experience and implement adjustments to monitor for, and mitigate the presence of, deleterious gas stream constituents.
(6) Controlling interference that can impact external corrosion (i) Prior to operating an existing pipeline segment at an alternate maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under this section, or within six months after placing a new pipeline segment in service at an alternate maximum allowable operating pressure calculated under this section, address any interference currents on the pipeline segment.
(ii) To address interference currents, perform the following:
(A) Conduct an interference survey to detect the presence and level of any electrical current that could impact external corrosion where interference is suspected;
(B) Analyze the results of the survey; and
(C) Take any remedial action needed within 6 months after completing the survey to protect the pipeline segment from deleterious current.
(7) Confirming external corrosion control through indirect assessment (i) Within six months after placing the cathodic protection of a new pipeline segment in operation, or within six months after certifying a segment under § 192.620(c)(1) of an existing pipeline segment under this section, assess the adequacy of the cathodic protection through an indirect method such as close-interval survey, and the integrity of the coating using direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) or alternating current voltage gradient (ACVG).
(ii) Remediate any construction damaged coating with a voltage drop classified as moderate or severe (IR drop greater than 35% for DCVG or 50 dBµv for ACVG) under section 4 of NACE RP-0502-2002 (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7).
(iii) Within six months after completing the baseline internal inspection required under paragraph (d)(9) of this section, integrate the results of the indirect assessment required under paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section with the results of the baseline internal inspection and take any needed remedial actions.
(iv) For all pipeline segments in high consequence areas, perform periodic assessments as follows:
(A) Conduct periodic close interval surveys with current interrupted to confirm voltage drops in association with periodic assessments under subpart O of this part.
(B) Locate pipe-to-soil test stations at half-mile intervals within each high consequence area ensuring at least one station is within each high consequence area, if practicable.
(C) Integrate the results with those of the baseline and periodic assessments for integrity done under paragraphs (d)(9) and (d)(10) of this section.
(8) Controlling external corrosion through cathodic protection (i) If an annual test station reading indicates cathodic protection below the level of protection required in subpart I of this part, complete remedial action within six months of the failed reading or notify each PHMSA pipeline safety regional office where the pipeline is in service demonstrating that the integrity of the pipeline is not compromised if the repair takes longer than 6 months. An operator must also notify a State pipeline safety authority when the pipeline is located in a State where PHMSA has an interstate agent agreement, or an intrastate pipeline is regulated by that State; and
(ii) After remedial action to address a failed reading, confirm restoration of adequate corrosion control by a close interval survey on either side of the affected test station to the next test station unless the reason for the failed reading is determined to be a rectifier connection or power input problem that can be remediated and otherwise verified.
(iii) If the pipeline segment has been in operation, the cathodic protection system on the pipeline segment must have been operational within 12 months of the completion of construction.
(9) Conducting a baseline assessment of integrity (i) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(9)(iii) of this section, for a new pipeline segment operating at the new alternative maximum allowable operating pressure, perform a baseline internal inspection of the entire pipeline segment as follows:
(A) Assess using a geometry tool after the initial hydrostatic test and backfill and within six months after placing the new pipeline segment in service; and
(B) Assess using a high resolution magnetic flux tool within three years after placing the new pipeline segment in service at the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(9)(iii) of this section, for an existing pipeline segment, perform a baseline internal assessment using a geometry tool and a high resolution magnetic flux tool before, but within two years prior to, raising pressure to the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure as allowed under this section.
(iii) If headers, mainline valve by-passes, compressor station piping, meter station piping, or other short portion of a pipeline segment operating at alternative maximum allowable operating pressure cannot accommodate a geometry tool and a high resolution magnetic flux tool, use direct assessment (per § 192.925, § 192.927 and/or § 192.929) or pressure testing (per subpart J of this part) to assess that portion.
(10) Conducting periodic assessments of integrity (i) Determine a frequency for subsequent periodic integrity assessments as if all the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure pipeline segments were covered by subpart O of this part and
(ii) Conduct periodic internal inspections using a high resolution magnetic flux tool on the frequency determined under paragraph (d)(10)(i) of this section, or
(iii) Use direct assessment (per § 192.925, § 192.927 and/or § 192.929) or pressure testing (per subpart J of this part) for periodic assessment of a portion of a segment to the extent permitted for a baseline assessment under paragraph (d)(9)(iii) of this section.
(11) Making repairs (i) Perform the following when evaluating an anomaly:
(A) Use the most conservative calculation for determining remaining strength or an alternative validated calculation based on pipe diameter, wall thickness, grade, operating pressure, operating stress level, and operating temperature: and
(B) Take into account the tolerances of the tools used for the inspection.
(ii) Repair a defect immediately if any of the following apply:
(A) The defect is a dent discovered during the baseline assessment for integrity under paragraph (d)(9) of this section and the defect meets the criteria for immediate repair in § 192.309(b).
(B) The defect meets the criteria for immediate repair in § 192.933(d).
(C) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure was based on a design factor of 0.67 under paragraph (a) of this section and the failure pressure is less than 1.25 times the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(D) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure was based on a design factor of 0.56 under paragraph (a) of this section and the failure pressure is less than or equal to 1.4 times the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(iii) If paragraph (d)(11)(ii) of this section does not require immediate repair, repair a defect within one year if any of the following apply:
(A) The defect meets the criteria for repair within one year in § 192.933(d).
(B) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure was based on a design factor of 0.80 under paragraph (a) of this section and the failure pressure is less than 1.25 times the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(C) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure was based on a design factor of 0.67 under paragraph (a) of this section and the failure pressure is less than 1.50 times the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(D) The alternative maximum allowable operating pressure was based on a design factor of 0.56 under paragraph (a) of this section and the failure pressure is less than or equal to 1.80 times the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure.
(iv) Evaluate any defect not required to be repaired under paragraph (d)(11)(ii) or (iii) of this section to determine its growth rate, set the maximum interval for repair or re-inspection, and repair or re-inspect within that interval.
(e) Is there any change in overpressure protection associated with operating at the alternative maximum allowable operating pressure? Notwithstanding the required capacity of pressure relieving and limiting stations otherwise required by § 192.201, if an operator establishes a maximum allowable operating pressure for a pipeline segment in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, an operator must:
(1) Provide overpressure protection that limits mainline pressure to a maximum of 104 percent of the maximum allowable operating pressure; and
(2) Develop and follow a procedure for establishing and maintaining accurate set points for the supervisory control and data acquisition system.
[73 FR 62177, Oct. 17, 2008, as amended by Amdt. 192-111, 74 FR 62505, Nov. 30, 2009]

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

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