(a) Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to the following: A railroad; a manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor) who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except that: Penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful violations; where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $105,000 per violation may be assessed; and the standard of liability for a railroad will vary depending upon the requirement involved. See, e.g., § 219.105, which must be construed to qualify the responsibility of a railroad for the unauthorized conduct of an employee that violates § 219.101 or § 219.102 (while imposing a duty of due diligence to prevent such conduct). Each day a violation continues constitutes a separate offense. See appendix A to this part for a statement of agency civil penalty policy.
(1) In the case of joint operations, primary responsibility for compliance with this part with respect to determination of events qualifying for breath or body fluid testing under subparts C and D of this part rests with the host railroad, and all affected employees must be responsive to direction from the host railroad consistent with this part. However, nothing in this paragraph (b)(1) restricts the ability of the railroads to provide for an appropriate assignment of responsibility for compliance with this part as among those railroads through a joint operating agreement or other binding contract. FRA reserves the right to bring an enforcement action for noncompliance with applicable portions of this part against the host railroad, the employing railroad, or both.
(2) Where an employee of one railroad is required to participate in breath or body fluid testing under subpart C or D of this part and is subsequently subject to adverse action alleged to have arisen out of the required test (or alleged refusal thereof), necessary witnesses and documents available to the other railroad must be made available to the employee on a reasonable basis.
(c) Any independent contractor or other entity that performs covered service for a railroad has the same responsibilities as a railroad under this part, with respect to its employees who perform covered service. The entity's responsibility for compliance with this part may be fulfilled either directly by that entity or by the railroad's treating the entity's employees who perform covered service as if they were its own employees for purposes of this part. The responsibility for compliance must be clearly spelled out in the contract between the railroad and the other entity or in another document. In the absence of such a clear delineation of responsibility, FRA will hold the railroad and the other entity jointly and severally liable for compliance.