The Locomotive Inspection Act (45 U.S.C. 22-34) makes it unlawful for any carrier to use or permit to be used on its line any locomotive unless the entire locomotive and its appurtenances—
Are in proper condition and safe to operate in the service to which they are put, without unnecessary peril to life or limb; and
Have been inspected and tested as required by this part.
Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to the following: a railroad; a manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor) who violates any requirement of this part or of the Locomotive Inspection Act or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except that: Penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful violations, and, where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury to persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed. Each day a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense. See appendix B to this part for a statement of agency civil penalty policy.
[45 FR 21109, Mar. 31, 1980, as amended at 53 FR 28601, July 28, 1988; 53 FR 52931, Dec. 29, 1988; 63 FR 11622, Mar. 10, 1998; 69 FR 30594, May 28, 2004; 72 FR 51197, Sept. 6, 2007; 73 FR 79703, Dec. 30, 2008]