49 CFR 231.1 - Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966.

§ 231.1 Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966.
Except for box and other house cars that comply with either § 231.27 or § 231.28, each box and other house car shall be equipped to meet the following specifications:
(a) Handbrake—
(1) Number. One efficient handbrake which shall operate in harmony with the power brake installed on the car. Each such handbrake shall (i) provide the same degree of safety as the design shown on plate A, or (ii) provide the same degree of safety as that specified in § 231.27.
(2) Dimensions.
(i) The brake shaft shall be not less than 11/4 inches in diameter, of wrought iron or steel without weld.
(ii) The brake wheel may be flat or dished, not less than 15, preferably 16, inches in diameter, of malleable iron, wrought iron, or steel.
(3) Location.
(i) The hand brake shall be so located that it can be safely operated while car is in motion.
(ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car, to the left of and not less than 17 nor more than 22 inches from center.
(iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills in service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of brake wheels and brake shafts on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application.
(i) There shall be not less than 4 inches clearance around rim of brake wheel.
(ii) Outside edge of brake wheel shall be not less than 4 inches from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer block or end sill.
(iii) Top brake-shaft support shall be fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts or rivets. (See plate A.)
(iv) A brake-shaft step shall support the lower end of brake shaft. A brake-shaft step which will permit the brake chain to drop under the brake shaft shall not be used. U-shaped form of brakeshaft step is preferred. (See plate A.)
(v) Brake shaft shall be arranged with a square fit at its upper end to secure the hand-brake wheel; said square fit shall be not less than seven-eighths of an inch square. Square-fit taper, nominally 2 in 12 inches. (See plate A.)
(vi) Brake chain shall be of not less than 3/8-, preferably 7/16-, inch wrought iron or steel, with a link on the brakerod end of not less than 7/16-, preferably 1/2-, inch wrought iron or steel, and shall be secured to brake-shaft drum by not less than 1/2-inch hexagon or square-headed bolt. Nut on said bolt shall be secured by riveting end of bolt over nut. (See plate A.)
(vii) Lower end of brake shaft shall be provided with a trunnion of not less than 3/4-, preferably 1, inch in diameter extending through brake-shaft step and held in operating position by a suitable cotter or ring. (See plate A.)
(viii) Brake-shaft drum shall be not less than 11/2 inches in diameter. (See plate A.)
(ix) Brake ratchet wheel shall be secured to brake shaft by a key or square fit; said square fit shall be not less than 15/16 inches square. When ratchet wheel with square fit is used, provision shall be made to prevent ratchet wheel from rising on shaft to disengage brake pawl. (See plate A.)
(x) Brake ratchet wheel shall be not less than 51/4, preferably 51/2, inches in diameter and shall have not less than 14, preferably 16, teeth. (See plate A.)
(xi) If brake ratchet wheel is more than 36 inches from brake wheel, a brake-shaft support shall be provided to support this extended upper portion of brake shaft; said brake-shaft support shall be fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts or rivets.
(xii) The brake pawl shall be pivoted upon a bolt or rivet not less than five-eighths of an inch in diameter, or upon a trunnion secured by not less than 1/2-inch bolt or rivet, and there shall be a rigid metal connection between brake shaft and pivot of pawl.
(xiii) Brake wheel shall be held in position on brake shaft by a nut on a threaded extended end of brake shaft; said threaded portion shall be not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter; said nut shall be secured by riveting over or by the use of a lock nut or suitable cotter.
(xiv) Brake wheel shall be arranged with a square fit for brake shaft in hub of said wheel; taper of said fit, nominally 2 in 12 inches. (See plate A.)
(b) Brake step. If brake step is used, it shall be not less than 28 inches in length. Outside edge shall be not less than 8 inches from face of car and not less than 4 inches from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer block or end sill.
(1) Manner of application. Brake step shall be supported by not less than two metal braces having a minimum cross-sectional area 3/8 by 11/2 inches or equivalent, which shall be securely fastened to body of car with not less than 1/2-inch bolts or rivets.
(c) Running boards—
(1) Number. One longitudinal running board. On outside-metal-roof cars two latitudinal extensions.
(2) Dimensions. Longitudinal running board shall be not less than 18 and preferably 20 inches in width. Latitudinal extensions shall be not less than 24 inches in width. Wooden running boards or extensions hereafter installed shall be constructed of wood not less than 11/8 inches in thickness.
(3) Location. Full length of car, center of roof. On outside-metal-roof cars there shall be two latitudinal extensions from longitudinal running board to ladder locations, except on refrigerator cars where such latitudinal extensions cannot be applied on account of ice hatches.
(4) Manner of application.
(i) Running board shall be continuous from end to end and not cut or hinged at any point: Provided, That the length and width of running board may be made up of a number of pieces securely fastened to saddle-blocks with screws, bolts, or rivets.
(ii) The ends of longitudinal running board shall be not less than 6 nor more than 10 inches from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler-horn against the buffer-block or endsill; and if more than 4 inches from edge of roof of car, shall be securely supported their full width by substantial metal braces.
(iii) Running board shall be securely fastened to car and be made of wood or of material which provides the same as or a greater degree of safety than wood of 11/8 inches thickness. When made of material other than wood the tread surface shall be of anti-skid design and constructed with sufficient open space to permit the elimination of snow and ice from the tread surface.
(d) Sill steps—
(1) Number. Four.
(2) Dimensions. Minimum cross-sectional area 1/2 by 11/2 inches, or equivalent, of wrought iron or steel. Minimum length of tread, 10, preferably 12, inches. Minimum clear depth, 8 inches.
(3) Location.
(i) One near each end of each side of car, so that there shall be not more than 18 inches from end of car to center of tread of sill step.
(ii) Outside edge of tread of step shall be not more than 4 inches inside of face of side of car, preferably flush with side of car.
(iii) Tread shall be not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, inches above the top of rail.
(iv) Carriers are not required to change location of sill steps on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application.
(i) Sill steps exceeding 21 inches in depth shall have an additional tread.
(ii) Sill steps shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.
(e) Ladders—
(1) Number. Four.
(2) Dimensions.
(i) Minimum clear length of tread: Side ladders 16 inches; end ladders 14 inches. Maximum spacing between ladder treads, 19 inches.
(ii) Top ladder tread shall be located not less than 12 nor more than 18 inches from roof at eaves.
(iii) Spacing of side ladder treads shall be uniform within a limit of 2 inches from top ladder tread to bottom tread of ladder.
(iv) Maximum distance from bottom tread of side ladder to top tread of sill step, 21 inches.
(v) End ladder treads shall be spaced to coincide with treads of side ladders, a variation of 2 inches being allowed. Where construction of car will not permit the application of a tread of end ladder to coincide with bottom tread of side ladder, the bottom tread of end ladder must coincide with second tread from bottom of side ladder.
(vi) Hardwood treads, minimum dimensions 11/2 by 2 inches.
(vii) Iron or steel treads, minimum diameter five-eighths of an inch.
(viii) Minimum clearance of treads, 2, preferably 21/2, inches.
(3) Location.
(i) One on each side, not more than 8 inches from right end of car; one on each end, not more than 8 inches from left side of car; measured from inside edge of ladder stile or clearance of ladder treads to corner of car.
(ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of ladders on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(iii) Carriers are not required to change the end ladders on steel or steel underframe cars with platform end sill, in service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application.
(i) Metal ladders without stiles near corners of cars shall have foot guards or upward projections not less than 2 inches in height near inside end of bottom treads.
(ii) Stiles of ladders, projecting 2 or more inches from face of car, will serve as foot guards.
(iii) Ladders shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets. Three-eighths-inch bolts may be used for wooden treads which are gained into stiles.
(f) End ladder clearance.
(1) No part of car above end sills within 30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake wheel, brake step, running board or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or fixtures on same above end sills, other than exceptions herein noted, shall extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
(2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(g) Roof handholds—
(1) Number.
(i) One over each ladder.
(ii) One right-angle handhold may take the place of two adjacent specified roof handholds, provided the dimensions and locations coincide, and that an extra leg is securely fastened to car at point of angle.
(2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 21/2 inches.
(3) Location.
(i) On roof of car, one parallel to treads of each ladder, not less than 8 nor more than 15 inches from edge of roof, except on refrigerator cars where ice hatches prevent, when location may be nearer edge of roof.
(ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handhold under end sills, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application. Roof handholds shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.
(h) Side handholds—
(1) Number. Four. (Tread of side ladder is a side handhold.)
(2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches, preferably 24 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 21/2, inches.
(3) Location.
(i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car. Side handholds shall be not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, except as provided above, where tread of ladder is a handhold. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 8 inches from end of car.
(ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.
(i) Horizontal end handholds—
(1) Number. Eight or more, four on each end of car. (Tread of end ladder is an end handhold.)
(2) Dimensions.
(i) Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches, preferably 24 inches.
(ii) A handhold 14 inches in length may be used where it is impossible to use one 16 inches in length.
(iii) Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 21/2, inches.
(3) Location.
(i) One near each side on each end of car, not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, except as provided above, when tread of end ladder is an end handhold. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 8 inches from side of car.
(ii) One near each side of each end of car on face of end sill or sheathing over end sill, projecting outward or downward. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 16 inches from side of car.
(iii) On each end of cars with platform end sills 6 or more inches in width, measured from end post or siding and extending entirely across end of car, there shall be one additional end handhold not less than 24 inches in length, located near center of car, not less than 30 nor more than 60 inches above platform end sill.
(iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application. Horizontal end handholds shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.
(j) Vertical end handholds—
(1) Number. Two on full-width platform end-sill cars, as heretofore described.
(2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 18, preferably 24, inches. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 21/2, inches.
(3) Location.
(i) One on each end of car opposite ladder, not more than 8 inches from side of car; clearance of bottom end of handhold shall be not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler.
(ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
(4) Manner of application. Vertical end handholds shall be securely fastened with not less than 1/2-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.
(k) Uncoupling levers—
(1) Number. Two. Uncoupling levers may be either single or double, and of any efficient design.
(2) Dimensions.
(i) Handles of uncoupling levers, except those shown on plate B or of similar designs, shall be not more than 6 inches from sides of car.
(ii) Uncoupling levers of design shown on plate B and of similar designs shall conform to the following prescribed limits:
(iii) Handles shall be not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from sides of cars. Center lift arms shall be not less than 7 inches long.
(iv) Center of eye at end of center lift arm shall be not more than 31/2 inches beyond center of eye of uncoupling pin of coupler when horn of coupler is against the buffer block or end sill. (See plate B.)
(v) Ends of handles shall extend not less than 4 inches below bottom of end sill or shall be so constructed as to give a minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle. Minimum drop of handles shall be 12 inches; maximum, 15 inches over all. (See plate B.)
(vi) Handles of uncoupling levers of the “rocking” or “push-down” type shall be not less than 18 inches from top of rail when lock block has released knuckle, and a suitable stop shall be provided to prevent inside arm from flying up in case of breakage.
(3) Location. One on each end of car. When single lever is used, it shall be placed on left side of end of car.
(Secs. 2, 4, and 6, 27 Stat. 531, as amended; secs, 1 and 3, 32 Stat. 943, as amended; sec. 6(e) and (f), 80 Stat. 939 (45 U.S.C. 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, 11-16 and 49 U.S.C. 103(c)(1))
[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 49 FR 26745, June 29, 1984]

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

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