49 CFR 571.108 - Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

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There are 3 Updates appearing in the Federal Register for 49 CFR 571. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
§ 571.108 Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment. Link to an amendment published at 72 FR 68266, Dec. 4, 2007. Link to a delay published at 73 FR 50730, Aug. 28, 2008. Link to a delay published at 74 FR 58214, Nov. 12, 2009. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 23510, Apr. 27, 2011. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 48023, Aug. 8, 2011. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 757, Jan. 6, 2012.
S1.Scope. This standard specifies requirements for original and replacement lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
S2.Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents, by providing adequate illumination of the roadway, and by enhancing the conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.
S3.Application. This standard applies to:
(a) Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers (except pole trailers and trailer converter dollies), and motorcycles;
(b) Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors manufactured to conform to S5.7 of this standard; and
(c) Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment for replacement of like equipment on vehicles to which this standard applies.
S4.Definitions.
Aiming Reference Plane means a plane which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and tangent to the forwardmost aiming pad on the headlamp.
Axis of reference means the characteristic axis of the lamp for use as the direction of reference (H = 0°, V = 0°) for angles of field for photometric measurements and for installing the lamp on the vehicle.
Beam contributor means an indivisible optical assembly including a lens, reflector, and light source, that is part of an integral beam headlighting system and contributes only a portion of a headlamp beam.
Cargo lamp is a lamp that is mounted on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus for the purpose of providing illumination to load or unload cargo.
Cutoff means a generally horizontal, visual/optical aiming cue in the lower beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower luminance.
Direct reading indicator means a device that is mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, is part of a VHAD, and provides information about headlamp aim in an analog or digital format.
Effective light-emitting surface means that portion of a lamp that directs light to the photometric test pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from an area of 1/2 degree radius around a test point.
Effective projected luminous lens area means the area of the orthogonal projection of the effective light-emitting surface of a lamp on a plane perpendicular to a defined direction relative to the axis of reference. Unless otherwise specified, the direction is coincident with the axis of reference.
Filament means that part of the light source or light emitting element(s), such as a resistive element, the excited portion of a specific mixture of gases under pressure, or any part of other energy conversion sources, that generates radiant energy which can be seen.
Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by automatic means continuing until stopped either automatically or manually.
Fully opened means the position of the headlamp concealment device in which the headlamp is in the design open operating position.
Headlamp concealment device means a device, with its operating system and components, that provides concealment of the headlamp when it is not in use, including a movable headlamp cover and a headlamp that displaces for concealment purposes.
Headlamp test fixture means a device designed to support a headlamp or headlamp assembly in the test position specified in the laboratory tests and whose mounting hardware and components are those necessary to operate the headlamp as installed in a motor vehicle.
Integral beam headlamp means a headlamp (other than a standardized sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.3 or a replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S7.5) comprising an integral and indivisible optical assembly including lens, reflector, and light source, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S7.8.5.2 or paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.
Multiple compartment lamp means a device which gives its indication by two or more separately lighted areas which are joined by one or more common parts, such as a housing or lens.
Multiple lamp arrangement means an array of two or more separate lamps on each side of the vehicle which operate together to give a signal.
Remote reading indicator means a device that is not mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, but otherwise meets the definition of a direct reading indicator.
Replaceable bulb headlamp means a headlamp comprising a bonded lens and reflector assembly and one or two replaceable headlamp light sources, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S7.8.5.2 or paragraph S7.8.5.3 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.
Replaceable light source means an assembly of a capsule, base, and terminals that is designed to conform to the requirements of appendix A or appendix B of part 564 Replaceable Light Source Information of this Chapter.
Vehicle headlamp aiming device or VHAD means motor vehicle equipment, installed either on a vehicle or headlamp, which is used for determining the horizontal or vertical aim, or both the vertical and horizontal aim of the headlamp.
Visually/optically aimable headlamp means a headlamp which is designed to be visually/optically aimable in accordance with the requirements of paragraph S7.8.5.3 of this standard.
S5.Requirements.
S5.1Required motor vehicle lighting equipment.
S5.1.1Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of this S5.1.1, each vehicle shall be equipped with at least the number of lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment specified in Tables I and III and S7, as applicable. Required equipment shall be designed to conform to the SAE Standards or Recommended Practices referenced in those tables. Table I applies to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, 80 or more inches in overall width. Table III applies to passenger cars and motorcycles and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses, less than 80 inches in overall width.
S5.1.1.1A truck tractor need not be equipped with turn signal lamps mounted on the rear if the turn signal lamps at or near the front are so constructed (double-faced) and so located that they meet the requirements for double-faced turn signals specified in SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970.
S5.1.1.2A truck tractor need not be equipped with any rear side marker devices, rear clearance lamps, and rear identification lamps.
S5.1.1.3Intermediate side marker devices are not required on vehicles less than 30 feet in overall length.
S5.1.1.4Reflective material conforming to Federal Specification L-S-300, Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Non-exposed Lens, Adhesive Backing, September 7, 1965, may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance standards in either Table I or Table IA of SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.
S5.1.1.5The turn signal operating unit on each passenger car, and multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus less than 80 inches in overall width shall be self-canceling by steering wheel rotation and capable of cancellation by a manually operated control.
S5.1.1.6Instead of the photometric values specified in Table 1 of SAE Standards J222 December 1970, or J585e September 1977, a parking lamp or tail lamp, respectively, shall meet the minimum percentage specified in Figure 1a of the corresponding minimum allowable value specified in Figure 1b. The maximum candlepower output of a parking lamp shall not exceed that prescribed in Figure 1b, or of a taillamp, that prescribed in Figure 1b at H or above. If the sum of the percentages of the minimum candlepower measured at the test points is not less than that specified for each group listed in Figure 1c, a parking lamp or taillamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric value at each test point specified in SAE Standards J222 or J585e respectively.
S5.1.1.7A motorcycle turn signal lamp need meet only one-half of the minimum photometric values specified in Table 1 and Table 3 of SAE J588 NOV84 Turn Signal Lamps.
S5.1.1.8For each motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall length, the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for side marker lamps specified in SAE Standard J592e Clearance, Side Marker, and Identification Lamps, July 1972, may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.
S5.1.1.9A boat trailer whose overall width is 80 inches or more need not be equipped with both front and rear clearance lamps provided an amber (to front) and red (to rear) clearance lamp is located at or near the midpoint on each side so as to indicate its extreme width.
S5.1.1.10Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used to fufill the requirements of the SAE Standards applicable to such lamps referenced in Tables I and III.
S5.1.1.11A stop lamp that is not optically combined, as defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology—Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with a turn signal lamp, shall remain activated when the turn signal lamp is flashing.
S5.1.1.12On a motor vehicle, except a passenger car, whose overall width is 2032 mm. (80 inches) or more, measurements of the effective projected luminous lens area, and of the photometrics of a multiple compartment stop lamp and a multiple compartment turn signal lamp, shall be made for the entire lamp and not for the individual compartments.
S5.1.1.13Each passenger car, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus of less than 80 inches overall width, shall be equipped with a turn signal operating unit designed to complete a durability test of 100,000 cycles.
S5.1.1.14A trailer that is less than 30 inches in overall width may be equipped with only one taillamp, stop lamp, and rear reflex reflector, which shall be located at or near its vertical centerline.
S5.1.1.15A trailer that is less than 6 feet in overall length, including the trailer tongue, need not be equipped with front side marker lamps and front side reflex reflectors.
S5.1.1.16A lamp designed to use a type of bulb that has not been assigned a mean spherical candlepower rating by its manufacturer and is not listed in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, shall meet the applicable requirements of this standard when used with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated at the bulb's design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb shall meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the bulb's design voltage.
S5.1.1.17Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp shall meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ±.010 inch of the nominal design position specified in SAE Standard J573d, Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, or specified by the bulb manufacturer.
S5.1.1.18A backup lamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric values at each test point specified in Table I of SAE Standard J593c, Backup Lamps, February 1968, if the sum of the candlepower measured at the test points within each group listed in Figure 2 is not less than the group totals specified in that figure.
S5.1.1.19Each variable load turn signal flasher shall comply with voltage drop and durability requirements of SAE Standard J590b, Turn Signal Flashers, October 1965 with the maximum design load connected, and shall comply with starting time, flash rate, and percent current “on” time requirements of J590b both with the minimum and with the maximum design load connected.
S5.1.1.20The lowest voltage drop for turn signal flashers and hazard warning signal flashers measured between the input and load terminals shall not exceed 0.8 volt.
S5.1.1.21A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less need not be equipped with turn signal lamps.
S5.1.1.22A motor-driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less may be equipped with a stop lamp whose effective projected luminous lens area is not less than 31/2 square inches and whose photometric output for the groups of test points specified in Figure 1 is at least one-half of the minimum values set forth in that figure.
S5.1.1.23-24 [Reserved]
S5.1.1.25Each turn signal lamp on a motorcycle shall have an effective projected luminous lens area of not less than 2258 square mm. (31/2 square inches).
S5.1.1.26On a motor vehicle whose overall width is less than 80 inches:
(a) The effective projected luminous lens area of a single compartment stop lamp, and a single compartment rear turn signal lamp, shall be not less than 50 square centimeters (73/4 square inches).
(b) If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used to meet the photometric requirements for stop lamps and rear turn signal lamps, the effective projected luminous lens area of each compartment or lamp shall be at least 22 square centimeters, provided the combined area is at least 50 square centimeters (73/4 square inches).
S5.1.1.27 (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each passenger car manufactured on or after September 1, 1985, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus, whose overall width is less than 80 inches, whose GVWR is 10,000 pounds or less, manufactured on or after September 1, 1993, shall be equipped with a high-mounted stop lamp which:
(1) Shall have an effective projected luminous lens area not less than 2903 square mm. (41/2 square inches).
(2) Shall meet the visibility requirements specified in S5.3.2(c).
(3) Shall have the minimum photometric values in the amount and location listed in Figure 10.
(4) Need not meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.1.6 Moisture Test, 3.1.7 Dust Test, and 3.1.8 Corrosion Test of SAE Recommended Practice J186a, Supplemental High-Mounted Stop and Rear Turn Signal Lamps, September 1977, if it is mounted inside the vehicle.
(5) Shall provide access for convenient replacement of the bulb without the use of special tools.
(b) Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus whose overall width is less than 80 inches, whose GVWR is 10,000 pounds or less, whose vertical centerline, when the vehicle is viewed from the rear, is not located on a fixed body panel but separates one or two movable body sections, such as doors, which lacks sufficient space to install a single high-mounted stop lamp on the centerline above such body sections, and which is manufactured on or after September 1, 1993, shall have two high-mounted stop lamps which:
(1) Are identical in size and shape and have an effective projected luminous lens area not less than 1452 square mm. (21/4 square inches) each.
(2) Shall meet the visibility requirements specified in S5.3.2(d).
(3) Together have the minimum photometric values specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this S5.1.1.27.
(4) Shall provide access for convenient replacement of the bulbs without special tools.
S5.1.1.28 [Reserved]
S5.1.1.29A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with paragraph S5.7 of this standard need not be equipped with the reflex reflectors required by Table I of this standard if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the reflex reflectors required by Table I.
S5.1.2Plastic materials used for optical parts such as lenses and reflectors shall conform to SAE Recommended Practice J576 JUL91, except that:
(a) Plastic lenses (other than those incorporating reflex reflectors) used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight shall meet the requirements of paragraphs 3.3 and 4.2 of SAE J576 JUL91 when covered by the outer lens or other material;
(b) After the outdoor exposure test, the haze and loss of surface luster of plastic materials (other than those incorporating reflex reflectors) used for outer lenses shall not be greater than 30 percent haze as measured by ASTM D 1003-92, Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastic;
(c) After the outdoor exposure test, plastic materials used for reflex reflectors and for lenses used in front of reflex reflectors shall not show surface deterioration, crazing, dimensional changes, color bleeding, delamination, loss of surface luster, or haze that exceeds 7 percent as measured under ASTM D 1003-92.
(d) The thickness of the test specimens specified in paragraph 3.2.2 of SAE J576 JUL91 may vary by as much as ±0.25 mm.
(e) After exposure to the heat test as specified in subparagraph (f) of this paragraph, and after cooling to room ambient temperature, a test specimen shall show no change in shape and general appearance discernable to the naked eye when compared with an unexposed specimen. The trichromatic coefficients of the samples shall conform to the requirements of SAE J578c, Color Specification for Electric Signal Lighting Devices, February 1977.
(f) Two samples of each thickness of each plastic material are used in the heat test. Each sample is supported at the bottom, with at least 51 mm. of the sample above the support, in the vertical position in such a manner that, on each side, the minimum uninterrupted area of exposed surface is not less than 3225 sq. mm. The samples are placed for two hours in a circulating air oven at 79 ±3 degrees C.
(g) All outdoor exposure tests shall be 3 years in duration, whether the material is exposed or protected. Accelerated weathering procedures are not permitted.
S5.1.3No additional lamp, reflective device or other motor vehicle equipment shall be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting equipment required by this standard.
5.1.4Except for multifunction school activity buses, each school bus shall be equipped with a system of either:
(a) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and installed in accordance with that standard; or
(b) Four red signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, and four amber signal lamps designed to conform to that standard, except for their color, and except that their candlepower shall be at least 21/2 times that specified for red signal lamps. Both red and amber lamps shall be installed in accordance with SAE Standard J887, except that:
(i) Each amber signal lamp shall be located near each red signal lamp, at the same level, but closer to the vertical centerline of the bus; and
(ii) The system shall be wired so that the amber signal lamps are activated only by manual or foot operation, and if activated, are automatically deactivated and the red signal lamps automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
S5.1.5The color in all lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment to which this standard applies shall comply with SAE Standard J578c, Color Specification for Electric Signal Lighting Devices, February 1977.
S5.2Other requirements.
S5.2.1The words “it is recommended that,” “recommendations,” or “should be” appearing in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice referenced or subreferenced in this standard shall be read as setting forth mandatory requirements, except that the aiming pads on the lens face and the black area surrounding the signal lamp recommended in SAE Standard J887, School Bus Red Signal Lamps, July 1964, are not required.
S5.2.2The words “Type 1 (53/4″),” “Type 2 (53/4″),” “Type 2 (7″),” “Type 1A,” “Type 2A,” and “Type 2B” appearing in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice referenced or subreferenced in this standard shall also be read as setting forth requirements respectively for the following types of headlamps: 1C1, 2C1, 2D1, 1A1, 2A1, and 2B1.
S5.3Location of required equipment. Except as provided in paragraphs S5.3.2, S5.7, and S7, each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle other than glazing that is not designed to be removed except for repair, in accordance with the requirements of Table I and Table III, as applicable, and in the location specified in Table II (multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses 80 or more inches in overall width) or Table IV (all passenger cars, and motorcycles, and multipurpose passenger vehicles, truck, trailers and buses less than 80 inches in overall width), as applicable.
S5.3.1 [Reserved]
S5.3.1.1 [Reserved]
S5.3.1.1.1 [Reserved]
S5.3.1.2On a truck tractor, the red rear reflex reflectors may be mounted on the back of the cab, at a minimum height not less than 4 inches above the height of the rear tires.
S5.3.1.3On a trailer, the amber front side reflex reflectors and amber front side marker lamps may be located as far forward as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongue.
S5.3.1.4When the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of a vehicle, rear clearance lamps need not meet the requirement of Table II that they be located as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle.
S5.3.1.5 [Reserved]
S5.3.1.6On a truck tractor, clearance lamps mounted on the cab may be located to indicate the width of the cab, rather than the overall width of the vehicle.
S5.3.1.7On a motor vehicle on which the front turn signal lamp is less than 100 mm from the lighted edge of a lower beam headlamp, as measured from the optical center of the turn signal lamp, the multiplier applied to obtain the required minimum luminous intensities shall be 2.5.
S5.3.1.8 (a) Each high-mounted stop lamp installed in or on a vehicle subject to S5.1.1.27(a) shall be located as follows:
(1) With its center at any place on the vertical centerline of the vehicle, including the glazing, as the vehicle is viewed from the rear.
(2) If the lamp is mounted below the rear window, no portion of the lens shall be lower than 6 inches below the rear window on convertibles, or 3 inches on other passenger cars.
(3) If the lamp is mounted inside the vehicle, means shall be provided to minimize reflections from the light of the lamp upon the rear window glazing that might be visible to the driver when viewed directly, or indirectly in the rearview mirror.
(b) The high-mounted stop lamps installed in or on a vehicle subject to S5.1.1.27(b) shall be located at the same height, with one vertical edge of each lamp on the vertical edge of the body section nearest the vertical centerline.
S5.3.2Except as provided in S5.3.2.1 through S5.3.2.4 and in paragraphs S5.7 and S7, each vehicle must conform to the following requirements:
(a) Each lamp and reflective device must be installed in a location where it complies with all applicable photometric requirements and visibility requirements, with all obstructions (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, and winches) installed on the vehicle.
(b) A manufacturer must certify compliance of each lamp to one of the following visibility requirement options, and it may not thereafter choose a different option for that vehicle:
(1) When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Figure 19 of this standard, each such lamp must provide not less than 12.5 square centimeters of unobstructed effective projected luminous lens area in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Figure 19 for each such lamp; or
(2) When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Figure 20 of this standard, each such lamp must provide a luminous intensity not less than that specified in Figure 20 in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Figure 20 for each such lamp. The luminous intensity must be measured in accordance with the photometry test requirements of the applicable SAE Standards and Recommended Practices incorporated by reference or subreference in this standard.
(c) A high mounted stop lamp must have a signal visible to the rear through a horizontal angle from 45 degrees to the left to 45 degrees to the right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
(d) High mounted stop lamps required to comply with S5.1.1.27(b) must together have a signal to the rear as specified in S5.3.2(c).
(e) Backup lamps must be mounted on the rear so that the optical center of at least one lamp is visible from any eye point elevation from at least 1828 mm (6 ft) to 610 mm (2 ft) above the horizontal plane on which the vehicle is standing; and from any position in the area, rearward of a vertical plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, 914 mm (3 ft) to the rear of the vehicle and extending 914 mm (3 ft) beyond each side of the vehicle.
S5.3.2.1Clearance lamps may be located at a location other than on the front and rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of a vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle, and at such a location they need not meet the photometric output at any test point that is 45 degrees inboard.
S5.3.2.2If any required lamp or reflective device is obstructed by motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, winches, etc.), and cannot meet requirements of S5.3.2, the vehicle must be equipped with an additional lamp or device of the same type which meet all applicable requirements of this standard, including S5.3.2.
S5.3.2.3For signal lamps and reflective devices mounted less than 750 mm above the road surface as measured to the lamp axis of reference, the vertical test point angles located below the horizontal plane subject to photometric and visibility requirements of this standard may be reduced to 5 degrees.
S5.3.2.4As an alternative to S5.3.2(b), each passenger car and motorcycle, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer and bus that is of less than 2032 mm overall width, that are manufactured on or before September 1, 2011, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer and bus of 2032 mm or more overall width that is manufactured on or before September 1, 2014, must have each lamp located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in any applicable SAE Standard or Recommended Practice.
S5.4Equipment combinations. Two or more lamps, reflective devices, or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met, with the following exceptions:
(a) No high-mounted stop lamp shall be combined with any other lamp or reflective device, other than with a cargo lamp.
(b) No high-mounted stop lamp shall be combined optically, as defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology—Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with any cargo lamp.
(c) No clearance lamp shall be combined optically, as defined by SAE Information Report J387 Terminology—Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, with any taillamp.
S5.5Special wiring requirements.
S.5.5.1Each vehicle shall have a means of switching between lower and upper beams that conforms to SAE Recommended Practice J564a Headlamp Beam Switching, April 1964 or to SAE Recommended Practice J565b, Semi-Automatic Headlamp Beam Switching Devices, February 1969. Except as provided in S5.5.8, the lower and upper beams shall not be energized simultaneously except momentarily for temporary signalling purposes or during switching between beams.
S5.5.2Each vehicle shall have a means for indicating to the driver when the upper beams of the headlamps are on that conforms to SAE Recommended Practice J564a, April 1964, except that the signal color need not be red.
S5.5.3 The taillamps on each vehicle shall be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state, but need not be activated if the headlamps are activated at less than full intensity as permitted by paragraph S5.5.11(a).
S5.5.4The stop lamps on each vehicle shall be activated upon application of the service brakes. The high-mounted stop lamp on each vehicle shall be activated only upon application of the service brakes.
S5.5.5The vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit on each vehicle shall operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch, and when activated, shall cause to flash simultaneously sufficient turn signal lamps to meet, as a minimum, the turn signal lamp photometric requirements of this standard.
S5.5.6Each vehicle equipped with a turn signal operating unit shall also have an illuminated pilot indicator. Failure of one or more turn signal lamps to operate shall be indicated in accordance with SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970, except when a variable-load turn signal flasher is used on a truck, bus, or multipurpose passenger vehicle 80 or more inches in overall width, on a truck that is capable of accommodating a slide-in camper, or on any vehicle equipped to tow trailers.
S5.5.7On each passenger car and motorcycle, and on each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus of less than 80 inches overall width:
(a) When the parking lamps are activated, the taillamps, license plate lamps, and side marker lamps shall also be activated; and
(b) When the headlamps are activated in a steady-burning state, the tail lamps, parking lamps, license plate lamps and side marker lamps shall also be activated.
S5.5.8On a motor vehicle equipped with a headlighting system designed to conform to the photometric requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2, the lamps marked “L” or “LF” may be wired to remain permanently activated when the lamps marked “U” or “UF” are activated. On a motor vehicle equipped with an Integral Beam headlighting system meeting the photometric requirements of paragraph S7.4(a)(1)(ii), the lower beam headlamps shall be wired to remain permanently activated when the upper beam headlamps are activated. On a motor vehicle equipped with a headlighting system designed to conform to the requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2, a lower beam light source may be wired to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source contributes to compliance of the headlighting system with the upper beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2.
S5.5.9 Except as provided in section S5.5.8, the wiring harness or connector assembly of each headlamp system shall be designed so that only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the upper beam position.
S5.5.10The wiring requirements for lighting equipment in use are:
(a) Turn signal lamps, hazard warning signal lamps, and school bus warning lamps shall be wired to flash;
(b) Headlamps and side marker lamps may be wired to flash for signaling purposes;
(c) A motorcycle headlamp may be wired to allow either its upper beam or its lower beam, but not both, to modulate from a higher intensity to a lower intensity in accordance with section S5.6;
(d) All other lamps shall be wired to be steady-burning.
S5.5.11(a) Any pair of lamps on the front of a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus, whether or not required by this standard, other than parking lamps or fog lamps, may be wired to be automatically activated, as determined by the manufacturer of the vehicle, in a steady burning state as daytime running lamps (DRLs) and to be automatically deactivated when the headlamp control is in any “on” position, and as otherwise determined by the manufacturer of the vehicle, provided that each such lamp:
(1) Has a luminous intensity not less than 500 candela at test point H-V, nor more than 3,000 candela at any location in the beam, when tested in accordance with Section S11 of this standard, unless it is:
(i) A lower beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL at full voltage, or at a voltage lower than used to operate it as a lower beam headlamp; or
(ii) An upper beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL, whose luminous intensity at test point H-V is not more than 7,000 candela, and which is mounted not higher than 864 mm above the road surface as measured from the center of the lamp with the vehicle at curb weight;
(2) Is permanently marked “DRL” on its lens in letters not less than 3 mm high, unless it is optically combined with a headlamp;
(3) Is designed to provide the same color as the other lamp in the pair, and that is one of the following colors as defined in SAE Standard J578 MAY88: White, white to yellow, white to selective yellow, selective yellow, or yellow;
(4) If not optically combined with a turn signal lamp, is located so that the distance from its lighted edge to the optical center of the nearest turn signal lamp is not less than 100 mm, unless:
(i) The luminous intensity of the DRL is not more than 2,600 candela at any location in the beam and the turn signal meets the requirements of S5.3.1.7; or
(ii) (For a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus that is manufactured before October 1, 1995, and which uses an upper beam headlamp as a DRL as specified in paragraph S5.5.11(a)(1)(ii)) the luminous intensity of the DRL is greater than 2,600 candela at any location in the beam and the turn signal lamp meets the requirements of S5.3.1.7; or
(iii) The DRL is optically combined with a lower beam headlamp and the turn signal lamp meets the requirements of S5.3.1.7; or
(iv) The DRL is deactivated when the turn signal or hazard warning signal lamp is activated.
(5) If optically combined with a turn signal lamp, is automatically deactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is activated, and automatically reactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is deactivated.
(b) Any pair of lamps that are not required by this standard and are not optically combined with any lamps that are required by this standard, and which are used as DRLs to fulfill the specifications of S5.5.11(a), shall be mounted at the same height, which shall be not more than 1.067 m above the road surface measured from the center of the lamp on the vehicle at curb weight, and shall be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline of the vehicle.
S5.6 [Reserved]
S5.7Conspicuity Systems. Each trailer of 80 or more inches overall width, and with a GVWR over 10,000 lbs., manufactured on or after December 1, 1993, except a trailer designed exclusively for living or office use, and each truck tractor manufactured on or after July 1, 1997, shall be equipped with either retroreflective sheeting that meets the requirements of S5.7.1, reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of S5.7.2, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors that meet the requirement of S5.7.3.
S5.7.1Retroreflective sheeting. Each trailer or truck tractor to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.2 or S5.7.3 shall be equipped with retroreflective sheeting that conforms to the requirements specified in S5.7.1.1 through S5.7.1.5.
S5.7.1.1Construction. Retroreflective sheeting shall consist of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with retroreflective elements embedded or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed retroreflective optical system.
S5.7.1.2Performance requirements. Retroreflective sheeting shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4956-90, Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, for Type V Sheeting, except for the photometric requirements, and shall meet the minimum photometric performance requirements specified in Figure 29.
S5.7.1.3Sheeting pattern, dimensions, and relative coefficients of retroreflection.
(a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied in a pattern of alternating white and red color segments to the sides and rear of each trailer, and to the rear of each truck tractor, and in white to the upper rear corners of each trailer and truck tractor, in the locations specified in S5.7.1.4, and Figures 30-1 through 30-4, or Figure 31, as appropriate.
(b) Except for a segment that is trimmed to clear obstructions, or lengthened to provide red sheeting near red lamps, each white or red segment shall have a length of 300 mm ±150 mm.
(c) Neither white nor red sheeting shall represent more than two thirds of the aggregate of any continuous strip marking the width of a trailer, or any continuous or broken strip marking its length.
(d) Retroreflective sheeting shall have a width of not less than 50 mm (Grade DOT-C2), 75 mm (Grade DOT-C3), or 100 mm (Grade DOT-C4).
(e) The coefficients for retroreflection of each segment of red or white sheeting shall be not less than the minimum values specified in Figure 29 of this standard for grades DOT-C2, DOT-C3, and DOT-C4.
S5.7.1.4 Location. (a) Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to each trailer and truck tractor as specified below, but need not be applied to discontinuous surfaces such as outside ribs, stake post pickets on platform trailers, and external protruding beams, or to items of equipment such as door hinges and lamp bodies on trailers and body joints, stiffening beads, drip rails and rolled surfaces on truck tractors.
(b) The edge of white sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any red or amber lamp that is required by this standard.
(c) The edge of red sheeting shall not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any amber lamp that is required by this standard.
S5.7.1.4.1Rear of trailers. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to the rear of each trailer as follows, except that Element 2 is not required for container chassis or for platform trailers without bulkheads, and Element 3 is not required for trailers without underride protection devices:
(a) Element 1: A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in alternating colors across the full width of the trailer, as close to the extreme edges as practicable, and as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the stripe centerline with the trailer at curb weight.
(b) Element 2: Two pairs of white strips of sheeting, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long of grade DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, applied horizontally and vertically to the right and left upper contours of the body, as viewed from the rear, as close to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable. If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is other than rectangular, the strips may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.
(c) Element 3: A strip of sheeting in alternating colors across the full width of the horizontal member of the rear underride protection device. Grade DOT-C2 material not less than 38 mm wide may be used.
S5.7.1.4.2Side of trailers. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to each side of a trailer as follows:
(a) A strip of sheeting, as horizontal as practicable, in alternating colors, originating and terminating as close to the front and rear as practicable, as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the stripe centerline with the trailer at curb weight, except that at the location chosen the strip shall not be obscured in whole or in part by other motor vehicle equipment or trailer cargo. The strip need not be continuous as long as not less than half of the length of the trailer is covered and the spaces are distributed as evenly as practicable.
(b) If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, grade DOT-C2 retroreflective sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not more than 25 mm, and used in place of the retroreflective sheeting that would otherwise be applied.
S5.7.1.4.3 Rear of truck tractors. Retroreflective sheeting shall be applied to the rear of each truck tractor as follows:
(a) Element 1: Two strips of sheeting in alternating colors, each not less than 600 mm long, located as close as practicable to the edges of the rear fenders, mudflaps, or the mudflap support brackets, to mark the width of the truck tractor. The strips shall be mounted as horizontal as practicable, in a vertical plane facing the rear, on the rear fenders, on the mudflap support brackets, on plates attached to the mudflap support brackets, or on the mudflaps. Strips on mudflaps shall be mounted not lower than 300 mm below the upper horizontal edge of the mudflap. If the vehicle is certified with temporary mudflap support brackets, the strips shall be mounted on the mudflaps or on plates transferable to permanent mudflap support brackets. For a truck tractor without mudflaps, the strips may be mounted outboard of the frame on brackets behind the rear axle or on brackets ahead of the rear axle and above the top of the tires at unladen vehicle height, or they may be mounted directly or indirectly to the back of the cab as close to the outer edges as practicable, above the top of the tires, and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at unladen vehicle height. If the strips are mounted on the back of the cab, no more than 25 percent of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.
(b) Element 2: Two pairs of white strips of sheeting, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long, applied as horizontally and vertically as practicable, to the right and left upper contours of the cab, as close to the top of the cab and as far apart as practicable. No more than 25 percent of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view. If one pair must be relocated to avoid obscuration by vehicle equipment, the other pair may be relocated in order to be mounted symmetrically. If the rear window is so large as to occupy all the practicable space, the material may be attached to the edge of the window itself.
S5.7.1.5Certification. The letters DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, as appropriate, constituting a certification that the retroreflective sheeting conforms to the requirements of S5.7.1.2, shall appear at least once on the exposed surface of each white or red segment of retroreflective sheeting, and at least once every 300 mm on retroreflective sheeting that is white only. The characters shall be not less than 3 mm high, and shall be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.
S5.7.2Reflex Reflectors. Each trailer or truck tractor to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or S5.7.3 shall be equipped with reflex reflectors in accordance with this section.
S5.7.2.1(a) Each reflex reflector shall conform to SAE Standard J594f, Reflex Reflectors, January 1977.
(b) Each red reflex reflector shall also provide, at an observation angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 300 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 75 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees right.
(c) Each white reflex reflector shall also provide at an observation angle of 0.2 degree, not less than 1250 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle between 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, including an entrance angle of 0 degree, and not less than 300 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle between 45 degrees left and 45 degrees right.
(d) A white reflex reflector complying with S5.7.2.1(a) and (c) when tested in a horizontal orientation may be installed in all orientations specified for rear upper locations in S5.7.1.4.1(b) or S5.7.1.4.3(b) if, when tested in a vertical orientation, it provides an observation angle of 0.2 degree not less than 1680 millicandelas/lux at a light entrance angle of 0 degree, not less than 1120 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle from 10 degrees down to 10 degrees up, and not less than 560 millicandelas/lux at any light entrance angle from 20 degrees right to 20 degrees left.
S5.7.2.2Reflex reflectors shall be installed and located as specified below:
(a) In the same locations and in the same length in which retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be applied in alternating colors, reflex reflectors shall be installed in a repetitive pattern of two or three white reflex reflectors alternating with two or three red reflex reflectors, with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.
(b) In the same locations and in the same length in which white retroreflective sheeting is required by S5.7.1.4 to be installed, white reflex reflectors shall be installed, with the center of each white reflex reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.
S5.7.2.3Certification. The exposed surface of each reflex reflector shall be marked with the letters DOT-C which constitutes a certification that the reflector conforms to all applicable requirements of § 571.108 of this part. The certification shall be not less than 3 mm high, and permanently stamped, etched, molded or printed in indelible ink.
S5.7.3Combination of sheeting and reflectors. Each trailer or truck tractor to which S5.7 applies that does not conform to S5.7.1 or S5.7.2, shall be equipped with retroreflective materials that meet the requirements of S5.7.1 except that reflex reflectors that meet the requirements of S5.7.2.1, and that are installed in accordance with S5.7.2.2, may be used instead of any corresponding element of retroreflective sheeting located as required by S5.7.1.4.
S5.8Replacement Equipment.
S5.8.1Except as provided below, each lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment manufactured to replace any lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment on any vehicle to which this standard applies, shall be designed to conform to this standard.
S5.8.2A Type C replacement headlamp designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2(a) through (d) of this standard may be marked “1” and “2” rather than “1C1” and “2C1” respectively. A Type D replacement headlamp designed to conform to S7.3.2(a) through (c) and S7.3.5(b) of this standard may be marked “TOP” or “2” rather than “2D1”.
S5.8.3(a) Each stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J586b, Stop Lamps, June 1966, may also be designed to conform to J586b. It shall meet the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for Class A red turn signal lamps specified in SAE Standard J575d, Test for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, August 1967. Each such lamp manufactured for use on a passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or bus less than 2032 mm. (80 inches) in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous lens area not less than 2258 square mm. (31/2 square inches). If multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, the effective projected luminous lens area of each compartment or lamp shall be not less than 2258 square mm. (31/2 square inches); however, the photometric requirements may be met by a combination of compartments or lamps.
(b) Each stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J586c, Stop Lamps, August 1970, may also be designed to conform to J586c.
S5.8.4(a) Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J588d, Turn Signal Lamps, June 1966, may also be designed to conform to J588d, and shall meet the photometric minimum candlepower requirements for Class A turn signal lamps specified in SAE Standard J575d, Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, August 1967. Each such lamp manufactured for use on a passenger car and on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or bus less than 80 inches in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 31/2 square inches. If multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamps are used, the effective projected luminous area of each compartment or lamp shall be not less than 31/2 square inches; however, the photometric requirements may be met by a combination of compartments or lamps. Each such lamp manufactured for use on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer or bus 80 inches or more in overall width shall have an effective projected luminous area not less than 12 square inches.
(b) Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970, may also be designed to conform to SAE Standard J588e.
S5.8.5Note 6 of Table 1 of SAE Standard J588e does not apply.
S5.8.6. Instead of the photometric values specified in SAE Standards J586c and J588e, a stop lamp manufactured to replace a stop lamp designed to conform to SAE Standard J586c, or a turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp designed to conform to SAE Standard J588e, shall meet the minimum percentage specified in Figure 1a of the corresponding minimum allowable value specified in Figure 1b. The maximum candlepower output of each such stop lamp or turn signal lamp shall not exceed that prescribed in Figure 1b. If the sum of the percentages of the minimum candlepower measured at the test points is not less than that specified for each group listed in Figure 1c, a stop lamp or turn signal lamp is not required to meet the minimum photometric value at each test point specified in SAE Standards J586c and J588e, respectively.
S5.8.7Note 6 of Table 1 in SAE Standard J588e, Turn Signal Lamps, September 1970, does not apply.
S5.8.8Each taillamp manufactured to replace a taillamp designed to conform to SAE Standard J585d, Tail Lamps, August 1970, may also be designed to conform to J585d.
S5.8.9Each turn signal lamp manufactured to replace a turn signal lamp (on a motorcycle) that was designed to conform to SAE Standard J588d, Turn Signal Lamps, June 1966, may also be designed to conform to J588d.
S5.8.10Unless otherwise specified in this standard, each lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment to which paragraph S5.8.1 applies may be labeled with the symbol DOT, which shall constitute a certification that it conforms to applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.
S5.8.11A replacement lens for a replaceable bulb headlamp or an integral beam headlamp that is not required to have a bonded lens shall be provided with a replacement seal in a package that includes instructions for the removal and replacement of the lens, the cleaning of the reflector, and the sealing of the replacement lens to the reflector assembly.
S6.Subreferenced SAE Standards and Recommended Practices
S6.1SAE Standards and Recommended Practices subreferenced by the SAE Standards and Recommended Practices included in Tables I and III and paragraphs S5.1.4 and S5.5.1 are those published in the 1970 edition of the SAE Handbook, except that the SAE standard referred to as “J575” is J575e, Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components, August 1970, for stoplamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J586c, J586 FEB84, and J1398 MAY85; for taillamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J585d and J585e; for turn signal lamps designed to conform to SAE Standards J588e, J588 NOV84, and J1395 APR85; and for high-mounted stoplamps designed to conform to SAE Recommended Practice J186a. The reference in J585e to J256 does not apply. For headlamps other than motorcycle headlamps, unless otherwise specified in this standard, the version of SAE Standard J575 is DEC88, and the version of SAE Standard J602 is OCT80.The definition of “optically combined” in SAE Information Report J387 Terminology—Motor Vehicle Lighting NOV87, applies to that term as used in J586c and J588e.
S6.2Requirements of SAE Standards incorporated by reference in this standard, other than J576b and J576c, do not include test for warpage of devices with plastic lenses.
S6.3The term “functional lighted lens area” in any SAE Standard or Recommended Practice incorporated by reference or by subreference in this standard, has the same meaning as the term “effective projected luminous lens area.”
S7.Headlighting requirements.
S7.1Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus manufactured on or after September 1, 1994, shall be equipped with a headlighting system designed to conform to the requirements of S7.3, S7.4, S7.5, or S7.6.
S7.2(a)The lens of each original and replacement equipment headlamp, and of each original equipment and replacement equipment beam contributor shall be marked with the symbol “DOT” either horizontally or vertically which shall constitute the certification required by 49 U.S.C. 30115.
(b) The lens of each headlamp and of each beam contributor manufactured on or after December 1, 1989, to which paragraph (a) of this section applies shall be marked with the name and/or trademark registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of the manufacturer of such headlamp or beam contributor, or its importer, or any manufacturer of a vehicle equipped with such headlamp or beam contributor. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to authorize the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
(c) Each headlamp and beam contributor to which paragraph (a) of this section applies shall be marked with its voltage and with its part or trade number.
(d) Unless stated otherwise, a tolerance of ±1/4 degree is permitted during photometric performance tests for any headlamp or beam contributor, and the test points 10U-90U shall be measured from the normally exposed surface of the lens face. The term ‘aiming plane’ means ‘aiming reference plane’ or an appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer as required in S7.7.1.
(e) Each replacement headlamp lens with seal, provided in accordance with S5.8.11, when installed according to the lens manufacturer's instructions on an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, shall not cause the headlamp to fail to comply with any of the requirements of this standard. Each replacement headlamp lens shall be marked with the symbol “DOT”, either horizontally or vertically, to constitute certification. Each replacement headlamp lens shall also be marked with the manufacturer and the part or trade number of the headlamp for which it is intended, and with the name and/or trademark of the lens manufacturer or importer that is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to authorize the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
S7.3Sealed beam headlighting system. A sealed beam headlighting system shall be designed to meet the requirements of one of the following subparagraphs of S7.3.2 through S7.3.9. In references to Figures in SAE J1383 APR85 for headlamp dimensional requirements, only those dimensions marked “I” for interchangeability are applicable.
S7.3.1The lens of each sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to S7.3.2 through S7.3.6 shall be marked according to paragraph 5.4.3 through 5.4.5 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps.
S7.3.2Type A headlighting system. A Type A headlighting system consists of two Type 1A1 and two Type 2A1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps, with the following exceptions:
(1) Paragraphs 1, 2.1.2, 2.8.2, 3, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8 through 4.18, 5.1.1, 5.1.3, 5.1.5, 5.1.7 through 5.1.16, 5.2.2, 5.3.5, 5.4.1, 5.4.2, and 6 through 6.4 do not apply.
(2) In paragraph 5.3.2, the words “and retaining rings” are omitted.
(3) In paragraphs 4.5.2 and 5.1.6, the words “Figure 28-1 or 28-2 of Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108” are substituted for “Table 3.”
(b) SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly (except paragraphs 3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1.1, 5.1.2.3, and the second sentence of 5.1.6); in 5.2.1, delete the words “and retaining rings;” the correct reference is SAE J1383 Figures 6, 9, 12 and 14.
(c) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.
(d) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): Single filament headlamp, 55 watts on the upper beam; dual filament headlamp, 43 watts on the upper beam and 65 watts on the lower beam.
S7.3.3Type B headlighting system. A Type B headlighting system consists of two Type 2B1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) The requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through (c), except that the words “Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2” are substituted for “Table 3” in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
(b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
S7.3.4Type C headlighting system. A Type C headlighting system consists of two Type 1C1 and two Type 2C1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through (d), except that the words “Figure 28-1 or Figure 28-2” are substituted for “Table 3” in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
S7.3.5Type D headlighting system. (a) A Type D headlighting system consists of two Type 2D1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through (c), except that the words “Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-1” are substituted for “Table 3” in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
(b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 65 watts on upper beam, and 55 watts on lower beam.
S7.3.6Type E headlighting system. (a) A Type E headlighting system consists of two Type 2E1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the requirements of paragraph S7.3.2 (a) through (c), except that the words “Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-1” are substituted for “Table 3” in paragraph S7.3.2(a)(3).
(b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on upper beam, and 60 watts on lower beam.
S7.3.7Type F headlighting system. A Type F headlighting system consists of two Type UF and two Type LF headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) Figures 11, 12, 13, and 14 as appropriate.
(b) The photometric requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 of this standard. A reaim tolerance of ±1/4 degree is allowed for any test point on the Type LF lamp when tested alone, but is not allowed on the Type UF lamp when tested alone. For the test point 10U-90U, measurement shall be from the normally exposed surface of the lens face.
(c) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps,Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 4.1, 4.1.4, and 5.1.4.
(d) When tested in accordance with section (c), the mounted assembly (either Type UF or Type LF headlamps, respective mounting ring, aiming ring, and aim adjustment mechanism) shall be designed to conform to the requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 for upper or lower beams respectively without reaim when any conforming Type UF or LF headlamp is tested and replaced by another conforming headlamp of the same Type.
(e) SAE J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly with the following exceptions:
(1) Section 2.2 Mounting Ring reads: “the adjustable ring upon which the sealed beam unit is mounted and which forces the sealed beam unit to seat against the aiming ring when assembled into a sealed beam assembly.”
(2) The definition “2.3 Aiming Ring” reads: “The clamping ring that retains the sealed beam unit against the mounting ring, and that provides an interface between the unit's aiming/seating pads and the headlamp aimer adapter (locating plate).”
(3) Section 4.1.1 Vibration Test does not apply.
(4) Sections 5.1.1.1 and 5.1.2.3 do not apply.
(5) Section 5.1.2.1 reads: “When the headlamp assembly is tested in the laboratory, a minimum aiming adjustment of ±2.5 degrees shall be provided in the horizontal plane and ±4 degrees in the vertical plane.”
(6) Section 5.1.2.2 concludes: “* * * through an angle of ±2.5 degrees and ±4 degrees respectively.”
(7) Section 5.1.6 is retitled “Retaining Ring/Aiming Ring Tests”. The phrase “92×150 mm * * * 0.340 in (8.6 mm)” is added at the end of the table for flange thickness. The sentence beginning “The fastening means” is deleted.
(8) Figures 2, 3, and 4 do not apply, and the reference to them in section 4.5 is replaced by “Figure 16, Deflectometer, of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108.”
(f) A lens for a Type F headlamp incorporating an upper beam shall be labeled “UF.” A lens for a Type F headlamp incorporating a lower beam shall be labeled “LF”. The face of letters, numbers, or other symbols molded on the surface of the lens shall not be raised more than 0.020 in (0.5 mm), and shall be placed no closer to the geometric center of the lens than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall be molded in the lens and shall be not less than 1/4 in. (6.35 mm) in size.
(g) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
(h) Type F headlamps may be mounted on common or parallel seating and aiming planes to permit simultaneous aiming of both headlamps provided that when tested with any conforming Type UF and LF headlamps according to Section S10:
(1) The assembly (consisting of the Type UF and LF headlamps, mounting rings, the aiming/seating rings, and aim adjustment mechanism) shall be designed to conform to the test points of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2.
(2) There shall be no provision for adjustment between the common or parallel aiming and seating planes of the two lamps.
(i) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.8, the Type F system shall show no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.
S7.3.8Type G headlighting system. A Type G headlamp system consists of two Type 1G1 headlamps and two Type 2G1 headlamps each of which is designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) Figures 18 and 21.
(b) SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps (except paragraphs 1, 2.1.2, 2.8.2,3, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8 through 4.18, 5.1.1, 5.1.3, 5.1.5 through 5.1.16, 5.2.2, 5.3.5 through 6.4). In paragraph 5.3.2 the words “and retaining rings” are omitted. In paragraph 4.5.2, the words “either Figure 28-1, or Figure 28-2” are substituted for “Table 3”.
(c) SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly, with the following exceptions:
(1) Sections 2.2, 2.3, 4.1.1, 5.1.1.1, 5.1.2.3, 5.1.6, and 5.2.1.
(2) Section 4.5 reads: “Torque Deflection Test. The headlamp assembly to be tested shall be mounted in the designed vehicle position and set at nominal aim (0.0). A special adapter (Figure 22) for the deflectometer (Figure 16) shall be clamped onto the headlamp assembly. A torque of 20 in.-lbs (2.25 N-m) shall be applied to the headlamp assembly through the deflectometer, and a reading on the thumb wheel shall be taken. The torque shall be removed and a second reading on the thumb wheel shall be taken.”
(d) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.
(e) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage) for the 1G1 and 2G1 upper beam is 55 watts and 43 watts respectively; for the 2G1 lower beam, 65 watts.
(f) A lens for a Type G headlamp incorporating only part of an upper beam shall be labeled “1G1.” A lens for a Type G headlamp incorporating both part of an upper beam and a lower beam shall be labeled “2G1.” The face of letters, numbers, or other symbols molded on the surface of the lens shall not be raised more than 0.020 in. (0.5 mm.), and shall be placed no closer to the geometric center of the lens than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall be molded in the lens and shall be not less than 1/4 in. (6.35 mm) in size.
S7.3.9Type H headlighting system. A Type H headlamp system consisting of two Type 2H1 headlamps and associated hardware, which are designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) Paragraphs S7.3.8 (a) through (d) except that in paragraph S7.3.8(b), the words “Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2” are substituted for “Table 3.”
(b) The maximum wattage at 12.8 volts (design voltage): 70 watts on the upper beam and 60 watts on the lower beam.
(c) A lens for a Type H headlamp incorporating both an upper beam and a lower beam shall be labeled “2H1.” The face of letters, numbers, or other symbols molded on the surface of the lens shall not be raised more than 0.020 in. (0.5 mm), and shall be placed no closer to the geometric center of the lens than 1.375 in. (35 mm). The marking shall be molded in the lens and shall be not less than 1/4 in. (6.35 mm) in size.
S7.4Integral Beam Headlighting System. An integral beam headlighting system shall be designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) The system shall provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams of the performance described in one of the following:
(1) In a four-headlamp system, each upper beam headlamp and each lower beam headlamp shall be designed to conform to the photometrics of one of the following:
(i) Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2; or
(ii) Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2, except that the upper beam test value at 2.5 D-V and 2.5D-12R and 12L, shall apply to the lower beam headlamp and not to the upper beam headlamp, and the upper beam test point value at 1.5D-9R and 9L shall be 1000; or
(iii) Figure 28-1 or Figure 28-2.
(2) In a two-headlamp system, each headlamp shall be designed to conform to the photometrics of one of the following:
(i) Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
(ii) Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2.
(3) In a system in which there is more than one beam contributor providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing an upper beam, each beam contributor in the system shall be designed to meet only the photometric performance requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 based upon the following mathematical expression: conforming test point value = 2 (Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 test point value)/total number of lower or upper beam contributors for the vehicle, as appropriate. The system shall be designed to use the Vehicle Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) as specified in paragraph S7.8.5.2.
(b) The lower and upper beams shall be provided only as follows where each headlamp contains two light sources:
(1) The lower beam shall be provided either by the most outboard light source (or the uppermost if arranged vertically), or by all light sources.
(2) The upper beam shall be provided either by the most inboard light source (or the lowermost if arranged vertically), or by all light sources.
(c) The lower and upper beams shall be provided only as follows where each headlamp contains a single light source:
(1) The lower beam shall be provided by the most outboard headlamps (or the uppermost if arranged vertically), and the lens of each such headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter “L.”
(2) The upper beam shall be provided by the most inboard headlamps (or lowermost if arranged vertically), and the lens of each such headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter “U.”
(d) A headlamp or beam contributor designed to meet paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(3) of this section and S7.8.5.1 may be mounted in an assembly to permit simultaneous aiming of the beam(s) contributors, provided that with any complying contributor the assembly complete with all lamps meets the appropriate photometric requirements when tested in accordance with S10.
(e) Each integral beam headlamp system shall be designed to conform to the applicable photometric performance requirements in paragraph (a) of this section when tested in accordance with sections 4.1 and 4.1.4 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85 with any headlamps intended for use in such system. The term “aiming plane” means “aiming reference plane,” or an appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer as required in paragraph S7.8.1.
(f) The system shall be aimable in accordance with the requirements of paragraph S7.8. A system that incorporates any headlamp or beam contributor that does not have a VHAD as an integral and indivisible part of the headlamp or beam contributor shall be designed so that the appropriate photometrics are met when any correctly aimed and photometrically conforming headlamp or beam contributor is removed from its mounting and aiming mechanism, and is replaced without reaim by any conforming headlamp or beam contributor of the same type.
(g) A headlamp with a glass lens need not meet the abrasion resistance test (S8.2). A headlamp with a nonreplaceable glass lens need not meet the chemical resistance test (S8.3). A headlamp with a glass lens and a non-plastic reflector need not meet the internal heat test of paragraph S8.6.2. A headlamp of sealed design as verified in paragraph S8.9 (sealing) need not meet the corrosion (S8.4), dust (S8.5), or humidity (S8.7) tests; however, the headlamp shall meet the requirements of paragraphs 4.1, 4.1.2, 4.4 and 5.1.4 for corrosion and connector of SAE Standard J580 DEC86 Sealed Beam Headlamp Assembly. An integral beam headlamp may incorporate light sources that are replaceable and are used for purposes other than headlighting.
(h) When tested according to any of the procedures indicated in subparagraphs (1) through (7) each headlamp or beam contributor shall meet the appropriate requirement:
(1) After an abrasion test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.2, the headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
(2) After the chemical resistance tests of paragraphs S8.3 and S8.10.1, the headlamp shall have no surface deterioration, coating delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, color bleeding or color pickup visible without magnification, and the headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
(3) After a corrosion test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.4, there shall be no evidence of external or internal corrosion or rust visible without magnification. After a corrosion test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.10.2, there shall be no evidence of corrosion or rust visible without magnification on any part of the headlamp reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source, on any metal light or heat shield assembly, or on a metal reflector of any other lamp not sealed from the headlamp reflector. Loss of adhesion of any applied coating shall not occur more than 0.l25 in. (3.2 mm) from any sharp edge on the inside or outside. Corrosion may occur on terminals only if the current produced during the test of paragraph S8.4(c) is not less than 9.7 amperes.
(4) After a dust test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.5, the headlamp shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
(5) The headlamp shall first meet the requirements of subparagraph (i) and then those of subparagraph (ii).
(i) After a temperature cycle test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.6.1, the headlamp shall show no evidence of delamination, fractures, entry of moisture or deterioration of bonding material, color bleeding, warpage or deformation visible without magnification or lens warpage greater than .118 in. (3 mm) when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens, and it shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
(ii) After an internal heat test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.6.2, there shall be no lens warpage greater than .118 in. (3 mm) when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens, and it shall meet the photometric requirements applicable to the headlamp system under test.
(6) After a humidity test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.7, the inside of the headlamp shall show no evidence of delamination or moisture, fogging or condensation visible without magnification.
(7) After a vibration test conducted in accordance with paragraph S8.8, there shall be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.
(i) An integral beam headlamp may incorporate replaceable light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting.
S7.5Replaceable bulb headlamp system. Each replaceable bulb headlamp system shall be designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) The system shall provide only two lower beams and two upper beams and shall incorporate not more than two replaceable light sources in each headlamp.
(b) The photometrics as specified in subparagraphs (c) through (e) of this paragraph (depicted in Figure 26), using any light source of the Type intended for use in such system.
(c) The test requirements of sections 4.1, 4.1.4, and performance requirements of section 5.1.4 of SAE J1383 APR85, using the photometric requirements specified in subparagraphs (d) and (e) of this paragraph.
(d) For a headlamp equipped with dual filament replaceable light sources, the following requirements apply:
(1) Headlamps designed to conform to the external aiming requirements of S7.8.5.1 shall have no mechanism that allows adjustment of an individual light source, or, if there are two light sources, independent adjustments of each reflector.
(2) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of two lamps, each containing either one or two replaceable light sources, shall be provided as follows:
(i) The lower beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
(A) By the outboard light source (or upper one if arranged vertically) designed to conform to:
(1) The lower beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2, if the light sources in the headlamp system are any combination of dual filament replaceable light sources other than Type HB2; or
(2) The lower beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure17-2 if the light sources are Type HB2, or any dual filament replaceable light sources that include Type HB2; or
(B) By both light sources in the headlamp, designed to conform to the lower beam requirements specified above.
(ii) The upper beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
(A) By the inboard light source (or the lower one if arranged vertically) designed to conform to:
(1) The upper beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system are any combination of dual filament replaceable light sources that include Type HB2, or
(2) The upper beam requirements of figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2 if the light sources are type HB2, or any combination of replaceable light sources that include Type HB2; or
(B) By both light sources in the headlamp, designed to conform to the upper beam requirements specified above.
(3) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of four lamps, each containing a single replaceable light source, shall be provided as follows:
(i) The lower beam shall be provided by the outboard lamp (or the upper one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to:
(A) The lower beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, or Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system are any combination of dual filament light sources other than Type HB2; or
(B) The lower beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources are Type HB2, or dual filament light sources other than Type HB1 and HB5. The lens of each such headlamp shall be marked with the letter “L”.
(ii) The upper beam shall be provided by the inboard lamp (or the lower one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to:
(A) The upper beam requirements of Figure 27-1 or Figure 27-2, of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources in the headlamp system are any combination of dual filament light sources other than Type HB2; or
(B) The upper beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 if the light sources are Type HB2, or dual filament light sources other tha Type HB1 and Type HB5. The lens of each such headlamp shall be marked with the letter “u”.
(e) The following requirements apply to a headlamp system equipped with any combination of replaceable light sources except those specified in paragraph (d) of this section:
(1) Headlamps designed to conform to the external aim requirements of S7.8.5.1 shall have no mechanism that allows adjustment of an individual light source, or, if there are two replaceable light sources, independent adjustment of each reflector.
(2) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of two lamps, each containing a combination of two replaceable light sources (other than those combinations specified in subparagraph (d) of this paragraph) shall be provided only as follows:
(i) The lower beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
(A) By the outboard light source (or the uppermost if arranged vertically) designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
(B) By both light sources, designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2.
(ii) The upper beam shall be provided in one of the following ways:
(A) By the inboard light source (or the lower one if arranged vertically) designed to conform to the upper beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2; or
(B) By both light sources, designed to conform to the upper beam requirements of Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2.
(3) The lower and upper beams of a headlamp system consisting of four lamps, using any combination of replaceable light sources except those specified in subparagraph (d) of this paragraph, each lamp containing only a single replaceable light source, shall be provided only as follows:
(i) The lower beam shall be produced by the outboard lamp (or upper one if arranged vertically), designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The lens of each headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter “L”.
(ii) The upper beam shall be produced by the inboard lamp (or lower one of arranged vertically), designed to conform to the upper beam requirements of Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The lens of each headlamp shall be permanently marked with the letter “U”.
(f) Each lens reflector unit manufactured as replacement equipment shall be designed to conform to the requirements of subparagraphs (d) and (e) of this paragraph when any replaceable light source appropriate for such unit is inserted in it.
(g) The lens of each replaceable bulb headlamp shall bear permanent marking in front of each replaceable light source with which it is equipped that states the HB Type, if the light source is designed to conform to subparagraphs (a) through (e) of paragraph S7.7, or the bulb marking/ designation provided in compliance with Section VIII of appendix A of part 564, if the light source is designed to conform to subparagraph (g) of paragraph S.7.7 No marking need be provided if the only replaceable light source in the headlamp is Type HB1.
(h) The system shall be aimable in accordance with paragraph S7.8.
(i) Each headlamp shall meet the requirements of paragraphs S7.4(g) and (h), except that the sentence in paragraph (g) to verify sealing according to section S8.9 Sealing does not apply.
(j) A replaceable bulb headlighting system may incorporate replaceable light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting.
S7.6Combination Headlighting System. A combination headlighting system shall be comprised of either two headlamps designed to conform to the requirements of S7.6.2, or any combination of four headlamps designed to conform to the requirements of S7.3.7, S7.4, or S7.5 of this standard.
S7.6.1A combination headlighting system shall provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams. When installed on a motor vehicle, the headlamps (or parts thereof) that provide the lower beam shall be of the same type, and provide a symmetrical effective projected luminous lens area when illuminated.
S7.6.2In a combination headlighting system consisting of two headlamps, each headlamp shall be designed to conform to Figure 17-1 or Figure 17-2 and shall be a combination of two different headlamps chosen from the following types: a Type F headlamp, an integral beam headlamp, and a replaceable bulb headlamp.
S7.6.2.1That part of the headlamp which contains an integral beam headlamp, or beam contributors used in place of a single headlamp, shall be designed to conform to the requirements of S7.4 (c) through (h) of this standard.
S7.6.2.2That part of the headlamp which contains a replaceable bulb headlamp shall be designed to conform to the requirements of S7.5 of this standard.
S7.6.3In a combination headlighting system consisting of four headlamps, each headlamp shall be designed to conform to Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2, or if an integral beam headlamp in which there is more than one beam contributor, designed to conform to Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2 in the manner required by S7.4(a)(3) of this standard.
S7.7Replaceable light sources. Each replaceable light source shall be designed to conform to the dimensions and electrical specifications furnished with respect to it pursuant to part 564 of this chapter, and shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) If other than an HB Type, the light source shall be marked with the bulb marking designation specified for it in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter. The base of each HB Type shall be marked with its HB Type designation. Each replaceable light source shall also be marked with the symbol DOT and with a name or trademark in accordance with paragraph S7.2.
(b) The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is submitted in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter shall be made in accordance with this paragraph. The filament or discharge arc shall be seasoned before measurement of either. Measurement shall be made with the direct current test voltage regulated within one quarter of one percent. The test voltage shall be 12.8v. The measurement of luminous flux shall be in accordance with the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, LM-45, IES Approved Method for Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service Incandescent Filament Lamps (April 1980); shall be made with the black cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5, and on any other replaceable light source so designed; and shall be made with the electrical conductor and light source base shrouded with an opaque white cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for the Types HB3 and HB4 shall be made with the base covered with a white cover as shown in the drawings for Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397. (The white cover is used to eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumen measurement that will occur should the reflectance of the light source base and electrical connector be low).
(c) The capsule, lead wires and/or terminals, and seal on each Type HB1, Type HB3, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light source, and on any other replaceable light source which uses a seal, shall be installed in a pressure chamber as shown in Figure 25 so as to provide an airtight seal. The diameter of the aperture in Figure 25 on a replaceable light source (other than an HB Type) shall be that dimension furnished for such light source in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter. An airtight seal exists when no air bubbles appear on the low pressure (connector) side after the light source has been immersed in water for one minute while inserted in a cylindrical aperture specified for the light source, and subjected to an air pressure of 70kPa (10 P.S.I.G.) on the glass capsule side.
(d) The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is submitted in compliance with section VII of appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, or section IV of appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, shall be made with the direct current test voltage regulated within one quarter of one percent. The test voltage shall be 12.8v. The measurement of luminous flux shall be in accordance with the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, LM 45; IES Approved Method for Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service Incandescent Filament Lamps (April 1980). The filament of a replaceable light source shall be seasoned before such measurement. The white covers are used to eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumens measurement that will occur should the reflectance of the light source base and electrical connector be low.
(1) For a light source with a resistive element type filament, seasoning of the light source shall be made in accordance with section 2.9 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85 Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Headlamps. The measurement of luminous flux shall be made with the black cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light sources, and on any other replaceable light source so designed, and shall be made with the electrical conductor and light source base shrouded with an opaque white colored cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for Type HB3 and Type HB4 shall be made with the base covered with the white cover shown in the drawings for Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397.
(2) For a light source using excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, seasoning of the light source system, including any ballast required for its operation, shall be made in accordance with section 4.0 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 FEB93 Discharge Forward Lighting Systems. With the test voltage applied to the ballast input terminals, the measurement of luminous flux shall be made with the black cap installed, if so designed, and shall be made with an opaque white colored cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing.
(e) If a ballast is required for operation, each ballast shall bear the following permanent markings:
(1) Name or logo of ballast manufacturer;
(2) Ballast part number or unique identification;
(3) Part number or other unique identification of the light source for which the ballast is designed;
(4) Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast combination, if the information for the light source has been filed in appendix B of part 564 of this chapter;
(5) A warning that ballast output voltage presents the potential for severe electrical shock that could lead to permanent injury or death;
(6) Ballast output power in watts and output voltage in rms volts AC or DC; and
(7) The symbol ‘DOT’.”
(f) For light sources that use excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, the “rated laboratory life” shall be determined in accordance with sections 4.3 and 4.9 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 FEB93 Forward Discharge Lighting Systems.
(g) After the force deflection test conducted in accordance with S9, the permanent deflection of the glass envelope shall not exceed 0.13 mm in the direction of the applied force.
S7.8Aimability Performance Requirements.
S7.8.1(a) Each headlamp or beam contributor that is not visually/optically aimable in accordance with S7.8.5.3 of this standard shall be equipped with fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references of sufficient detail and accuracy, for determination of an appropriate vehicle plane to be used with the photometric procedures of SAE J1383 APR85 for correct alignment with the photometer axis when being tested for photometric compliance, and to serve for the aiming reference when the headlamp or beam contributor is installed on a motor vehicle. The fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references are protrusions, bubble vials, holes, indentations, ridges, scribed lines, or other readily identifiable marks established and described by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer.
(b) Each motor vehicle manufactured on and after September 1, 1998, shall be equipped with headlamps or beam contributors which have a mark or markings that are visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle to identify the optical axis of the headlamp to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.
(c) Each headlamp that is visually/optically aimable in accordance with S7.8.5.3 of this standard shall be marked in accordance with S7.8.5.3(f).
S7.8.2Except as provided in this paragraph, each headlamp shall be installed on a motor vehicle with a mounting and aiming mechanism that allows aim inspection and adjustment of both vertical and horizontal aim, and is accessible for those purposes without removal of any vehicle parts, except for protective covers removable without the use of tools.
S7.8.2.1(a) When installed on the vehicle, adjustment of one aim axis through its full on-vehicle range shall not cause the aim of the other axis to deviate more than ±0.76 degree.
(b) If the performance specified in paragraph (a) of this section is not achievable, the requirements of S7.8.5.2(b)(3) apply, except that if the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs are not applicable, and the instruction shall be specific to the aiming mechanism installed.
(c) A visually/optically aimable headlamp that has a lower beam shall not have a horizontal adjustment mechanism unless such mechanism meets the requirements of paragraph S7.8.5.2 of this standard.
S7.8.2.2 If the headlamp is aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, it shall:
(a) Allow movement of the headlamp system, when tested in the laboratory, to be not less than the full range of pitch on the vehicle on which the headlamp system is installed and for the horizontal aim range limits of S7.8.4,
(b) Conform with the photometrics applicable to it with the lens at any position relative to the reflector within the range limits as specified in S7.8.2.2(a),
(c) Be exempted from the aim range limits for testing in a laboratory in S7.8.3, and
(d) Be exempted from S7.8.4 if it is visually/optically aimable and has fixed horizontal aim.
S7.8.3When a headlamp system is tested in a laboratory, the range of its vertical aim shall not be less than ±4 degrees from the nominal correct aim position for the intended vehicle application. When installed on a motor vehicle, the range of vertical aim shall be not less than the full range of pitch of the vehicle on which the headlamp system is installed. The installed range of static pitch angle shall as a minimum be determined from unloaded vehicle weight to gross vehicle weight rating, and incorporate pitch angle effects from maximum trailer or trunk loadings, the full range of tire intermix sizes and suspensions recommended and/or installed by the vehicle manufacturer, and the anticipated effects of variable passenger loading. The vertical aim adjustment mechanism shall be continuously adjustable over the full range.
S7.8.4When a headlamp system is tested in a laboratory, the range of its horizontal aim shall be not less that ±2.5 degrees from the nominal correct aim position for the intended vehicle application.
S7.8.5When activated in a steady-burning state, headlamps shall not have any styling ornament or other feature, such as a translucent cover or grill, in front of the lens. Headlamp wipers may be used in front of the lens provided that the headlamp system is designed to conform with all applicable photometric requirements with the wiper stopped in any position in front of the lens. When a headlamp system is installed on a motor vehicle, it shall be aimable with at least one of the following: An externally applied aiming device, as specified in S7.8.5.1; an on-vehicle headlamp aiming device installed by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, as specified in S7.8.5.2; or by visual/optical means, as specified in S7.8.5.3.
S7.8.5.1External aiming. Each headlamp system that is capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices shall be mechanically aimable using the equipment specified in SAE Standard J602 OCT80 Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units without the removal of any ornamental trim rings, covers, wipers or other vehicle parts.
(a) The aim of the headlamps in each headlamp system, other than a headlamp system designed to conform to section S7.3, that is designed to use such external aiming devices, shall not deviate more than 0.30 degree when a downward torque of 20 lb.-in. (2.25 N-m) is removed from the headlamp in its design operating position. The downward force used to create the torque shall be applied parallel to the aiming reference plane, through the aiming pads, and displaced forward using a lever arm such that the force is applied on an axis that is perpendicular to the aiming reference plane and originates at the center of the aiming pad pattern (see Figures 4-1 and 4-3). For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group 1, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane shall be not less than 6.625 in. (168.3 mm) plus the distance from the aiming reference plane to the secondary plane, if used (see section S7.8.5.1(d)(1)). For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group II, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane shall be not less than 6.609 in. (167.9 mm) plus the distance from the aiming reference plane to the secondary plane, if used. For headlamps using the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates for the 146 mm diameter, the 176 mm diameter, and the 92×150 mm sealed beam units, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming plane shall, respectively, be not less than 6.984 in. (177.4 mm), 6.937 in. (176.2 mm), and 7.625 in (193.7 mm). Each headlamp system that is designed to conform to paragraph S7.5 and that is designed to use such external aiming devices, and which is manufactured on or after September 1, 1990, shall comply with this paragraph.
(b) When a headlamp is installed on a motor vehicle, its aim in any direction shall not change by more than 0.30 degree nor shall the lamp recede more than 0.1 in. (2.5 mm.) after being subjected to an inward force of 50 pounds (222 newtons) applied evenly to the lens parallel to the mechanical axis.
(c) Each headlamp system mounting and aiming mechanism shall be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing for a period of 50 hours, consisting of two successive 25-hour periods of 24 hours exposure followed by 1 hour of drying. At the end of 50 hours, the headlamp system shall be capable of meeting any of the applicable requirements of paragraph S7.8.
(d) Each headlamp system which is designed to use the Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates with adjustable legs for the 100 × 165 mm unit and the 142 × 200 mm unit, and which has adjustable length legs, shall meet the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) below.
(1) The lens shall have three aiming pads which meet the requirements of Figure 4, Dimensional Specifications for Location of Aiming Pads on Replaceable Bulb Headlamp Units. The aiming pads need not be centered at the geometric center of the lens, or on the optical axis. Except as provided in subparagraph (2), a whole number, which represents the distance in tenths of an inch (i.e. 0.3 inch=3) from the aiming reference plane to the respective aiming pads which are not in contact with that plane, shall be inscribed adjacent to each respective aiming pad on the lens. The height of these numbers shall be not less than .157 inch (4 mm). If there is interference between the plane and the area of the lens between the aiming pads, the whole number represents the distance to a secondary plane. The secondary plane shall be located parallel to the aiming reference plane and as close to the lens as possible without causing interference.
(2) If the most forward aiming pad is the lower inboard aiming pad, then the dimensions may be placed anywhere on the lens. The dimension for the outboard aiming pad (Dimension F in Figure 4) shall be followed by the letter “H” and the dimension for the center aiming pad shall be followed by the letter “V.” The dimensions shall be expressed in tenths of an inch.
(e) Each headlamp may be designed to use the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plate for the 100×165 mm unit, the 142×200 mm unit, the 146 mm diameter unit, or the 178 mm diameter unit of SAE J602, or the 92×150 mm Type F unit, and incorporate lens-mounted aiming pads as specified for those units in Figures 10, 13, 5, or 7 respectively in SAE J1383 APR85, or Figure 11 of this standard for the Type F unit. If so designed, no additional lens marking is necessary to designate the type of plate or dimensions.
S7.8.5.2On-vehicle aiming. Each headlamp system that is capable of being aimed by equipment installed on the vehicle shall include a Vehicle Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) that conforms to the following requirements:
(a) Aim. The VHAD shall provide for headlamp aim inspection and adjustment in both the vertical and horizontal axes.
(1) Vertical aim. The VHAD shall include the necessary references and scales relative to the horizontal plane to assure correct vertical aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An off-vehicle measurement of the angle of the plane of the ground is permitted. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “O” position representing angular changes in the axis in the upward and downward directions shall be provided.
(i) Each graduation shall represent a change in the vertical position of the mechanical axis not larger than 0.19 degree (1 in. at 25 ft.) to provide for variations in aim at least 1.2 degrees above and below the horizontal, and have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1 degree.
(ii) The VHAD shall be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the upward and downward directions.
(iii) Each graduation shall indicate a linear movement of the scale indicator of not less than 0.05 in. (1.27 mm) if a direct reading analog indicator is used. If a remote reading indicator is provided, it shall represent the actual aim movement in a clear, understandable format.
(iv) The vertical indicator shall perform through a minimum range of ±1.2 degrees.
(v) Means shall be provided in the VHAD for compensating for deviations in floor slope less than 1.2 degrees from the horizontal that would affect the correct positioning of the headlamp for vertical aim.
(vi) The graduations shall be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and shall permit aim adjustment to within 0.19 degree (1 in. at 25 ft.).
(2) Horizontal aim. The VHAD shall include references and scales relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle necessary to assure correct horizontal aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An “O” mark shall be used to indicate alignment of the headlamps relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “O” position representing equal angular changes in the axis relative to the vehicle axis shall be provided.
(i) Each graduation shall represent a change in the horizontal position of the mechanical axis not greater than 0.38 degree (2 in. at 25 ft.) to provide for variations in aim at least 0.76 degree (4 in. at 25 ft.) to the left and right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and shall have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1 degree.
(ii) The VHAD shall be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the left and right directions.
(iii) The graduations shall be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and shall permit aim adjustment to within 0.38 degree (2 in. at 25 ft.).
(iv) The horizontal indicator shall perform through a minimum range of ±0.76 degree (4 in. at 25 ft.); however, the indicator itself shall be capable of recalibration over a movement of ±2.5 degrees relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle to accommodate any adjustment necessary for recalibrating the indicator after vehicle repair from accident damage.
(b) Aiming instructions.
(1) The instructions for properly aiming the headlighting system using the VHAD shall be provided on a label permanently affixed to the vehicle adjacent to the VHAD, or in the vehicle operator's manual. The instructions shall advise that the headlighting system is properly aimed if the appropriate vertical plane (as defined by the vehicle manufacturer) is perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and a horizontal plane when the vehicle is on a horizontal surface, and the VHAD is set at “O” vertical and “O” horizontal.
(2) Should a remote indicator or a remote indicator and adjuster be provided, the instructions shall be placed in the operator's manual, and may also be placed on a label adjacent to the VHAD.
(3) Should the mechanism not meet the requirements of S7.8.2.1, on each motor vehicle manufactured on or after September 1, 1990, a cautionary label shall be placed adjacent to the mechanism stating the caution and including either the reason for the caution or the corrective action necessary. Each such label shall also refer the reader to the vehicle operator's manual for complete instructions. Each such vehicle shall be equipped with an operator's manual containing the complete instructions appropriate for the mechanism installed.
(c) Each headlamp equipped with a VHAD that is manufactured for use on motor vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998, shall be manufactured with its calibration permanently fixed by its manufacturer. Calibration in this case means the process of accurately aligning the geometry of the VHAD devices with the beam pattern for the purposes of compliance with the standard.
(d) Testing the VHAD.
(1) The headlamp assembly (the headlamp(s), and the VHAD(s)) shall be mounted on a level goniometer, aligned to a photometer located not less than 60 ft. (18.3 m) from the VHAD assembly. The assembly shall be mechanically aimed using the VHAD in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions as provided with the vehicle on which the VHAD is intended to be used. A 1/4 degree reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point to allow for variations in readings between laboratories. The test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures of paragraphs 4.1 and 4.1.4 of SAE J1383 APR85. Under these conditions the mounted headlamp assembly shall be designed to conform to the photometric requirements appropriate for the headlamp system under test.
(2) When tested in accordance with subsection (1) of this section, with any replacement headlamp unit(s) or light sources intended for use in the system under test, the VHAD and headlamp system shall be designed to conform to the photometric performance requirements appropriate for the system under test.
(3) The same VHAD and associated headlamp(s) (or headlamp assembly) shall be rigidly mounted in a headlamp test fixture and comply with the following laboratory test procedures:
(i) Each graduation on the horizontal and vertical aim scales shall be checked and any variation from the correct aim shall not exceed ±0.2 degree, and ±0.1 degree respectively.
(ii) With the aiming plane horizontal and vertical and with the scale on the device set at 0, the aimer shall be adjusted before each of the following tests to assure that the indicators are centered at 0.
(A) The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly shall be stabilized at 20 ±5 degrees F (−7 ±3 degrees C) in a circulating air environmental test chamber. After a period of 30 minutes, when measured at that soak temperature, the variation from correct horizontal of vertical aim shall not exceed ±0.2 degree, and ±0.1 degree, respectively.
(B) The VHAD, and the headlamp assembly with its highest wattage filament (or combination of filaments intended to be used simultaneously) energized at its design voltage, shall then be stabilized at 100 ±5 degrees F (38 ±3 degrees C) in a circulating air environmental test chamber. After a period of 30 minutes, when measured at that soak temperature, the variation from correct horizontal and vertical aim shall not exceed ±0.2 degree, and ±0.1 degree, respectively.
(C) The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly shall then be placed in a circulating air environmental test chamber and exposed to a temperature of 140 ±5 degrees F (60 ±3 degrees C) for 24 hours, followed by a temperature of −40 ±5 degrees F (−40 ±3 degrees C) for 24 hours and then permitted to return to room temperature, after which the VHAD and headlamp assembly shall show no damage which would impair its ability to perform as specified herein. The variation from correct horizontal or vertical aim shall not exceed ±0.2 degree, and ±0.1 degree, respectively.
(D) The VHAD and headlamp assembly shall then be tested according to the corrosion test procedure of paragraph S7.8.5.1(c).
(E) The VHAD and headlamp assembly shall then be tested for photometric compliance as specified in paragraphs S7.8.5.2(c)(1) and (2).
S7.8.5.3Visual/optical aiming. Each visually/optically aimable headlamp shall be designed to conform to the following requirements:
(a) Vertical aim, lower beam. Each lower beam headlamp shall have a cutoff in the beam pattern. It may be either on the left side or the right side of the optical axis, but once chosen for a particular headlamp system's design, the side chosen for the cutoff shall not be changed for any headlamps intended to be used as replacements for those system's headlamps.
(1) Vertical position of cutoff. The headlamp shall be aimed vertically so that the cutoff is on the left side, at 0.4 degree down from the H-H line, or on the right side, at the H-H line.
(2) Vertical gradient. The gradient of the cutoff measured at either 2.5 degrees L or 2.0 degrees R shall be not less than 0.13 based on the procedure of S7.8.5.3, paragraph (a)(5).
(3) Horizontal position of the cutoff. The width shall be not less than two degrees, with not less than two degrees of its actual width centered at either 2.5 degrees L, or 2.0 degrees R.
(4) Maximum inclination of cutoff. The vertical location of the highest gradient at the ends of the minimum width shall be within ±0.2 degree of the vertical location of the maximum gradient measured at the appropriate vertical line (at either 2.5 degrees L for a left side cutoff, or 2.0 degrees R for a right side cutoff.)
(5) Measuring the cutoff parameter.
(i) The headlamp shall be mounted on a fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed shall be attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp shall be energized at the specified test voltage.
(ii) The headlamp beam pattern shall be aimed with the cutoff at the H-H axis. There shall be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD shall be adjusted to zero.
(iii) A vertical scan of the beam pattern shall be conducted for a headlamp with a left side gradient by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.5 degrees L and scanning from 1.5 degrees U to 1.5 degrees D. For a headlamp with a right side gradient, a vertical scan of the beam pattern shall be conducted by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.0 degrees R and scanning from 1.5 degrees U to 1.5 degrees D.
(iv) Determine the maximum gradient within the range of the scan by using the formula: G = log E(a)-log E(a 0.1), where “G” is the gradient, “E” is illumination and “a” is vertical angular position. The maximum value of the gradient “G” determines the vertical angular location of the cutoff. Perform vertical scans at 1.0 degree L and R of the measurement point of the maximum gradient to determine the inclination.
(b) Horizontal aim, lower beam. There shall be no adjustment of horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has a VHAD, it shall be set to zero.
(c) Vertical aim, upper beam.
(1) If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam shall not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of paragraphs S7.8.5.3(a) and (b) used for the lower beam.
(2) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam shall be adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is located on the H-H axis.
(d) Horizontal aim, upper beam.
(1) If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the horizontal aim of the upper beam shall not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of paragraphs S7.8.5.3 (a) and (b) used for the lower beam.
(2) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with the lower beam and has fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD, then the headlamp shall be mounted on a fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed shall be attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp shall be energized at 12.8 ±0.20 mV. There shall be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD shall be adjusted to zero.
(3) If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, and it does not have a VHAD, the horizontal aim of the upper beam shall be adjusted so that the maximium beam intensity is located on the V-V axis.
(e) Photometric Requirements and Measurement.
(1) Instead of being designed to conform to the photometric requirements of Figures 15-1, 17-1, 27-1 or 28-1, a visually/optically aimable headlamp shall be designed to conform to the requirements of Figures 15-2, 17-2, 27-2 or 28-2 when tested in accordance with paragraph (2) and SAE J575 DEC88, with the distance from the photometer to the headlamp no less than 18.3 m.
(2) If the lower beam has a left side cutoff, reaim the headlamp vertically to place the maximum gradient found in paragraph S7.8.5.3 at 0.4 degree below the H-H line. For a headlamp with a lower beam right side cutoff, place the maximum gradient found in paragraph S7.8.5.3 at the H-H line. For an upper beam, the headlamp would already be aimed at the end of the procedure found in paragraph S7.8.5.3. A 0.25 degree reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
(f) Marking—
(1) Headlamp optical axis mark. There shall be a mark or markings identifying the optical axis of the headlamp visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle, to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment with the headlamp being aimed. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.
(2) Visual/optical aimability identification marks.
(i) The lens of a lower beam headlamp shall be marked “VOL” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the left side of the lower beam pattern.
(ii) The lens of a lower beam headlamp shall be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the right side of the lower beam pattern.
(iii) The lens of each sealed beam or integral beam headlamp shall be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is of a type that was manufactured before May 1, 1997, and if such headlamp type has been redesigned since then to be visually/optically aimable.
(iv) The lens of a headlamp that is solely an upper beam headlamp and intended to be visually/optically aimed using the upper beam shall be marked “VO”.
(v) Each letter used in marking according to this paragraph shall be not less than 3 mm. high.
S7.9Motorcycles. Each motorcycle shall be equipped with a headlighting system designed to conform to the following requirements.
S7.9.1A motorcycle manufactured before September 1, 2000, may be equipped with—
(a) A headlighting system designed to conform to SAE Standard J584 Motorcycle Headlamps April 1964, or to SAE Standard J584 April 1964 with the photometric specifications of Figure 32 and the upper beam aimability specifications of paragraph S7.9.3; or
(b) One half of any headlighting system specified in S7.1 through S7.6 which provides both a full upper beam and full lower beam. Where more than one lamp must be used, the lamps shall be mounted vertically, with the lower beam as high as practicable.
S7.9.2A motorcycle manufactured on or after September 1, 2000, shall be equipped with—
(a) A headlighting system designed to conform to SAE Standard J584 Motorcycle Headlamps April 1964 with the photometric specifications of Figure 32 and the upper beam aimability specifications of paragraph S7.9.3; or
(b) A headlighting system that conforms to S7.9.1(b).
S7.9.3The upper beam of a multiple beam headlamp designed to conform to the photometric requirements of Figure 32 shall be aimed photoelectrically during the photometric test in the manner prescribed in SAE Standard J584 OCT93 Motorcycle Headlamps.
S7.9.4Motorcycle headlamp modulation system.
S7.9.4.1A headlamp on a motorcycle may be wired to modulate either the upper beam or the lower beam from its maximum intensity to a lesser intensity, provided that:
(a) The rate of modulation shall be 240 ±40 cycles per minute.
(b) The headlamp shall be operated at maximum power for 50 to 70 percent of each cycle.
(c) The lowest intensity at any test point shall be not less than 17 percent of the maximum intensity measured at the same point.
(d) The modulator switch shall be wired in the power lead of the beam filament being modulated and not in the ground side of the circuit.
(e) Means shall be provided so that both the lower beam and upper beam remain operable in the event of a modulator failure.
(f) The system shall include a sensor mounted with the axis of its sensing element perpendicular to a horizontal plane. Headlamp modulation shall cease whenever the level of light emitted by a tungsten filament light operating at 3000° Kelvin is either less than 270 lux (25 foot-candles) of direct light for upward pointing sensors or less than 60 lux (5.6 foot-candles) of reflected light for downward pointing sensors. The light is measured by a silicon cell type light meter that is located at the sensor and pointing in the same direction as the sensor. A Kodak Gray Card (Kodak R-27) is placed at ground level to simulate the road surface in testing downward pointing sensors.
(g) When tested in accordance with the test profile shown in Figure 9, the voltage drop across the modulator when the lamp is on at all test conditions for 12 volt systems and 6 volt systems shall not be greater than .45 volt. The modulator shall meet all the provisions of the standard after completion of the test profile shown in Figure 9.
(h) Means shall be provided so that both the lower and upper beam function at design voltage when the headlamp control switch is in either the lower or upper beam position when the modulator is off.
S7.9.4.2(a)Each motorcycle headlamp modulator not intended as original equipment, or its container, shall be labeled with the maximum wattage, and the minimum wattage appropriate for its use. Additionally, each such modulator shall comply with S7.9.4.1 (a) through (g) when connected to a headlamp of the maximum rated power and a headlamp of the minimum rated power, and shall provide means so that the modulated beam functions at design voltage when the modulator is off.
(b) Instructions, with a diagram, shall be provided for mounting the light sensor including location on the motorcycle, distance above the road surface, and orientation with respect to the light.
S7.9.5Each replaceable bulb headlamp that is designed to meet the photometric requirements of paragraph S7.9.1(a) or paragraph S7.9.2(a) and that is equipped with a light source other than a replaceable light source meeting the requirements of paragraph S7.7, shall have the word “motorcycle” permanently marked on the lens in characters not less than 0.114 in. (3 mm) in height.
S7.9.6A headlamp system shall be installed on a motorcycle in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph.
S7.9.6.1The headlamp system shall be located on the front of the motorcycle.
S7.9.6.2(a) If the system consists of a single headlamp, it shall be mounted on the vertical centerline of the motorcycle. If the headlamp contains more than one light source, each light source shall be mounted on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height. If the light sources are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of the effective projected luminous lens area in front of the light sources shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
(b) If the system consists of two headlamps, each of which provides both an upper and lower beam, the headlamps shall be mounted either at the same height and symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline or mounted on the vertical centerline. If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
(c) If the system consists of two headlamps, one of which provides an upper beam and one of which provides the lower beam, the headlamps shall be located on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height. If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas shall not be greater than 200 mm (8 in.).
S8Tests and Procedures for Integral Beam and Replaceable Bulb Headlighting Systems. When tested in accordance with the following procedures, each integral beam headlamp shall meet the requirements of paragraph S7.4, and each replaceable bulb headlamp shall meet the requirements of paragraph S7.5. Ballasts required to operate specific gas mixture light sources shall be included in the tests specified in paragraphs S8.1 and S8.4 though S8.7.
S8.1Photometry. Each headlamp to which paragraph S8 applies shall be tested according to paragraphs 4.1 and 4.1.4 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85 for meeting the applicable photometric requirements, after each test specified in paragraphs S8.2, S8.3, S8.5, S8.6.1, S8.6.2, S8.7, and S8.10.1 and S8.10.2, if applicable. A 1/4 degree reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S8.2Abrasion. (a) A headlamp shall be mounted in the abrasion test fixture in the manner indicated in Figure 5 with the lens facing upward.
(b) An abrading pad meeting the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(4) of this section shall be cycled back and forth (1 cycle) for 11 cycles at 4 ±0.8 in. (10 cm ±2 cm) per second over at least 80 percent of the lens surface, including all the area between the upper and lower aiming pads, but not including lens trim rings and edges.
(c)
(1) The abrading pad shall be not less than 1.0 ±.04 in. (2.5 cm ±.1 cm) wide, constructed of 0000 steel wool, and rubber cemented to a rigid base shaped to the same vertical contour of the lens. The “grain” of the pad shall be perpendicular to the direction of motion.
(2) The abrading pad support shall be equal in size to the pad and the center of the support surface shall be within ±.08 in. ( ±2 mm) of parallel to the lens surface.
(3) The density of the abrading pad shall be such that when the pad is mounted to its support and is resting unweighted on the lens, the base of the pad shall be no closer than .125 in. (3.2 mm) to the lens at its closest point.
(4) When mounted on its support and resting on the lens of the test headlamp, the abrading pad shall then be weighted such that a pad pressure of 2.0 ±.15 psi (14 ±1 KPa) exists at the center and perpendicular to the face of the lens.
(d) A pivot shall be used if it is required to follow the contour of the lens.
(e) Unused steel wool shall be used for each test.
S8.3Chemical resistance. (a) The entire exterior lens surface of the headlamp in the headlamp test fixture and top surface of the lens-reflector joint shall be wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of a test fluid as listed in paragraph (b). The lamp shall be wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid.
(b) The test fluids are:
(1) ASTM Reference Fuel C, which is composed of Isooctane 50% volume and Toluene 50% volume. Isooctane must conform to A2.7 in Annex 2 of the Motor Fuels Section of the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, and Toluene must conform to ASTM specification D362-84, Standard Specification for Industrial Grade Toluene. ASTM Reference Fuel C must be used as specified in:
(i) Paragraph A2.3.2 and A2.3.3 of Annex 2 to Motor Fuels, Section 1 in the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards; and
(ii) OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.106Handling Storage and Use of Flammable Combustible Liquids.
(2) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits).
(3) Power steering fluid (as specified by the vehicle manufacturer for use in the motor vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be installed).
(4) Windshield washer fluid consisting of 0.5% monoethanolamine with the remainder 50% concentration of methanol/distilled water by volume.
(5) Antifreeze (50% concentration of ethylene glycol/distilled water by volume).
(c) After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it shall be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73 °F ±7° (23 °C ±4°) and a relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp shall be wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.
S8.4Corrosion. (a) A connector test shall be performed on each filament circuit prior to the test in subparagraph (b) according to Figure 1 and SAE Standard J580 DEC86. The power source shall be set to provide 12. 8 volts and the resistance shall be set to produce 10 amperes.
(b) The headlamp with connector attached to the terminals, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, shall be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, for 240 hours, consisting of ten successive 24-hour periods. During each period, the headlamp shall be mounted in the middle of the chamber and exposed for 23 hours to the salt spray. The spray shall not be activated during the 24th hour. The bulb shall be removed from the headlamp and from the test chamber during the one hour of salt spray deactivation and reinserted for the start of the next test period, at the end of the first and last three 23-hour periods of salt spray exposure, and at the end of any two of the fourth through seventh 23-hour periods of salt-spray exposure. The test chamber shall be closed at all times except for a maximum of 2 minutes which is allowed for removal or replacement of a bulb during each period. After the ten periods, the lens reflector unit without the bulb shall be immersed in deionized water for 5 minutes, then secured and allowed to dry by natural convection only.
(c) Using the voltage, resistance and pretest set up of paragraph (a) the current in each filament circuit shall be measured after the test conducted in paragraph (b).
S8.5Dust. The headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, shall be positioned within a cubical box, with inside measurements of 35.4 in. (900 mm) on each side or larger if required for adequate wall clearance, i.e., a distance of at least 5.9 in. (150 mm) between the headlamp and any wall of the box. The box shall contain 9.9 lb. (4.5 kg) of fine powdered cement which conforms to the ASTM C150-77 specification for Portland Cement. Every 15 minutes, the cement shall be agitated by compressed air or fan blower(s) by projecting blasts of air for a two-second period in a downward direction so that the cement is diffused as uniformly as possible throughout the entire box. This test shall be continued for five hours after which the exterior surfaces of the headlamp shall be wiped clean.
S8.6Temperature and internal heat test. A headlamp with one or more replaceable light sources shall be tested according to paragraphs S8.6.1 and S8.6.2. Tests shall be made with all filaments lighted at design voltage that are intended to be used simultaneously in the headlamp and which in combination draw the highest total wattage. These include but are not limited to filaments used for turn signal lamps, fog lamps, parking lamps, and headlamp lower beams lighted with upper beams when the wiring harness is so connected on the vehicle. If a turn signal is included in the headlamp assembly, it shall be operated at 90 flashes a minute with a 75 ±2% current “on time.” If the lamp produces both the upper and lower beam, it shall be tested in both the upper beam mode and the lower beam mode under the conditions above described, except for a headlamp with a single Types HB1 or HB2 light source.
S8.6.1Temperature cycle. A headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, shall be subjected to 10 complete consecutive cycles having the thermal cycle profile shown in Figure 6. During the hot cycle, the lamp, shall be energized commencing at point “A” of Figure 6 and de-energized at point “B.” Separate or single test chambers may be used to generate the environment of Figure 6. All drain holes, breathing devices or other openings or vents of the headlamps shall be in their normal operating positions.
S8.6.2Internal Heat Test. (a) The headlamp lens surface that would normally be exposed to road dirt shall be uniformly sprayed with any appropriate mixture of dust and water or other materials to reduce the photometric output at the H-V test point of the upper beam (or the 1/2D-11/2R test point of the lower beam as appropriate) to 25 ±2% of the output originally measured in the photometric test conducted pursuant to paragraphs S7.4(i), or S7.5 (a) through (e), as applicable. A headlamp with a single Types HB1 or HB2 light source shall be tested on the upper beam only. Such reduction shall be determined under the same conditions as that of the original photometric measurement.
(b) After the photometric output of the lamp has been reduced as specified in paragraph (a), the lamp and its mounting hardware shall be mounted in an environmental chamber in a manner similar to that indicated in Figure 7 “Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.” The headlamp shall be soaked for one hour at a temperature of 95 7 −0 degrees F (35 4 −0 degrees C) and then the lamp shall be energized according to paragraph S8.6 for one hour in a still air condition, allowing the temperature to rise from the soak temperature.
(c) The lamp shall be returned to a room ambient temperature of 73 7 -−0 degrees F (23 4 −0 degrees C) and a relative humidity of 30 ±10% and allowed to stabilize to the room ambient temperature. The lens shall then be cleaned.
S8.7 Humidity. (a) The test fixture consists of a horizontal steel plate to which three threaded steel or aluminum rods of 1/2 inch diameter are screwed vertically behind the headlamp. The headlamp assembly is clamped to the vertical rods, which are behind the headlamp. All attachments to the headlamp assembly are made behind the lens and vents or openings, and are not within 2 inches laterally of a vent inlet or outlet.
(b) The mounted headlamp assembly is oriented in its design operating position, and is placed in a controlled environment at a temperature of 100 7−0 degrees F (38 4−0 degrees C) with a relative humidity of not less than 90 percent. All drain holes, breathing devices, and other openings are in their normal operation positions for all phases of the humidity test. The headlamp shall be subjected to 24 consecutive 3-hour test cycles. In each cycle, it shall be energized for 1 hour at design voltage with the highest combination of filament wattages that are intended to be used, and then de-energized for 2 hours. If the headlamp incorporates a turn signal, it shall flash at 90 flashes per minute with a 75±2 percent current “on-time.”
(c) Within 3 minutes after the completion of the 24th cycle, the air flow test will begin. The following shall occur: the mounted assembly shall be removed, placed in an insulating box and covered with foam material so that there is no visible air space around the assembly; the box shall be closed, taken to the air flow test chamber, and placed within it. Inside the chamber, the assembly with respect to the air flow, shall be oriented in its design operating position. The assembly is positioned in the chamber so that the center of the lens is in the center of the opening of the air flow entry duct during the test. The headlamp has at least 3 inches clearance on all sides, and at least 4 inches to the entry and exit ducts at the closest points. If vent tubes are used which extend below the lamp body, the 3 inches are measured from the bottom of the vent tube or its protection. The temperature of the chamber is 73 7−0 degrees F (23 4−0 degrees C) with a relative humidity of 30 10−0 percent. The headlamp is not energized.
(d) Before the test specified in paragraph (e) of this section, the uniformity of the air flow in the empty test chamber at a plane 4 inches downstream of the air entry duct shall have been measured over a 4-inch square grid. The uniformity of air flow at each grid point is ±10 percent of the average air flow specified in paragraph (e) of this section.
(e) The mounted assembly in the chamber shall be exposed, for one hour, to an average air flow of 330 0−30 ft/min. as measured with an air velocity measuring probe having an accuracy of ±3 percent in the 330 ft/min range. The average air flow is the average of the velocity recorded at six points around the perimeter of the lens. The six points are determined as follows: At the center of the lens, construct a horizontal plane. The first two points are located in the plane, 1 inch outward from the intersection of the plane and each edge of the lens. Then, trisect the distance between these two points and construct longitudinal vertical planes at the two intermediate locations formed by the trisection. The four remaining points are located in the vertical planes, one inch above the top edge of the lens, and one inch below the bottom edge of the lens.
(f) After one hour, the headlamp is removed and inspected for moisture.
S8.8 Vibration. A vibration test shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures of SAE Standard J575e Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components August 1970, and the following: the table on the adapter plate shall be of sufficient size to completely contain the test fixture base with no overhang. The vibration shall be applied in the vertical axis of the headlamp system as mounted on the vehicle. The filament shall not be energized.
S8.9 Sealing. An unfixtured headlamp in its design mounting position shall be placed in water at a temperature of 176 ±5 degrees F (60 ±3 degrees C) for one hour. The headlamp shall be energized in its highest wattage mode, with the test voltage at 12.8 ±0.1 V. during immersion. The lamp shall then be de-energized and immediately submerged in its design mounting position into water at 32 5 −0 degrees F (0 3 −0 degrees C). The water shall be in a pressurized vessel, and the pressure shall be increased to 10 psi (70 kPa), upon placing the lamp in the water. The lamp shall remain in the pressurized vessel for a period of thirty minutes. This entire procedure shall be repeated for four cycles. Then the lamp shall be inspected for any signs of water on its interior. During the high temperature portion of the cycles, the lamp shall be observed for signs of air escaping from its interior. If any water occurs on the interior or air escapes, the lamp is not a sealed lamp.
S8.10Chemical and corrosion resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps.
S8.10.1Chemical resistance. (a) With the headlamp in the headlamp test fixture and the lens removed, the entire surface of the reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source shall be wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of one of the test fluids listed in paragraph (b). The lamp shall be wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid.
(b) The test fluids are:
(1) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits);
(2) Mineral spirits; or
(3) Fluids other than water contained in the manufacturer's instructions for cleaning the reflector.
(c) After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it shall be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73 °F ±7° (23 °C ±4°) and a relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp shall be wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.
S8.10.2Corrosion. (a) The headlamp with the lens removed, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, shall be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, for 24 hours, while mounted in the middle of the chamber.
(b) Afterwards, the headlamp shall be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73 °F ±7° (23 °C ±4°) and a relative humidity of 30 ±10 percent and allowed to dry by natural convection only. At the end of the 48-hour period, the reflector shall be cleaned according to the instructions supplied with the headlamp manufacturer's replacement lens, and inspected. The lens and seal shall then be attached according to these instructions and the headlamp tested for photometric performance.
S9. Deflection test for replaceable light sources. With the light source rigidly mounted in a fixture in a manner indicated in Figure 8, a force 4.0 ±0.1 pounds (17.8 ±0.4N) is applied at a distance “A” from the reference plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the glass capsule and parallel to the smallest dimension of the pressed glass capsule seal. The force shall be applied (using a rod with a hard rubber tip with a minimum spherical radius of .039 in (1 mm)) radially to the surface of the glass capsule in four locations in a plane parallel to the reference plane and spaced at a distance “A” from that plane. These force applications shall be spaced 90 degrees apart starting at the point perpendicular to the smallest dimension of the pressed seal of the glass capsule. The bulb deflection shall be measured at the glass capsule surface at 180 degrees opposite to the force application. Distance “A” for a replaceable light source other than an HB Type shall be the dimension provided in accordance with appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, section I.A.1 if the light source has a lower beam filament, or as specified in section I.B.1 if the light source has only an upper beam filament.
S10 Simultaneous Aim Photometry Tests—(a) Type F Headlamp Systems. The assembly shall be located on a goniometer placed not less than 60 feet (18.3m) from the photometer. The LF unit shall be aimed mechanically by centering the unit on the photometer axis and by aligning the aiming plane of the lens perpendicular to the photometer axis. Then the assembly shall be moved in a plane parallel to the established aiming plane of the LF headlamp until the UF headlamp is centered on the photometer axis. Photometry measurements of the UF photometry unit shall be completed using the aiming plane so established, and the procedures of section 4.1 and 4.1.4 Standard J1383 APR85, and Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. A reaim tolerance of ±1/4 degree is permitted in any direction at any test point.
(b) Integral Beam Headlamp Systems. The assembly used for simultaneously aiming more than one integral beam headlamp shall be placed on a test fixture on a goniometer located not less than 60 feet (18.3 m.) from the photometer. The assembly shall be aimed by centering the geometric center of the lower beam lens(es) on the photometer axis and by aligning the photometer axis to be perpendicular to the aiming reference plane or appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer of any lower beam contributor. Photometric compliance of the lower beam shall be determined with all lower beam contributors illuminated and in accordance with sections 4.1 and 4.1.6 of SAE Standard J1383 APR85, and Figure 15-1 or Figure 15-2. The assembly shall then be moved in a plane parallel to the established aiming plane of the lower beam until the assembly is located with the geometric center of the upper lens(es) on the photometer axis. Photometric compliance for upper beam shall now be determined using the figure and procedure specified for the lower beam. During photometric testing, a 1/4 degree reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S11. Photometric Test. A lamp that is wired in accordance with paragraph S5.5.11 of this standard, shall be tested for compliance with S5.5.11(a)(1) in accordance with the test method specified for photometric testing in SAE Standard J575 DEC88 when a test voltage of 12.8V ±20 mV is applied to the input terminals of the lamp switch module or voltage-reducing equipment, whichever is closer to the electrical source on the vehicle. The test distance from the lamp to the photometer shall be not less than 18.3 m, if the lamp is optically combined with a headlamp, or is a separate lamp, and not less than 3 m, if the lamp is optically combined with a lamp, other than a headlamp, that is required by this standard.
S12. Headlamp Concealment Devices.
S12.1While the headlamp is illuminated, its fully opened headlamp concealment device shall remain fully opened should any loss of power to or within the headlamp concealment device occur.
S12.2Whenever any malfunction occurs in a component that controls or conducts power for the actuation of the concealment device, each closed headlamp concealment device shall be capable of being fully opened by a means not requiring the use of any tools. Thereafter, the headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened until intentionally closed.
S12.3Except for malfunctions covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device shall be capable of being fully opened and the headlamps illuminated by actuation of a single switch, lever, or similar mechanism, including a mechanism that is automatically actuated by a change in ambient light conditions.
S12.4Each headlamp concealment device shall be installed so that the headlamp may be mounted, aimed, and adjusted without removing any component of the device, other than components of the headlamp assembly.
S12.5Except for cases of malfunction covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device shall, within an ambient temperature range of −20 °F. to 120 °F., be capable of being fully opened in not more than 3 seconds after the actuation of a driver-operated control.
S12.6 As an alternative to complying with the requirements of S12.1 through S12.5, a vehicle with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming in accordance with paragraph S7 may meet the requirements for Concealable lamps in paragraph 5.14 of the following version of the Economic Commission for Europe Regulation 48 “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles With Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices”: E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/Corr.2, 26 February 1996 (page 17), in the English language version. A copy of paragraph 5.14 may be reviewed at the DOT Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, Room PL-01, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, D.C. 20590-0001. Copies of E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/Corr.2, 26 February 1996 may be obtained from the ECE internet site:
www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html or by writing to:
United Nations, Conference Services Division, Distribution and Sales Section, Office C.115-1, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland.
S12.7Manufacturers of vehicles with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming shall elect to certify to S12.1 through S12.5 or to S12.6 prior to, or at the time of certification of the vehicle, pursuant to 49 CFR part 567. The selection is irrevocable.
Figures and Tables to § 571.108
Figure 1a—Required Percentages of Minimum Candlepower of Figure 1b
Test points (deg) Turn signal Stop Parking Tail
Note—Minimum design candlepower requirements are determined by multiplying the percentages given in this Figure by the minimum allowable candlepower values in Figure 1b. The resulting values shall be truncated after one digit to the right of the decimal point.
10U, 10D 5L, 5R 20 20 20 20
5U, 5D 20L, 20R 12.5 12.5 10 15
10L, 10R 37.5 37.5 20 40
V 87.5 87.5 70 90
H 10L, 10R 50 50 35 40
5L, 5R 100 100 90 100
V 100 100 100 100
Figure 1b—Minimum and Maximum Allowable Candlepower Values
Lamp Lighted sections
1 2 3
1 Maximum at H or above.
2 The maximum candlepower value of 125 applies to all test points at H or above. The maximum allowable candlepower value below H is 250.
3 Values apply when the optical axis (filament center) of the front turn signal is at a spacing less than 4 in. (10 cm.) from the lighted edge of the headlamp unit providing the lower beam, or from the lighted edge of any additional lamp installed as original equipment and which supplements the lower beam.
Stop 80/300 95/360 110/420
Tail 1 2/18 3.5/20 5.0/25
Parking 2 4.0/125
Red turn signal 80/300 95/360 110/420
Yellow turn signal rear 130/750 150/900 175/1050
Yellow turn signal front 200/- 240- 275/-
Yellow turn signal front 3 500/- 600/- 685/-
Figure 1c—Sum of the Percentages of Grouped Minimum Candlepower
Group and test points Turnsignal Stop Parking Tail
110U-5L, 5U-20L, 5D-20L, 10D-5L 65 65 60 70
25U-10L, H-10L, 5D-10L 125 125 75 120
3H-5L, 5U-V, H-V, 5D-V, H-5R 475 475 420 480
45U-10R, H-10R, 5D-10R 125 125 75 120
510U-5R, 5U-20R, 5D-20R, 10D-5R 65 65 60 70
Figure 2—Minimum Luminous Intensity Requirements for Backup Lamps
Group Test point, degrees Total for group, candela (see note 1)
1 When 2 lamps of the same or symmetrically opposite design are used, the reading along the vertical axis and the averages of the readings for the same angles left and right of vertical for 1 lamp shall be used to determine compliance with the requirements. If 2 lamps of differing designs are used, they shall be tested individually and the values added to determine that the combined units meet twice the candela requirements.
When only 1 backup lamp is used on the vehicle, it shall be tested to twice the candela equirements.
1 1 45L-5U, 45L-H, 45L-5D 45
2 1 30L-H, 30L-5D 50
3 10L-10U, 10L-5U, V-10U, V-5U, 10R-10U, 10R-5U 100
4 10L-H, 10L-5D, V-H, V-5D, 10R-H, 10R-5D 360
5 1 30R-H, 30R-5D 50
6 1 45R-5U, 45R-H, 45R-5D 45
Figure 3 [Reserved]
Figure 10—Photometric Requirements for Center High-Mounted Stop Lamps
Individual test points Minimumintensity (candela) Zones (test points within zones, see note 2) Minimum total for zone (canadela)
Note 1: The listed maximum shall not occur over any area larger than that generated by a 1/4 degree radius within a solid cone angle within the rectangle bounded by test points 10U-10L, 10U-10R, 5D-10L, and 5D-10R.
Note 2: The measured values at each test point shall not be less than 60% of the value listed.
1 Maximum intensity (Candela).
10U-10L 8 Zone I (5U-V, H-5L, H-V, H-5R, 5D-V) 125
-V 16
-10R 8
5U-10L 16 Zone II (5U-5R, 5U-10R, H-10R, 5D-10R, 5D-5R) 98
-5L 25
-V 25
-5R 25
-10R 16
5D-10L 16 Zone III (5U-5L, 5U-10L, H-10L, 5D-10L, 5D-5L) 98
-5L 25
-V 25
-5R 25
-10R 16
H-10L 16 Zone IV (10U-10L, 10U-V, 10U-10R) 32
-5L 25
-V 25
-5R 25
-10R 16
See Note 1 1 160
Figure 19—Visibility of Installed Lighting Devices
[Lens area measurement method]
Item Corner points 1 (degrees)
1 In the horizontal (H) direction, a minus (−) indicates an inwards direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and a plus ( ) sign indicates an outward direction.
2 Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted at the front on each side of a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck trailer, or bus, of 2032 mm. or more overall width, only one such area need comply.
3 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.
4 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.
5 Front and Rear Turn Signal Lamps mounted on a motorcycle, the inboard angle shall be 20 degrees.
Front Turn Signal Lamp 2 (15U,−45H 5), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H 5), (15D, 45H).
Rear Turn Signal Lamp (15U,−45H 5), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H 5), (15D, 45H).
Stop Lamp 3 (15U,−45H), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H), (15D, 45H).
Parking Lamp (15U,−45H), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H), (15D, 45H).
Taillamp 4 (15U,−45H), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H), (15D, 45H).
Figure 20—Visibility of Installed Lighting Devices
[Luminous intensity measurement method]
Item Corner points 1 (degrees) Minimum luminous intensity (candela)
1 In the horizontal (H) direction, a minus (−) indicates an inwards direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and a plus ( ) sign indicates an outward direction.
2 −80H° for motorcycles incorporating a single lamp.
3 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.
4 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.
5 Front and Rear Turn Signal Lamps mounted on a motorcycle, the inboard angle shall be 20 degrees.
Front Turn Signal Lamp 2 (15U,−45H 5), (15U, 80H), (15D,−45H 5), (15D, 80H) 0.3
Rear Turn Signal Lamp (15U,−45H 5), (15U, 80H), (15D,−45H 5), (15D, 80H) 0.3
Stop Lamp 3 (15U,−45H), (15U, 45H), (15D,−45H), (15D, 45H) 0.3
Parking Lamp (15U,−45H), (15U, 80H), (15D,−45H), (15D, 80H) 0.05
Taillamp 4 (15U,−45H 2), (15U, 80H), (15D,−45H 2), (15D, 80H) 0.05
Figures 23 and 24 [Reserved]
Figure 29—Minimum Photometric Performance of Retroflective Sheeting in Candela/Lux/Square Meter
Entrance angle Observation angle Grade
0.2 Degree 0.5 Degree
White Red White Red
−4 degree 250 60 65 15 DOT-C2
30 degree 250 60 65 15 DOT-C2
45 degree 60 15 15 4 DOT-C2
−4 degree 165 40 43 10 DOT-C3
30 degree 165 40 43 10 DOT-C3
45 degree 40 10 10 3 DOT-C3
−4 degree 125 30 33 8 DOT-C4
30 degree 125 30 33 8 DOT-C4
45 degree 30 8 8 2 DOT-C4
Figure 32—Motorcycle and Motor-Driven Cycle Headlamp Photometric Requirements
Test Points (deg.) Motorcycle(candela) Motor-Driven Cycle (candela) Motor-Driven Cycle with Single Lamp System(candela)
Up or Down Left or Right
Lower Beam
1.5U 1R to R 1400-MAX 1400-MAX
1.5U 1R to 3R 1400-MAX.
1U 1.5L to L 700-MAX 700-MAX 700-MAX.
0.5U 1.5L to L 1000-MAX 1000-MAX 1000-MAX.
0.5U 1R to 3R 2700-MAX 2700-MAX 2700-MAX.
1.5D 9L and 9R 700-MIN
2D 0.0R 7000-MIN 5000-MIN 4000-MIN.
2D 3L and 3R 4000-MIN 3000-MIN 3000-MIN.
2D 6L and 6R 1500-MIN 1500-MIN 1500-MIN.
2D 12L and 12R 700-MIN
3D 6L and 6R 800-MIN 800-MIN
4D 0.0R 2000-MIN 2000-MIN 1000-MIN.
4D 4R 12500-MAX 12500-MAX 12500-MAX.
Upper Beam
2U 0.0R 1000-MIN
1U 3L and 3R 2000-MIN 2000-MIN.
0.0U 0.0R 12500-MIN 10000-MIN.
0.5D 0.0R 20000-MIN 20000-MIN.
0.5D 3L and 3R 10000-MIN 5000-MIN.
0.5D 6L and 6R 3300-MIN 2000-MIN.
0.5D 9L and 9R 1500-MIN
0.5D 12L and 12R 800-MIN
1D 0.0R 17500-MIN 15000-MIN.
2D 0.0R 5000-MIN 5000-MIN.
3D 0.0R 2500-MIN 2500-MIN.
3D 6L and 6R 800-MIN.
3D 9L and 9R 1500-MIN
3D 12L and 12R 300-MIN
4D 0.0R 1500-MIN
4D 0.0R 7500-MAX 7500-MAX.
ANYWHERE ANYWHERE 75000-MAX 75000-MAX.
Table I—Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment Other Than Headlamps
Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses, of 80 or More Inches Overall Width
Item Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses Trailers Applicable SAE standard or recommended practice (See S5 for subreferenced SAE materials)
Taillamps 2 red 2 red J585e, September 1977.
Stoplamps 2 red 2 red SAE J1398, May 1985.
License plate lamp 1 white 1 white J587 October 1981.
Reflex reflectors 4 red; 2 amber 4 red; 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Side marker lamps 2 red; 2 amber 2 red; 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Backup lamp 1 white None J593c, February 1968.
Turn signal lamps 2 red or amber; 2 amber 2 red or amber SAE J1395, April 1985.
Turn signal operating unit 1 None J589, April 1964.
Turn signal flasher 1 None J590b, October 1965.
Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit 1 None J910, January 1966.
Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher. 1 None J945, February 1966.
Identification lamps 3 amber; 3 red 3 red J592e, July 1972.
Clearance lamps 2 amber; 2 red 2 amber, 2 red J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side marker lamps. 2 amber 2 amber J592e, July 1972.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors. 2 amber 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Conspicuity See S5.7 See S5.7 See S5.7
Table II—Location of Required Equipment
Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses, of 80 or More Inches Overall Width
Item Location on— Height above road surface measured from center of item on vehicle at curb weight
Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses Trailers
Headlamps On the front, each headlamp providing the upper beam, at the same height, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, each headlamp providing the lower beam, at the same height, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. See also S7 Not required Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm).
Taillamps On the rear, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable On the rear, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches.
Stop lamps ......do ......do Do.
License plate lamp At rear license plate, to illuminate the plate from the top or sides At rear license plate, to illuminate the plate from the top or sides No requirement.
Backup lamp On the rear Not required Do.
Turn signal lamps At or near the front—1 amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable On the rear—1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inches.
On the rear—1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable
Identification lamps On the front and rear—3 lamps, amber in front, red in rear, as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart. Alternatively, the front lamps may be located as close as practicable to the top of the cab On the rear—3 lamps as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart No requirement.
Clearance lamps On the front and rear—2 amber lamps on front, 2 red lamps on rear, to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as near the top as practicable On the front and rear—2 amber lamps on front, 2 red lamps on rear, to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, one on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as near the top thereof as practicable 2,3,4 Do.
Intermediate side marker lamps On each side—1 amber lamp located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps On each side—1 amber lamp located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps Not less than 15 inches.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors On each side—1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors On each side—1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors Not less than 15 inches nor more than 60 inches.
Conspicuity See S5.7 See S5.7 See S5.7
Reflex reflectors On the rear—1 red on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable, and at the same height On the rear—1 red on each side of the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable, and at the same height Do.
On each side—1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable On each side—1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable
Side marker lamps ......do ......do Not less than 15 inches, and on the rear of trailers not more than 60 inches.
Table III—Required Motor Vehicle Lighting Equipment
[All Passenger Cars and Motorcycles, and Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Buses and Trailers of Less Than 80 (2032) Inches (mm) Overall Width]
Item Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses Trailers Motorcycles Applicable SAE standard or recommended practice (See S5 for subreferenced SAE materials)
Headlamps See S7 None See S7.9 J566 January 1960.
Taillamps 2 red 2 red 1 red J585e, September 1977.
Stoplamps 2 red 2 red 1 red SAE J586, February 1984.
High-mounted stoplamp 1 red Not required Not required J186a, September 1977.
License plate lamp 1 white 1 white 1 white J587, October 1981.
Parking lamps 2 amber or white None None J222, December 1970.
Reflex reflectors 4 red; 2 amber 4 red; 2 amber 3 red; 2 amber J594f, January 1977.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors 2 amber 2 amber None J594f, January 1977.
Intermediate side marker lamps 2 amber 2 amber None J592e, July 1972.
Side marker lamps 2 red; 2 amber 2 red; 2 amber None J592e, July 1972.
Backup lamp 1 white None None J593c, February 1968.
Turn signal lamps 2 red or amber; 2 amber 2 red or amber 2 amber; 2 red or amber SAE J588, November 1984.
Turn signal operating unit. 3,4 1 None 1 J589, April 1964.
Turn signal flasher 1 None 1 J590b, October 1965.
Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit 1 None None J910, January 1966.
Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher 1 None None J945, February 1966.
Table IV—Location of Required Equipment
[All Passenger Cars and Motorcycles, and Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles, Trucks, Trailers, and Buses of Less than 80 (2032) Inches (MM) Overall Width]
Item Location on— Height above road surface measured from center of item on vehicle at curb weight
Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses Motorcycles
Note: (1) The term overall width refers to the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, and mud flaps, determine with doors and windows closed, and the wheels in the straight-ahead position.
This supersedes the interpretation of the term “overall width” appearing in the Federal Register of March 1, 1967 (32 FR 3390).
(2) Paragraph S3.1 and Tables I and III of § 571.108 as amended (32 FR 18033, Dec. 16, 1967), specify that certain lamp assemblies shall conform to applicable SAE Standards. Each of these basically referenced standards subreferences both SAE Standard J575 (tests for motor vehicle lighting devices and components) which in turn references SAE Standard J573 on bulbs, and SAE Standard J567 on bulb sockets.
(3) Paragraph C of SAE Standard J575 states in part: “Where special bulbs are specified, they should be submitted with the devices and the same or similar bulbs used in the tests and operated at their rated mean spherical candlepower.” The Administrator has determined that this provision of SAE Standard J575 permits the use of special bulbs, including tubular-type bulbs, which do not conform to the detailed requirements of Table I of SAE Standard J573. It follows that the sockets for special bulbs need not conform to the detailed requirements of SAE Standard J567. These provisions for special bulbs in no way except the lamp assemblies from meeting all performance requirements specified in Federal Standard No. 108, including those specified in the basically referenced SAE Standards, and in the subreferenced SAE Standard J575.
Headlamps On the front, each headlamp providing the lower beam, at the same height, 1 on each side of the vertical centerline, each headlamp providing the upper beam, at the same height, 1 on each side of the vertical center-line, as far apart as practicable. See also S7 See S7.9 Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm).
Taillamps On the rear—1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable On the rear—on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they shall be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches.
Stoplamps On the rear—1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable On the rear—on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they shall be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches.
High-mounted stoplamp On the rear, on the vertical centerline [See S5.1.1.27, S5.3.1.8, and Table III], effective September 1, 1985, for passenger cars only Not required See S5.3.1.8 for passenger cars. Not less than 34 inches for multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.
License plate lamp At rear license plate, to illuminate the plate from the top or sides At rear license plate No requirement.
Parking lamps On the front—1 on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable Not required Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches.
Reflex reflectors On the rear—1 red on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable On the rear—1 red on the vertical centerline except that, if two are used on the rear, they shall be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches.
On each side—1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable On each side—1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable
Backup lamp On the rear Not required No requirement.
Turn signal lamps At or near the front—1 amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicableOn the rear—1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height, and as far apart as practicable At or near the front—1 amber on each side of the vertical centerline at the same height, and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline of lamps) of 16 inches. Minimum edge to edge separation distance between lamp and headlamp is 4 inchesAt or near the rear—1 red or amber on each side of the vertical centerline, at the same height and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline to centerline of lamps) of 9 inches. Minimum edge to edge separation distance between lamp and tail or stop lamp is 4-inches, when a single stop and taillamp is installed on the vertical centerline and the turn signal lamps are red. Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inches.
Side marker lamps On each side—1 red as far to the rear as practicable, and 1 amber as far to the front as practicable Not required Not less than 15 inches.
Intermediate side marker lamps On each side—1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps Not required Not less than 15 inches.
Intermediate side marker reflectors On each side—1 amber located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker reflectors Not required Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches.
[41 FR 35522, Aug. 23, 1976]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 571.108, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.
§ 571.108, Nt.
Effective Date Note:
At 72 FR 68269, Dec. 4, 2007, § 571.108 was revised, effective Sept 1, 2008. At 73 FR 50730, Aug. 28, 2008, the revision was delayed until Dec. 1, 2009. At 74 FR 58214, Nov. 12, 2009, the revision was further delayed until Dec. 1, 2012. At 76 FR 23510, Apr. 27, 2011, Figures V-b and V-c were revised. At 76 FR 48023, Aug. 8, 2011, § 571.108 was amended by revising entry 17 in S5.2, paragraphs S6.1.1.4, S6.1.3.2, S6.2.3.1, S6.4.4, S6.5.3, S6.5.3.3.1, S6.5.3.6, S7.1.1.9, S7.1.1.10.4(a), S7.1.1.11, S7.1.1.11.1, S7.1.1.12.4, S7.1.2.9, S7.2.9, S7.3.9, S7.4.9, S7.5.9, S7.6.9, S7.7.4, S7.7.9, S7.8.9, S7.9.9, S7.9.14, S7.11.9, S8.1.9, S8.2.1.5, S10.1.2, S10.13.4.1, S10.14.7.1, S10.15.7.1, S10.18, S14.2.1.5.2, S14.2.4.3, S14.3.1, S14.6.9.1.1 and Table I-a, Table I-b, Table I-c, Table III, Table IV-a, Table IV-b, Table IV-c, Table V-a, Table V-d, Table VIII, Table IX, Table XII, Table XIV, Table XV, Table XIX-a, Table XIX-b, and Table XIX-c, by removing paragraphs S6.1.3.5.1.3, S10.2, S13.3, S7.9.14.1.1 and S7.9.14.1.2, and by adding a definition of “Combination headlamp system” in S4, entry 18 in S5.2, and paragraphs S6.5.3.1, S7.9.14.1 and S7.9.14.2, effective Dec. 1, 2012. At 77 FR 757, Jan. 6, 2012, § 571.108 was amended by revising the definition of “Color” in S4, and paragraphs S5, S6.4.5, S8.1.1, S8.2.1.2, S9.3.5, S10.14.7.7, S10.15.7.6, S10.18.7, S10.18.7.2, S12.6, S14.2.1.6, S14.2.1.6.1, S14.2.1.6.2, S14.2.5.7.3, the introductory sentence of S14.4.2.2.4.1, S14.4.2.2.4.4, S14.5.3.2, S14.5.4.1, S14.6.2.1.1(a), S14.6.3.1, S14.6.4.1.2,S14.6.5.1.2, S14.7.3.1.2, and S14.7.3.3, and by removing paragraphs S5.1, and S5.2, effective Dec. 1, 2012.For the convenience of the user, § 571.108, effective Dec. 1, 2012 is set forth as follows:
§ 571.108 Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
S1Scope. This standard specifies requirements for original and replacement lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
S2Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents, by providing adequate illumination of the roadway, and by enhancing the conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.
S3Application. This standard applies to:
S3.1Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers (except pole trailers and trailer converter dollies), and motorcycles;
S3.2Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors manufactured to conform to S8.2 of this standard; and
S3.3Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment for replacement of like equipment on vehicles to which this standard applies.
S4Definitions.
Aiming plane means a plane defined by the surface of the three aiming pads on the lens.
Aiming reference plane means a plane which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and tangent to the forwardmost aiming pad on the headlamp.
Aiming screws are the horizontal and vertical adjusting screws with self-locking features used to aim and retain a headlamp unit in the proper position.
Axis of reference means the characteristic axis of the lamp for use as the direction of reference (H = 0°, V = 0°) for angles of field for photometric measurements and for installing the lamp on the vehicle.
Backup lamp means a lamp or lamps which illuminate the road to the rear of a vehicle and provide a warning signal to pedestrians and other drivers when the vehicle is backing up or is about to back up.
Beam contributor means an indivisible optical assembly including a lens, reflector, and light source, that is part of an integral beam headlighting system and contributes only a portion of a headlamp beam.
Cargo lamp is a lamp that is mounted on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus for the purpose of providing illumination to load or unload cargo.
Clearance lamps are lamps which show to the front or rear of the vehicle, mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as near as practicable to the upper left and right extreme edges to indicate the overall width and height of the vehicle.
Coated materials means a material which has a coating applied to the surface of the finished sample to impart some protective properties. Coating identification means a mark of the manufacturer's name, formulation designation number, and recommendations for application.
Color Fundamental definitions of color are expressed by Chromaticity Coordinates according to the CIE 1931 Standard Colorimetric System, as described in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5).
Color bleeding means the migration of color out of a plastic part onto the surrounding surface.
Combination clearance and side marker lamps are single lamps which simultaneously fulfill the requirements of clearance and side marker lamps.
Combination headlamp means a headlamp that is a combination of two different headlamp types chosen from a type F sealed beam headlamp, an integral beam headlamp, or a replaceable bulb headlamp.
Cracking means a separation of adjacent sections of a plastic material with penetration into the specimen.
Crazing means a network of apparent fine cracks on or beneath the surface of materials.
Cutoff means a generally horizontal, visual/optical aiming cue in the lower beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower luminance.
Daytime running lamps (DRLs) are steady burning lamps that are used to improve the conspicuity of a vehicle from the front and front sides when the regular headlamps are not required for driving.
Delamination means a separation of the layers of a material including coatings.
Design voltage means the voltage used for design purposes.
Direct reading indicator means a device that is mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, is part of a VHAD, and provides information about headlamp aim in an analog or digital format.
Effective light-emitting surface means that portion of a lamp that directs light to the photometric test pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from an area of 1/2° radius around a test point.
Effective projected luminous lens area means the area of the orthogonal projection of the effective light-emitting surface of a lamp on a plane perpendicular to a defined direction relative to the axis of reference. Unless otherwise specified, the direction is coincident with the axis of reference.
Exposed means material used in lenses or optical devices exposed to direct sunlight as installed on the vehicle.
Filament means that part of the light source or light emitting element(s), such as a resistive element, the excited portion of a specific mixture of gases under pressure, or any part of other energy conversion sources, that generates radiant energy which can be seen.
Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by automatic means continuing until stopped either automatically or manually.
Fully opened means the position of the headlamp concealment device in which the headlamp is in the design open operating position.
H-V axis means the line from the center of the principal filament of a lamp to the intersection of the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) lines of a photometric test screen.
Haze means the cloudy or turbid appearance of an otherwise transparent specimen caused by light scattered from within the specimen or from its surface.
Headlamp means a lighting device providing an upper and/or a lower beam used for providing illumination forward of the vehicle.
Headlamp concealment device means a device, with its operating system and components, that provides concealment of the headlamp when it is not in use, including a movable headlamp cover and a headlamp that displaces for concealment purposes.
Headlamp mechanical axis means the line formed by the intersection of a horizontal and a vertical plane through the light source parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. If the mechanical axis of the headlamp is not at the geometric center of the lens, then the location will be indicated by the manufacturer on the headlamp.
Headlamp test fixture means a device designed to support a headlamp or headlamp assembly in the test position specified in the laboratory tests and whose mounting hardware and components are those necessary to operate the headlamp as installed in a motor vehicle.
High-mounted stop lamp means a lamp mounted high and possibly forward of the tail, stop, and rear turn signal lamps intended to give a steady stop warning through intervening vehicles to operators of following vehicles.
Identification lamps are lamps used in groups of three, in a horizontal row, which show to the front or rear or both, having lamp centers spaced not less than [6 in] 15.2 mm nor more than [12 in] 30.4 mm apart, mounted on the permanent structure as near as practicable to the vertical centerline and the top of the vehicle to identify certain types of vehicles.
Integral beam headlamp means a headlamp (other than a standardized sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S10.13 or a replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S10.15) comprising an integral and indivisible optical assembly including lens, reflector, and light source, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.
License plate lamp means a lamp used to illuminate the license plate on the rear of a vehicle.
Lower beam means a beam intended to illuminate the road and its environs ahead of the vehicle when meeting or closely following another vehicle.
Material means the type and grade of plastics, composition, and manufacturer's designation number and color.
Mechanically aimable headlamp means a headlamp having three pads on the lens, forming an aiming plane used for laboratory photometric testing and for adjusting and inspecting the aim of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle.
Motor driven cycle means every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor which produces not more than 5 horsepower, and every bicycle with motor attached.
Motorcycle or motor driven cycle headlamp means a major lighting device used to produce general illumination ahead of the vehicle.
Mounting ring means the adjustable ring upon which a sealed beam unit is mounted.
Mounting ring (type F sealed beam) means the adjustable ring upon which a sealed beam unit is mounted and which forces the sealed beam unit to seat against the aiming ring when assembled into a sealed beam assembly.
Multiple compartment lamp means a device which gives its indication by two or more separately lighted areas which are joined by one or more common parts, such as a housing or lens.
Multiple lamp arrangement means an array of two or more separate lamps on each side of the vehicle which operate together to give a signal.
Optically combined means a lamp having a single or two filament light source or two or more separate light sources that operate in different ways, and has its optically functional lens area wholly or partially common to two or more lamp functions.
Overall width means the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, mud flaps, and outside door handles determined with doors and windows closed, and the wheels in the straight-ahead position. Running boards may also be excluded from the determination of overall width if they do not extend beyond the width as determined by the other items excluded by this definition.
Parking lamps are lamps on both the left and right of the vehicle which show to the front and are intended to mark the vehicle when parked or serve as a reserve front position indicating system in the event of headlamp failure.
Protected means material used in inner lenses for optical devices where such lenses are protected from exposure to the sun by an outer lens made of materials meeting the requirements for exposed plastics.
Rated voltage means the nominal circuit or vehicle electrical system voltage classification.
Reflex reflectors are devices used on vehicles to give an indication to approaching drivers using reflected light from the lamps of the approaching vehicle.
Remote reading indicator means a device that is not mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, but otherwise meets the definition of a direct reading indicator.
Replaceable bulb headlamp means a headlamp comprising a bonded lens and reflector assembly and one or two replaceable light sources, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.
Replaceable light source means an assembly of a capsule, base, and terminals that is designed to conform to the requirements of appendix A or appendix B of 49 CFR part 564 Replaceable Light Source Information of this Chapter.
Retaining ring means the clamping ring that holds a sealed beam unit against a mounting ring.
Retaining ring (type F sealed beam) means the clamping ring that holds a sealed beam unit against a mounting ring, and that provides an interface between the unit's aiming/seating pads and the headlamp aimer adapter (locating plate).
School bus signal lamps are alternately flashing lamps mounted horizontally both front and rear, intended to identify a vehicle as a school bus and to inform other users of the highway that such vehicle is stopped on the highway to take on or discharge school children.
Sealed beam headlamp means an integral and indivisible optical assembly including the light source with “SEALED BEAM” molded in the lens.
Sealed beam headlamp assembly means a major lighting assembly which includes one or more sealed beam units used to provide general illumination ahead of the vehicle.
Seasoning means the process of energizing the filament of a headlamp at design voltage for a period of time equal to 1% of design life, or other equivalent method.
Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device is one which provides either automatic or manual control of beam switching at the option of the driver. When the control is automatic the headlamps switch from the upper beam to the lower beam when illuminated by the headlamps on an approaching vehicle and switch back to the upper beam when the road ahead is dark. When the control is manual, the driver may obtain either beam manually regardless of the conditions ahead of the vehicle.
Side marker lamps are lamps which show to the side of the vehicle, mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as near as practicable to the front and rear edges to indicate the overall length of the vehicle. Additional lamps may also be mounted at intermediate locations on the sides of the vehicle.
Stop lamps are lamps giving a steady light to the rear of a vehicle to indicate a vehicle is stopping or diminishing speed by braking.
Taillamps are steady burning low intensity lamps used to designate the rear of a vehicle.
Test voltage means the specified voltage and tolerance to be used when conducting a test.
Turn signal lamps are the signaling element of a turn signal system which indicates the intention to turn or change direction by giving a flashing light on the side toward which the turn will be made.
Turn signal flasher means a device which causes a turn signal lamp to flash as long as it is turned on.
Turn signal operating unit means an operating unit that is part of a turn signal system by which the operator of a vehicle causes the signal units to function.
Upper beam means a beam intended primarily for distance illumination and for use when not meeting or closely following other vehicles.
Vehicle headlamp aiming device or VHAD means motor vehicle equipment, installed either on a vehicle or headlamp, which is used for determining the horizontal or vertical aim, or both the vertical and horizontal aim of the headlamp.
Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher means a device which, as long as it is turned on, causes all the required turn signal lamps to flash.
Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit means a driver controlled device which causes all required turn signal lamps to flash simultaneously to indicate to approaching drivers the presence of a vehicular hazard.
Visually/optically aimable headlamp means a headlamp which is designed to be visually/optically aimable in accordance with the requirements of paragraph S10.18.9 of this standard.
S5References to SAE publications. Each required lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment must be designed to conform to the requirements of applicable SAE publications as referenced and subreferenced in this standard. The words “it is recommended that,” “recommendations,” or “should be” appearing in any SAE publication referenced or subreferenced in this standard must be read as setting forth mandatory requirements.
S6Vehicle requirements.
S6.1Required lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment by vehicle type.
S6.1.1Quantity. Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of this S6.1.1 each vehicle must be equipped with at least the number of lamps, reflective devices, and items of associated equipment specified for that vehicle type and size in Table I and Section 6.6, designed to conform to the requirements of this standard. Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used to fulfill photometric requirements for those functions.
S6.1.1.1Conspicuity systems. Each trailer of 2032 mm or more in overall width, and with a GVWR over 10,000 lbs., except a trailer designed exclusively for living or office use, and each truck tractor must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting, reflex reflectors, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors as specified in S8.2.
S6.1.1.2High-mounted stop lamps. Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus required by this standard to be equipped with a high-mounted stop lamp, whose vertical centerline, when the vehicle is viewed from the rear, is not located on a fixed body panel but separates one or two moveable body sections, such as doors, which lacks sufficient space to install a single high-mounted stop lamp on the centerline above such body sections, must have two high-mounted stop lamps identical in size and shape.
S6.1.1.2.1The two lamps must be located at the same height, with one vertical edge of each lamp on the vertical edge of the body section nearest the vehicle centerline.
S6.1.1.3Truck tractor rear turn signal lamps. A truck tractor need not be equipped with turn signal lamps mounted on the rear if the turn signal lamps installed at or near the front are of double face construction and are located such that they meet the photometric requirements for double faced turn signal lamps specified in Footnote 6 of Table VII.
S6.1.1.3.1The flashing signal from a double faced signal lamp must not be obliterated when subjected to external light rays from either in front or behind, at any and all angles.
S6.1.1.4Daytime running lamps. Any pair of lamps on the front of a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus, whether or not required by this standard, other than parking lamps or fog lamps, may be wired to be automatically activated, as determined by the manufacturer of the vehicle, in a steady burning state as daytime running lamps (DRLs) in accordance with S7.10.5.
S6.1.2Color. The color in all lamps and reflective devices to which this standard applies must be as specified in Table I. The color identified as amber is identical to the color identified as yellow.
S6.1.3Mounting location.
S6.1.3.1Each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment must be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle, other than glazing, that is not designed to be removed except for repair, within the mounting location and height limits as specified in Table I, and in a location where it complies with all applicable photometric requirements, effective projected luminous lens area requirements, and visibility requirements with all obstructions considered.
S6.1.3.2When multiple lamp arrangements for rear turn signal lamps, stop lamps, or taillamps are used, with only a portion of the lamps installed on a fixed part of the vehicle, the lamp or lamps that are installed to the non-fixed part of the vehicle will be considered auxiliary lamps.
S6.1.3.3License plate lamp. The license plate lamp or lamps installed on vehicles other than motorcycles and motor driven cycles must be mounted so as to illuminate the license plate without obstruction from any designed feature unless the lamp or lamps is (are) designed to comply with all the photometric requirements with these obstructions considered.
S6.1.3.4High-mounted stop lamps.
S6.1.3.4.1Interior mounting. A high-mounted stop lamp mounted inside the vehicle must have means provided to minimize reflections from the light of the lamp upon the rear window glazing that might be visible to the driver when viewed directly, or indirectly in the rearview mirror.
S6.1.3.4.2Accessibility. Each high-mounted stop lamp must provide access for convenient replacement of bulbs without special tools.
S6.1.3.5Headlamp beam mounting.
S6.1.3.5.1Vertical headlamp arrangement.
S6.1.3.5.1.1Where multiple headlamps with single light sources are installed in a vertical orientation the lower beam must be provided by the uppermost headlamp.
S6.1.3.5.1.2Where headlamps with two vertically oriented light sources are installed the lower beam must be provided by the uppermost light source or by all light sources.
S6.1.3.5.2Horizontal headlamp arrangement.
S6.1.3.5.2.1Where multiple headlamps with single light sources are installed in a horizontal orientation the lower beam must be provided by the most outboard headlamp.
S6.1.3.5.2.2Where headlamps with two horizontally oriented light sources are installed the lower beam must be provided by the outboard light source or by all light sources.
S6.1.3.6Auxiliary lamps mounted near identification lamps. Each auxiliary lamp must be located at least twice the distance from any required identification lamp as the distance between two adjacent required identification lamps.
S6.1.4Mounting height. The mounting height of each lamp and reflective device must be measured from the center of the item, as mounted on the vehicle at curb weight, to the road surface.
S6.1.4.1High-mounted stop lamps.
S6.1.4.1.1A high-mounted stop lamp mounted below the rear window must have no lens portion lower than 153 mm [6 in] below the lower edge of the rear glazing on convertibles, or 77 mm [3 in] on other passenger cars.
S6.1.5Activation. Each lamp must be activated as specified, in the combinations specified, and in response to the inputs specified in Table I and Table II.
S6.1.5.1Hazard warning signal. In all passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses, the activation of the vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit must cause to flash simultaneously sufficient turn signal lamps to meet, as a minimum, the turn signal photometric requirements of this standard.
S6.1.5.2Simultaneous beam activation.
S6.1.5.2.1On any vehicle to which this standard applies where the headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB1 of Table XVIII and LB1M or LB1V of Table XIX-a, the lamps marked “L” or “LF” may remain permanently activated when the lamps marked “U” or “UF” are activated.
S6.1.5.2.2On any vehicle to which this standard applies where an integral beam headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB6 of Table XVIII and LB5M of Table XIX-b or LB4V of Table XIX-c, the lower beam headlamps must remain permanently activated when the upper beam headlamps are activated.
S6.1.5.2.3On any vehicle to which this section applies where the headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB2 of Table XVIII and LB2M or LB2V of Table XIX-a, a lower beam light source may remain permanently activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source contributes to the upper beam photometric compliance of the headlighting system.
S6.2Impairment.
S6.2.1No additional lamp, reflective device, or other motor vehicle equipment is permitted to be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting equipment required by this standard.
S6.2.2If any required lamp or reflective device is obstructed by motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, winches, etc.) including dealer installed equipment, and cannot meet the applicable photometry and visibility requirements, the vehicle must be equipped with an additional lamp or device of the same type which meet all applicable requirements of this standard, including photometry and visibility.
S6.2.3Headlamp obstructions.
S6.2.3.1When activated in the steady burning state, headlamps (excluding headlamps mounted on motorcycles) must not have any styling ornament or other feature, such as a translucent cover or grill, in front of the lens
S6.2.3.2Headlamp wipers may be used in front of the lens provided that the headlamp system is designed to conform with all applicable photometric requirements with the wiper stopped in any position in front of the lens.
S6.3Equipment combinations. Two or more lamps, reflective devices, or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met with the following exceptions:
S6.3.1No high-mounted stop lamp is permitted to be combined with any other lamp or reflective device, other than with a cargo lamp.
S6.3.2No high-mounted stop lamp is permitted to be optically combined with any cargo lamp.
S6.3.3No clearance lamp is permitted to be optically combined with any taillamp.
S6.4Lens area, visibility and school bus signal lamp aiming.
S6.4.1Effective projected luminous lens area. Each turn signal lamp, stop lamp, high-mounted stop lamp, and school bus signal lamp must meet the applicable effective projected luminous lens area requirement specified in Tables IV-a, IV-b, and IV-c.
S6.4.2Visibility. Each backup lamp, single or combination of dual high-mounted stop lamp(s), and school bus signal lamp must meet the applicable visibility requirement specified in Table V-a.
S6.4.3Visibility options. A manufacturer must certify compliance of each lamp function to one of the following visibility requirement options, and it may not thereafter choose a different option for that vehicle:
(a) Lens area option. When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Table V-b each such lamp must provide not less than 1250 sq mm of unobstructed effective projected luminous lens area in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Table V-b for each such lamp; or
(b) Luminous intensity option. When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Table V-c each such lamp must provide a luminous intensity of not less than that specified in Table V-c in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Table V-c for each such lamp when measured in accordance with the photometry test requirements of this standard.
S6.4.4Legacy visibility alternative. As an alternative to S6.4.3, each passenger car and motorcycle, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus that is of less than 2032 mm overall width, that is manufactured on or before September 1, 2011, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus that is of 2032 mm or more overall width, that is manufactured on or before September 1, 2014, must have each lamp located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in Table V-d.
S6.4.5School bus signal lamp aiming. Each school bus signal lamp must be mounted on the vehicle with its aiming plane vertical and normal to the vehicle longitudinal axis. Aim tolerance must be no more than 5 in vertically and 10 in horizontally at 25 ft from the lamp. If the lamps are aimed or inspected by use of SAE Recommended Practice J602-1963 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), the graduation settings for aim must be 2° D and 0° sideways for aiming and the limits must be 3° U to 7° D and from 10° R to 10° L for inspection.
S6.5Marking. A summary of the marking requirements of this standard and their location in the standard is contained in Table III.
S6.5.1DOT marking. The lens of each original equipment and replacement headlamp, and of each original equipment and replacement beam contributor, and each replacement headlamp lens for an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, must be marked with the symbol “DOT” either horizontally or vertically to indicate certification under 49 U.S.C. 30115.
S6.5.1.1The DOT marking requirements for conspicuity materials are specified in S8.2 of this standard.
S6.5.1.2Each original equipment or replacement lamp or reflective device specified in Table I, except for a headlamp, or an item of associated equipment specified in S9 may be marked with the symbol “DOT” which constitutes a certification that it conforms to the requirements of this standard.
S6.5.2DRL marking. Each original equipment and replacement lamp used as a daytime running lamp (DRL), unless optically combined with a headlamp, must be permanently marked “DRL” on its lens in letters not less than 3 mm high.
S6.5.3Headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.1Trademark. The lens of each original and replacement equipment headlamp, and of each original and replacement equipment beam contributor must be marked with the name and/or trademark registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of the manufacturer of such headlamp or beam contributor, of its importer, or any manufacturer of a vehicle equipped with such headlamp or beam contributor. Nothing in this standard authorizes the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
S6.5.3.2Voltage and trade number. Each original and replacement equipment headlamp, and each original and replacement equipment beam contributor must be marked with its voltage and with its part or trade number.
S6.5.3.3Sealed beam headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.3.1Each sealed beam headlamp lens must be molded with “sealed beam” and the appropriate designation code as shown in Table II in characters no less than 6.35 mm in size.
S6.5.3.3.2The face of any character molded on the surface of the lens must not be raised more than 0.5 mm above the lens surface.
S6.5.3.3.3Type 1C1, 2C1, and 2D1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens between the diameters of 40 mm and 90 mm about the lens center.
S6.5.3.3.4Type 1A1, 2A1, 2B1, and 2E1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens within a diameter of 70 mm about the lens center.
S6.5.3.3.5Type LF, UF, 1G1, 2G1, and 2H1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens within a diameter of 35 mm about the lens center.
S6.5.3.3.6A Type 1C1 replacement headlamp may be marked “1” rather than “1C1”. A Type 2C1 replacement headlamp may be marked “2” rather than “2C1”. A Type 2D1 replacement headlamp may be marked “TOP” or “2” rather than “2D1”.
S6.5.3.4Replaceable bulb headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.4.1The lens of each replaceable bulb headlamp must bear permanent marking in front of each replaceable light source with which it is equipped that states either: The HB Type, if the light source conforms to S11 of this standard for filament light sources, or the bulb marking/designation provided in compliance with Section VIII of appendix A of 49 CFR Part 564 (if the light source conforms to S11 of this standard for discharge light sources).
S6.5.3.4.1.1No marking need be provided if the only replaceable light source in the headlamp is type HB1.
S6.5.3.5Additional headlamp markings. Additional marking requirements for headlamps are found in, S10.14.4, S10.15.4, S10.17.2, S10.18.5, S10.18.7, and S10.18.9 of this standard.
S6.5.3.6Each replacement headlamp lens must also be marked with the manufacturer and the part or trade number of the headlamp for which it is intended, and with the name and/or trademark of the lens manufacturer or importer that is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Nothing in this standard authorizes the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.
S6.6Associated equipment.
S6.6.1All vehicles to which this standard applies, except trailers, must be equipped with a turn signal operating unit, a turn signal flasher, a turn signal pilot indicator, a headlamp beam switching device, and an upper beam headlamp indicator meeting the requirements of S9.
S6.6.2All vehicles to which this standard applies except trailers and motorcycles must be equipped with a vehicular hazard warning operating unit, a vehicular hazard warning signal flasher, and a vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator meeting the requirements of S9.
S6.6.3License plate holder. Each rear license plate holder must be designed and constructed to provide a substantial plane surface on which to mount the plate. The plane of the license plate mounting surface and the plane on which the vehicle stands must be perpendicular within ±15°.
S6.7Replacement equipment.
S6.7.1General.
S6.7.1.1Each replacement lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, must:
(a) Be designed to conform to meet all requirements specified in this standard for that type of lamp, reflective device, or other item of equipment (in the case of a combination lamp, it must meet these requirements for each function); and
(b) Include all of the functions of the lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, it is designed to replace or is capable of replacing (other than functions not required by this standard).
S6.7.1.2Each replacement lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, which is designed or recommended for particular vehicle models must be designed so that it does not take the vehicle out of compliance with this standard when the individual device is installed on the vehicle. Except as provided in S6.7.1.3, the determination of whether a vehicle would be taken out of compliance with this standard when an individual device is installed on the vehicle is made without regard to whether additional devices, including separate lamps or reflective devices sold together with the device, would also be installed.
S6.7.1.3In the case of a lamp or other device that is used on each side of the vehicle in pairs, the determination (for the purposes of S6.7.1.2) of whether a vehicle would be taken out of compliance with this standard when an individual device is installed on the vehicle is made assuming that the other matched paired device would be installed on the other side of the vehicle, whether or not the matched paired devices are sold together. This provision does not limit the responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, dealers or motor vehicle repair businesses under 49 U.S.C. 30122, Making safety devices and elements inoperative.
S6.7.2Version of this standard. The requirements of S6.7.1 must be met, at the option of the manufacturer, using either the current version of this standard or the standard in effect at the time of manufacture of the original equipment being replaced.
S7Signal lamp requirements.
S7.1Turn signal lamps.
S7.1.1Front turn signal lamps.
S7.1.1.1Number. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S7.1.1.2Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S7.1.1.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S7.1.1.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S7.1.1.5Activation. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S7.1.1.6Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.
S7.1.1.7Visibility. See S6.4.
S7.1.1.8Indicator. See S9.3.
S7.1.1.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.1.1.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.1.1.10.1Each front turn signal lamp must also be designed to comply with any additional photometry requirements based on its installed spacing to other lamps as specified by this section. Where more than one spacing relationship exists for a turn signal lamp the requirement must be the one that specifies the highest luminous intensity multiplier of Tables VI-a and VI-b.
S7.1.1.10.2Spacing measurement for non-reflector lamps. For any front turn signal lamp that does not employ a reflector to meet photometric requirements, the spacing must be measured from the light source of the turn signal lamp to the lighted edge of any lower beam headlamp, or any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp.
S7.1.1.10.3Spacing measurement for lamps with reflectors. For any front turn signal lamp which employs a reflector, such as a parabolic reflector, to meet photometric requirements, the spacing must be measured from the geometric centroid of the turn signal lamp effective projected luminous lens area to the lighted edge of any lower beam headlamp, or any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp.
S7.1.1.10.4Spacing based photometric multipliers.(a) Where the spacing measurement as measured from the optical center of the turn signal lamp, to the lighted edge of a lower beam headlamp is less than 100 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.5.
(b) Where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is at least 75 mm but less than 100 mm the photometric multiplier of Table VI must be 1.5.
(c) Where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is at least 60 mm but less than 75 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.0.
(d) Where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is less than 60 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.5.
S7.1.1.11Multiple compartment lamps and multiple lamps.
S7.1.1.11.1A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a front turn signal lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.
S7.1.1.11.2If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Tables VI-a or VI-b.
S7.1.1.11.3If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Tables VI-a or VI-b
S7.1.1.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment front turn signal lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.
S7.1.1.12Ratio to parking lamps and clearance lamps.
S7.1.1.12.1When a parking lamp, or a clearance lamp on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus of 2032 mm or more in overall width, is combined with a front turn signal lamp, the luminous intensity of the front turn signal lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the parking lamp or clearance lamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Tables VI-a or VI-b.
S7.1.1.12.2If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the parking lamp and turn signal lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.
S7.1.1.12.3If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the parking lamp and turn signal lamp are optically combined.
S7.1.1.12.4Where the clearance lamp is combined with the turn signal lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the clearance lamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 1.0 degree radius around a test point, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the clearance lamp luminous intensity within the generated area.
S7.1.1.13Photometry.
S7.1.1.13.1When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, each front turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the base photometry requirements plus any applicable multipliers as shown in Tables VI-a and VI-b for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.
S7.1.1.13.2As an alternative to S7.1.1.13.1, a front turn signal lamp installed on a motorcycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.
S7.1.1.14Physical tests. Each front turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.1.2Rear turn signal lamps.
S7.1.2.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.1.2.2Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.1.2.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.
S7.1.2.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.1.2.5Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.1.2.6Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.
S7.1.2.7Visibility. See S6.4.
S7.1.2.8Indicator. See S9.3.
S7.1.2.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.1.2.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.1.2.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.1.2.11.1A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a rear turn signal lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met
S7.1.2.11.2If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table VII.
S7.1.2.11.3If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table VII.
S7.1.2.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment rear turn signal lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.
S7.1.2.12Ratio to taillamps and clearance lamps.
S7.1.2.12.1When a taillamp, or a clearance lamp on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus of 2032 mm or more in overall width, is combined with a rear turn signal lamp, the luminous intensity of the rear turn signal lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the taillamp or clearance lamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Table VII.
S7.1.2.12.2If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the taillamp and turn signal lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangement or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.
S7.1.2.12.3If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the taillamp and turn signal lamp are optically combined.
S7.1.2.12.4Where the taillamp or clearance lamp is combined with the turn signal lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the taillamp or clearance lamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 0.5 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, or by a 1.0 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp or clearance lamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the taillamp or clearance lamp luminous intensity within the generated area.
S7.1.2.13Photometry.
S7.1.2.13.1Each rear turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table VII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps, the type of vehicle it is installed on, and the lamp color as specified by this section.
S7.1.2.13.2As an alternative to S7.1.2.13.1, a rear turn signal lamp installed on a motorcycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.
S7.1.2.14Physical tests. Each rear turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.1.3Combined lamp bulb indexing.
S7.1.3.1Each turn signal lamp optically combined with a taillamp or a parking lamp, or clearance lamp where installed on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, where a two-filament bulb is used must have a bulb with an indexing base and a socket designed so that bulbs with non-indexing bases cannot be used.
S7.1.3.2Removable sockets must have an indexing feature so that they cannot be re-inserted into lamp housings in random positions, unless the lamp will perform its intended function with random light source orientation.
S7.2Taillamps.
S7.2.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.2.2Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.2.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.
S7.2.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.2.5Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.2.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.2.7Visibility. See S6.4.
S7.2.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.2.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.2.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.2.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.2.11.1A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a taillamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.
S7.2.11.2If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used and the distance between the optical axes does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table VIII.
S7.2.11.3If the distance between optical axes exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table VIII.
S7.2.11.4Taillamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. A maximum of two taillamps and/or two compartments per side may be mounted closer together than 560 mm providing that each compartment and/or lamp meets the single lighted section photometric requirements specified in Table VIII. Each lamp and/or compartment utilized in this manner must meet the single lighted section requirements for all functions for which it is designed.
S7.2.12Ratio. See S7.1.2.12 for rear turn signal lamps and S7.3.12 for stop lamps.
S7.2.13Photometry. Each taillamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table VIII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.
S7.2.14Physical tests. Each taillamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.3Stop lamps.
S7.3.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.3.2Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.3.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.
S7.3.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.3.5Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.3.6Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.
S7.3.7Visibility. See S6.4.
S7.3.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.3.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.3.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.3.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.3.11.1A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a stop lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.
S7.3.11.2If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table IX.
S7.3.11.3If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table IX.
S7.3.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment stop lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.
S7.3.12Ratio to taillamps.
S7.3.12.1When a taillamp is combined with a stop lamp, the luminous intensity of the stop lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the taillamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Table IX.
S7.3.12.2If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the taillamp and stop lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.
S7.3.12.3If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the taillamp and stop lamp are optically combined.
S7.3.12.4Where the taillamp is combined with the stop lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the taillamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 0.5 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, or by a 1.0 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the taillamp luminous intensity within the generated area.
S7.3.13Photometry.
S7.3.13.1Each stop lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table IX, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.
S7.3.13.2A stop lamp installed on a motor driven cycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-b when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.
S7.3.14Physical tests. Each stop lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.3.15Combined lamp bulb indexing.
S7.3.15.1Each stop lamp optically combined with a taillamp where a two-filament bulb is used must have a bulb with an indexing base and a socket designed so that bulbs with non-indexing bases cannot be used.
S7.3.15.2Removable sockets must have an indexing feature so that they cannot be re-inserted into lamp housings in random positions, unless the lamp will perform its intended function with random light source orientation.
S7.4Side marker lamps.
S7.4.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.4.2Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.4.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.4.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.4.5Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.4.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.4.7Visibility. No requirement.
S7.4.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.4.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.4.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.4.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.4.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.4.13Photometry.
S7.4.13.1Each side marker lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table X, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the lamp color as specified by this section.
S7.4.13.2Inboard photometry. For each motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall length and less than 2032 mm in overall width, the minimum photometric intensity requirements for a side marker lamp may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.
S7.4.14Physical tests. Each side marker lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.5Clearance and identification lamps.
S7.5.1Number. See Tables I-a and I-b.
S7.5.2Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-b.
S7.5.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-b.
S7.5.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-b.
S7.5.5Activation. See Tables I-a and I-b.
S7.5.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.5.7Visibility. No requirement.
S7.5.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.5.9Markings. See S6.5.1.2.
S7.5.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.5.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.5.12Ratio.
S7.5.12.1Clearance lamps. See S7.1.1.12 for front turn signal lamps and S7.1.2.12 for rear turn signal lamps.
S7.5.12.2Identification lamps. No requirement.
S7.5.13Photometry. Each clearance or identification lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XI, for the applicable lamp color, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.
S7.5.14Physical tests. Each clearance and identification must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.6Backup lamps.
S7.6.1Number. See Table I-a and S6.1.1.
S7.6.2Color of light.
S7.6.2.1See Table I-a.
S7.6.2.2A backup lamp may project incidental red, yellow, or white light through reflectors or lenses that are adjacent, close to, or a part of the lamp assembly.
S7.6.3Mounting location. See Table I-a.
S7.6.4Mounting height. No requirement.
S7.6.5Activation. See Table I-a.
S7.6.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.6.7Visibility. See Table V-a.
S7.6.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.6.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S7.6.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.6.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.6.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.6.13Photometry. Each backup lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.
S7.6.14Physical tests. Each backup lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.7License plate lamps.
S7.7.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.1.
S7.7.2Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.7.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.7.4Mounting height. No requirement.
S7.7.5Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S7.7.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.7.7Visibility. No requirement.
S7.7.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.7.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S7.7.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.7.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.7.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.7.13Photometry.
S7.7.13.1Each license plate lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of this section when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.2.
S7.7.13.2An illumination value of no less than 8 lx [0.75 fc] must be met at each test station target location shown in Figure 19.
S7.7.13.3The ratio of the average of the two highest illumination values divided by the average of the two lowest illumination values must not exceed 20:1 for vehicles other than motorcycles and motor driven cycles.
S7.7.13.4The ratio of the highest illumination value divided by the average of the two lowest illumination values must not exceed 15:1 for motorcycles and motor driven cycles.
S7.7.14Physical tests. Each license plate lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.7.15Installation.
S7.7.15.1Each license plate lamp installed on a vehicle other than a motorcycle or motor driven cycle must be of such size and design as to provide illumination on all parts of a 150 mm by 300 mm test plate.
S7.7.15.2Each license plate lamp installed on a motorcycle or motor driven cycle must be of such size and design as to provide illumination on all parts of a 100 mm by 175 mm test plate.
S7.7.15.3The light rays must reach all portions of an imaginary plate of the same size at least 25 mm ahead of the actual plate measured perpendicular to the plane of the plate.
S7.7.15.4Incident light from single lamp. When a single lamp as shown in Figure 20 is used to illuminate the license plate, the lamp and license plate holder must bear such relation to each other that at no point on the plate must the incident light make an angle of less than 8° to the plane of the plate, this angle being measured from the edge of the light emitting surface of the lamp farthest from the surface of the plate.
S7.7.15.5Incident light from multiple lamps. When two or more lamps as shown in Figure 20 are used to illuminate the license plate, the minimum 8° incident light angle must apply only to that portion of the plate which the particular lamp is designed to illuminate. The angle must be measured in the same manner as S7.7.15.4.
S7.8Parking lamps.
S7.8.1Number. See Table I-a.
S7.8.2Color of light. See Table I-a.
S7.8.3Mounting location. See Table I-a.
S7.8.4Mounting height. See Table I-a.
S7.8.5Activation. See Table I-a.
S7.8.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.8.7Visibility. See S6.4.
S7.8.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.8.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S7.8.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.8.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.8.12Ratio. See S7.1.1.12 for front turn signal lamps.
S7.8.13Photometry. Each parking lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIV, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.
S7.8.14Physical tests. Each parking lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.9High-mounted stop lamps.
S7.9.1Number. See Table I-a and S6.1.1.2.
S7.9.2Color of light. See Table I-a.
S7.9.3Mounting location. See Table I-a.
S7.9.4Mounting height. See Table I-a and S6.1.4.1.
S7.9.5Activation. See Table I-a.
S7.9.6Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-b.
S7.9.7Visibility. See Table V-a.
S7.9.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.9.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S7.9.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.9.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.9.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.9.13Photometry. Each high-mounted stop lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XV, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.
S7.9.14Physical tests.
S7.9.14.1Each high-mounted stop lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.9.14.2Each high-mounted stop lamp that is not mounted inside the vehicle must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5.
S7.10Daytime running lamps (DRLs).
S7.10.1Number. See Table I-a.
S7.10.2Color of light. See Table I-a.
S7.10.3Mounting location. See Table I-a.
S7.10.4Mounting height. See Table I-a. and S7.10.13(b).
S7.10.5Activation. See Table I-a. and S7.10.10.1(c).
S7.10.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S7.10.7Visibility. No requirement.
S7.10.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.10.9Markings. See S6.5.
S7.10.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.10.10.1Spacing to turn signal lamps. Each DRL not optically combined with a turn signal lamp must be located on the vehicle so that the distance from its lighted edge to the optical center of the nearest turn signal lamp is not less than 100 mm unless,
(a) The luminous intensity of the DRL is not more than 2,600 cd at any location in the beam and the turn signal lamp meets 2.5 times the base front turn signal photometric requirements, or
(b) The DRL is optically combined with a lower beam headlamp and the turn signal lamp meets 2.5 times the base front turn signal photometric requirements, or
(c) The DRL is deactivated when the turn signal or hazard warning signal lamp is activated.
S7.10.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.10.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.10.13Photometry. Each DRL must have a luminous intensity not less than 500 cd at test point H-V, nor more than 3,000 cd at any location in the beam when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.4 as specified by this section, unless it is:
(a) A lower beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL at full voltage, or a voltage lower than used to operate it as a lower beam headlamp, or
(b) An upper beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL, whose luminous intensity at test point H-V is not more than 7,000 cd, and whose mounting height is not higher than 864 mm.
S7.10.14Physical tests. Each DRL that is not combined with another required lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S7.11School bus signal lamps.
S7.11.1Number. See Table I-a.
S7.11.2Color of light. See Table I-a.
S7.11.3Mounting location. See Table I-a.
S7.11.4Mounting height. See Table I-a.
S7.11.5Activation. See Table I-a.
S7.11.6Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-c.
S7.11.7Visibility. See Table V-a.
S7.11.8Indicator. No requirement.
S7.11.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S7.11.10Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.
S7.11.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.
S7.11.12Ratio. No requirement.
S7.11.13Photometry. Each school bus signal lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the lamp color as specified by this section.
S7.11.14Physical tests. Each school bus signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S8Reflective device requirements.
S8.1Reflex reflectors.
S8.1.1Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S8.1.2Color. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S8.1.3Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S8.1.4Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.
S8.1.5Activation. No requirement.
S8.1.6Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S8.1.7Visibility. No requirement.
S8.1.8Indicator. No requirement.
S8.1.9Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.
S8.1.10Spacing to other lamps or reflective devices. No requirement.
S8.1.11Photometry. Each reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 for the reflex reflector color as specified by this section.
S8.1.12Physical tests. Each reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.
S8.1.13Alternative side reflex reflector material. Reflective material conforming to GSA Federal Specification L-S-300 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance requirements of Table XVI-a.
S8.2Conspicuity systems. The requirement for conspicuity systems may be met with retroreflective sheeting, conspicuity reflex reflectors, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and conspicuity reflex reflectors.
S8.2.1Retroreflective sheeting.
S8.2.1.1Retroreflective sheeting must consist of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with retroreflective elements embedded or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed retroreflective optical system.
S8.2.1.2Retroreflective sheeting material. Retroreflective sheeting must meet the requirements, except photometry, of ASTM D 4956-90 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) for Type V Sheeting. Sheeting of Grade DOT-C2 of no less than 50 mm wide, Grade DOT-C3 of no less than 75 mm wide, or Grade DOT-C4 of no less than 100 mm wide may be used.
S8.2.1.3Certification marking. The letters DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, as appropriate, constituting a certification that the retroreflective sheeting conforms to the requirements of this standard, must appear at least once on the exposed surface of each white or red segment of retroreflective sheeting, and at least once every 300 mm on retroreflective sheeting that is white only. The characters must be not less than 3 mm high, and must be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.
S8.2.1.4Application pattern.
S8.2.1.4.1Alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.1.4.1.1As shown in Figures 12-1 and 12-2, where alternating material is installed, except for a segment that is trimmed to clear obstructions, or lengthened to provide red sheeting near red lamps, alternating material must be installed with each white and red segment having a length of 300 ±150 mm.
S8.2.1.4.1.2Neither white nor red sheeting must represent more than two thirds the aggregate of any continuous strip marking the width of a trailer, or any continuous or broken strip marking its length.
S8.2.1.5Application location. Conspicuity systems need not be installed, as illustrated in Figure 12-2, on discontinuous surfaces such as outside ribs, stake post pickets on platform trailers, and external protruding beams, or to items of equipment such as door hinges and lamp bodies on trailers and body joints, stiffening beads, drip rails, and rolled surfaces on truck tractors.
S8.2.1.6Application spacing. As illustrated in Figure 12-2, the edge of any white sheeting must not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any red or amber lamp that is required by this standard. The edge of any red sheeting must not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any amber lamp that is required by this standard.
S8.2.1.7Photometry. Each retroreflective sheeting must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-c when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 for the color and grade as specified by this section.
S8.2.2Conspicuity reflex reflectors.
S8.2.2.1Certification marking. The exposed surface of each conspicuity reflex reflector must be marked with the letters DOT-C which constitutes a certification that the reflector conforms to the conspicuity reflex reflector requirements of this standard. The certification must be not less than 3 mm high, and must be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.
S8.2.2.2Application pattern.
S8.2.2.2.1Alternating red and white materials. Conspicuity reflex reflectors must be installed in a repetitive pattern of two or three white reflectors alternating with two or three red reflectors, with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.
S8.2.2.2.2White material. White conspicuity reflex reflectors must be installed with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.
S8.2.2.3Photometry.
S8.2.2.3.1Each red conspicuity reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a red reflex reflector and Table XVI-b for a red conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.
S8.2.2.3.2Each white conspicuity reflex reflector installed in only a horizontal orientation must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a white reflex reflector and Table XVI-b for a white horizontal conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.
S8.2.2.3.3Each white conspicuity reflex reflector installed in a vertical orientation must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a white reflex reflector, and Table XVI-b for a white horizontal conspicuity reflex reflector and a white vertical conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.
S8.2.3Conspicuity system installation on trailers.
S8.2.3.1Trailer rear.
S8.2.3.1.1Element 1—alternating red and white materials. As shown in Figure 11, a strip of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, as horizontal as practicable, must be applied across the full width of the trailer, as close to the extreme edges as practicable, and as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the strip centerline with the trailer at curb weight.
S8.2.3.1.2Element 2—white. (not required for container chassis or for platform trailers without bulkheads).
S8.2.3.1.2.1As shown in Figure 11, two pairs of strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long of Grade DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, must be applied horizontally and vertically to the right and left upper contours of the body, as viewed from the rear, as close to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable.
S8.2.3.1.2.2If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is other than rectangular, the strips may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.
S8.2.3.1.3Element 3—alternating red and white materials. (not required for trailers without underride protection devices).
S8.2.3.1.3.1As shown in Figure 11, a strip of Grade DOT-C2 sheeting no less than 38 mm wide or reflectors must be applied across the full width of the horizontal member of the rear underride protection device.
S8.2.3.2Trailer side—alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.3.2.1As shown in Figure 11, a strip of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors must be applied to each side, as horizontal as practicable, originating and terminating as close to the front and rear as practicable, as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the strip centerline at curb weight, except that at the location chosen the strip must not be obscured in whole or in part by other motor vehicle equipment or trailer cargo.
S8.2.3.2.2The strip need not be continuous as long as not less than half the length of the trailer is covered and the spaces are distributed as evenly as practicable.
S8.2.3.2.3If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, Grade DOT-C2 sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not more than 25 mm and used in place of the retroreflective sheeting that would otherwise be applied.
S8.2.4Conspicuity system installation on truck tractors.
S8.2.4.1Element 1—alternating red and white materials. As shown in Figure 13, two strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each not less than 600 mm long, located as close as practicable to the edges of the rear fenders, mudflaps, or the mudflap support brackets, must be applied to mark the width of the truck tractor.
S8.2.4.1.1The strips must be mounted as horizontal as practicable, in a vertical plane facing the rear, on the rear fenders, on the mudflap support brackets, on plates attached to the mudflap support brackets, or on the mudflaps.
S8.2.4.1.2Strips on mudflaps must be mounted not lower than 300 mm below the upper horizontal edge of the mudflap. If the vehicle is certified with temporary mudflap support brackets, the strips must be mounted on the mudflaps or on plates transferable to permanent mudflap support brackets.
S8.2.4.1.3For a truck tractor without mudflaps, the strips may be mounted outboard of the frame on brackets behind the rear axle or on brackets ahead of the rear axle and above the top of the rear tires at unladen vehicle height, or they may be mounted directly or indirectly to the back of the cab as close to the outer edges as practicable, above the top of the tires, and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at unladen vehicle height.
S8.2.4.1.4If the strips are mounted on the back of the cab, no more than 25% of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.
S8.2.4.2Element 2—white. As shown in Figure 13, two pairs of strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long, must be applied horizontally and vertically as practicable to the right and left upper contours of the cab, as close to the top of the cab and as far apart as practicable.
S8.2.4.2.1No more than 25% of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.
S8.2.4.2.2If one pair must be relocated to avoid obscuration by vehicle equipment, the other pair may be relocated in order to be mounted symmetrically.
S8.2.4.2.3If the rear window is so large as to occupy all the practicable space, the material may be attached to the edge of the window itself.
S9Associated equipment requirements.
S9.1Turn signal operating unit.
S9.1.1The turn signal operating unit installed on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses less than 2032 mm in overall width must be self-canceling by steering wheel rotation and capable of cancellation by a manually operated control.
S9.1.2Physical tests. Each turn signal operating unit must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.
S9.2Turn signal flasher.
S9.2.1The means of producing the turn signal pilot indicator signal may be incorporated in the flasher. A means of producing an audible signal may be incorporated in the flasher.
S9.2.2Physical tests. Each turn signal flasher must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.
S9.3Turn signal pilot indicator.
S9.3.1Each vehicle equipped with a turn signal operating unit where any turn signal lamp is not visible to the driver must also have an illuminated pilot indicator to provide a clear and unmistakable indication that the turn signal system is activated.
S9.3.2The indicator must consist of one or more lights flashing at the same frequency as the turn signal lamps.
S9.3.3The indicator must function satisfactorily under all test conditions imposed on the turn signal flasher in S14.9.
S9.3.4Indicator size and color.
S9.3.4.1If the indicator is located inside the vehicle it must emit a green colored light and have a minimum area equivalent to a 3/16 in diameter circle.
S9.3.4.2If the indicator is located outside of the vehicle it must emit a yellow light and have a minimum projected illuminated area of 0.1 sq in.
S9.3.5The minimum required illuminated area of the indicator must be visible to any tangent on the 95th eyellipse as defined in SAE Recommended Practice J941b (1969) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), with the steering wheel turned to a straight ahead driving position and in the design location for an adjustable wheel or column.
S9.3.6Turn signal lamp failure. Failure of one or more turn signal lamps such that the minimum photometric performance specified in Tables VI or VII is not being met must be indicated by the turn signal pilot indicator by a “steady on”, “steady off”, or by a significant change in the flashing rate, except when a variable-load turn signal flasher is used on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus 2032 mm or more in overall width, on a truck that is capable of accommodating a slide in camper, or on any vehicle equipped to tow trailers.
S9.4Headlamp beam switching device. Each vehicle must have a means of switching between lower and upper beams designed and located so that it may be operated conveniently by a simple movement of the driver's hand or foot. The switch must have no dead point and, except as provided by S6.1.5.2, the lower and upper beams must not be energized simultaneously except momentarily for temporary signaling purposes or during switching between beams.
S9.4.1Semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device. As an alternative to S9.4, a vehicle may be equipped with a semi-automatic means of switching between lower and upper beams.
S9.4.1.1Operating instructions. Each semi-automatic headlamp switching device must include operating instructions to permit a driver to operate the device correctly including; how to turn the automatic control on and off, how to adjust the provided sensitivity control, and any other specific instructions applicable to the particular device.
S9.4.1.2Manual override. The device must include a means convenient to the driver for switching to the opposite beam from the one provided.
S9.4.1.3Fail safe operation. A failure of the automatic control portion of the device must not result in the loss of manual operation of both upper and lower beams.
S9.4.1.4Automatic dimming indicator. There must be a convenient means of informing the driver when the device is controlling the headlamps automatically. The device shall not affect the function of the upper beam indicator light.
S9.4.1.5Lens accessibility. The device lens must be accessible for cleaning when the device is installed on a vehicle.
S9.4.1.6Mounting height. The center of the device lens must be mounted no less than 24 in. above the road surface.
S9.4.1.7Physical tests. Each semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.
S9.5Upper beam headlamp indicator. Each vehicle must have a means for indicating to the driver when the upper beams of the headlighting system are activated.
S9.5.1Indicator size and location. The upper beam headlamp indicator must have a minimum area equivalent to that of a 3/16 in diameter circle, and be plainly visible to drivers of all heights under normal driving conditions when headlamps are required.
S9.6Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit.
S9.6.1The unit may be an independent device or it may be combined with the turn signal operating unit. If combined with the turn signal operating unit, the actuating motion of the hazard function must differ from the actuating motion of the turn signal function.
S9.6.2Operating unit switch. The unit must operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch. If the actuation of the hazard function requires the operation of more than one switch, a means must be provided for actuating all switches simultaneously by a single driver action.
S9.6.3Physical tests. Each vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.
S9.7Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher.
S9.7.1The means of producing the hazard warning signal pilot indicator signal may be incorporated in the flasher. A means of producing an audible signal may be incorporated in the flasher.
S9.7.2Physical tests. Each vehicular hazard warning signal flasher must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.
S9.8Vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator.
S9.8.1In vehicles equipped with right hand and left hand turn signal pilot indicators, both pilot indicators and /or a separate pilot indicator must flash simultaneously while the vehicle hazard warning signal operating unit is turned on.
S9.8.2In vehicles equipped with a single turn signal pilot indicator, a separate vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator must flash and the turn signal pilot indicator may flash while the vehicle hazard warning signal operating unit is turned on.
S9.8.3The indicator must function satisfactorily under all test conditions imposed on the vehicular hazard warning signal flasher in S14.9.
S9.8.4Indicator size and color. If the vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator is not combined with the turn signal pilot indicator, it must emit a red color and have a minimum area equivalent to a 0.5 in diameter circle.
S10Headlighting system requirements.
S10.1Vehicle headlighting systems.
S10.1.1Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus must be equipped with a headlighting system conforming to the requirements of Table II and this standard.
S10.1.2Each motorcycle must be equipped with a headlighting system conforming to S10.17 of this standard.
S10.2 [Reserved]
S10.3Number. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S10.4Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S10.5Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-c and S6.1.3.5.
S10.6Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-c.
S10.7Activation. See Tables I-a and I-c, Table II, and S6.1.5.
S10.8Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.
S10.9Visibility. No requirement.
S10.10Indicator. See S9.5.
S10.11Markings. See S6.5.
S10.12Spacing to other lamps. See S6.1.3.5.
S10.13Sealed beam headlighting systems. All sealed beam headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-a. Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the specifications furnished with respect to it pursuant to appendix C of part 564 of this chapter and Table II-a of this standard. The dimensions applicable to the design of a specific type are those identified with an “I” for interchangeability specified on the applicable drawing(s) filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397.
S10.13.1Installation. A sealed beam headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-a. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-a. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams.
S10.13.2Simultaneous aim. Type F sealed beam headlamps may be mounted on common or parallel seating and aiming planes to permit simultaneous aiming of both headlamps provided that there is no provision for adjustment between the common or parallel aiming and seating planes of the two lamps. When tested with any conforming Type UF and LF headlamps in accordance with S14.2.5, the assembly (consisting of the Type UF and LF headlamps, mounting rings, the aiming/seating rings, and aim adjustment mechanism) must be designed to conform to the applicable photometric requirements.
S10.13.3Photometry. Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-a for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.
S10.13.4Physical tests.
S10.13.4.1Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), torque deflection test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, headlamp wattage test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.
S10.13.4.2Each sealed beam headlamp except a Type G or Type H must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the retaining ring test of S14.6.
S10.13.4.3Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each sealed beam headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.
S10.14Integral beam headlighting systems. All integral beam headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-c.
S10.14.1Installation. An integral beam headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-c. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-c. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams.
S10.14.2Aimability.
S10.14.2.1A system that incorporates any headlamp or beam contributor that does not have a VHAD as an integral and indivisible part of the headlamp or beam contributor must be designed so that the applicable photometric requirements are met when any correctly aimed and photometrically conforming headlamp or beam contributor is removed from its mounting and aiming mechanism, and is replaced without reaim by any conforming headlamp or beam contributor of the same type.
S10.14.2.2A system that incorporates more than one beam contributor providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing an upper beam, shall be designed to conform to the on-vehicle aiming requirements specified in S10.18.8.
S10.14.3Simultaneous aim. An integral beam headlighting system consisting of four individual headlamps or beam contributors may have the headlamp units mounted in an assembly to permit simultaneous aiming of the beam(s) contributors, providing that with any complying contributor the assembly complete with all lamps meets the applicable photometric requirements when tested in accordance with S14.2.5.
S10.14.4Markings. An integral beam headlamp with a single light source providing the lower beam must have its lens permanently marked with “L”. An integral beam headlamp with a single light source providing the upper beam must have its lens permanently marked with “U”.
S10.14.5Additional light sources. An integral beam headlamp may incorporate light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting and are capable of being replaced.
S10.14.6Photometry. Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-c for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.
S10.14.7Physical tests.
S10.14.7.1Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, temperature cycle test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.
S10.14.7.2Each integral beam headlamp that is not designed to conform to the performance requirements of the sealing test of S14.6 must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the connector-corrosion test, dust test, and humidity test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.3Each integral beam headlamp except those with a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the abrasion test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.4Each integral beam headlamp except those with a nonreplaceable glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.5Each integral beam headlamp except those with a glass lens and a non-plastic reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the internal heat test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.6Each integral beam headlamp incorporating a replaceable lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test and the corrosion resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.7Each integral beam headlamp capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the torque deflection test of S14.6.
S10.14.7.8Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each integral beam headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.
S10.15Replaceable bulb headlighting systems. All replaceable bulb headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-d.
S10.15.1Installation. A replaceable bulb headlighting system must consist of either two or four headlamps as specified for the applicable system in Table II-d. The headlamps must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-d. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams and must incorporate not more than two replaceable light sources in each headlamp.
S10.15.2Aiming restrictions. Each replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to the external aiming requirements of S10.18.7 must have no mechanism that allows adjustment of an individual light source, or if there are two light sources, independent adjustments of each reflector.
S10.15.3Replacement lens reflector units. Each lens reflector unit manufactured as replacement equipment must be designed to conform to applicable photometry requirements when any replaceable light source designated for such a unit is inserted in it.
S10.15.4Markings.
S10.15.4.1A replaceable bulb headlamp in a four headlamp system providing lower beam must have its lens permanently marked with “L”. A replaceable bulb headlamp in a four headlamp system providing upper beam must have its lens permanently marked with “U”.
S10.15.4.1.1No such markings are required if the light sources in the headlamp are any combination of dual filament light sources other than HB2.
S10.15.5Additional light sources. A replaceable bulb headlamp may incorporate replaceable light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting.
S10.15.6Photometry. Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-d for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 using any replaceable light source designated for use in the system under test.
S10.15.7Physical tests.
S10.15.7.1Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, corrosion-connector test, dust test, temperature cycle test, humidity test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.
S10.15.7.2Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the abrasion test of S14.6.
S10.15.7.3Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a nonreplaceable glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance test of S14.6.
S10.15.7.4Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a glass lens and a non-plastic reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the internal heat test of S14.6.
S10.15.7.5Each replaceable bulb headlamp incorporating a replaceable lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test and the corrosion resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test of S14.6.
S10.15.7.6Each replaceable bulb headlamp capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the torque deflection test of S14.6.
S10.15.7.7Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each replaceable bulb headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.
S10.16Combination headlighting systems. All combination headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-b.
S10.16.1Installation. A combination headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-b. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-b. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams. When installed on a motor vehicle, the headlamps (or parts thereof) that provide the lower beam must be of the same type, and provide a symmetrical effective projected luminous lens area when illuminated.
S10.16.2Photometry. Each combination headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-b for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.
S10.16.3Physical tests.
S10.16.3.1Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is a Type F sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.13.4.
S10.16.3.2Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is an integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.14.7.
S10.16.3.3Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is a replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.15.7.
S10.17Motorcycle headlighting systems. A motorcycle headlighting system may consist of:
(a) One half of any headlighting system of Table II which provides both a full upper beam and full lower beam, and is designed to conform to the requirements for that headlamp type. Where more than one lamp must be used, the lamps shall be mounted vertically, with the lower beam as high as practicable, or
(b) A headlighting system designed to conform to the requirements of paragraphs S10.17.1 through S10.17.5.
S10.17.1Installation. The headlighting system installed on a motorcycle must consist of one of the system types specified in this paragraph, and must be located on the front.
S10.17.1.1Single headlamp.
S10.17.1.1.1If the system consists of a single headlamp, it must be mounted on the vertical centerline of the motorcycle.
S10.17.1.1.2If the headlamp contains more than one light source, each light source must be mounted on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height.
S10.17.1.1.3If the light sources are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of the effective projected luminous lens area in front of the light sources must not be greater than 200 mm.
S10.17.1.2Two headlamps with both beams.
S10.17.1.2.1If the system consists of two headlamps, each of which provides both an upper and lower beam, the headlamps must be mounted either at the same height and symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline or mounted on the vertical centerline.
S10.17.1.2.2If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas must not be greater than 200 mm.
S10.17.1.3Two headlamps, upper beam and lower beam.
S10.17.1.3.1If the system consists of two headlamps, one of which provides an upper beam and one of which provides the lower beam, the headlamps must be located on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height.
S10.17.1.3.2If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas must not be greater than 200 mm.
S10.17.2Motorcycle replaceable bulb headlamp marking. Each replaceable bulb headlamp that is designed to conform to S10.17(b) and that is equipped with a light source other than a replaceable light source meeting the requirements of S11, must have the word “motorcycle” permanently marked on the lens in characters not less than 3 mm in height.
S10.17.3Photometry. Each motorcycle headlamp that is not designed to conform to S10.17(a), must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XX when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.
S10.17.4Physical tests. Each motorcycle headlamp that is not designed to conform to S10.17(a) must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, the out of focus test of S14.3, the color test of S14.4, and each motorcycle headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.
S10.17.5Motorcycle headlamp modulation system. A headlamp on a motorcycle may be activated to modulate either the upper beam or the lower beam from its maximum intensity to a lesser intensity, provided that:
S10.17.5.1Modulation.
(a) The rate of modulation must be 240 ±40 cycles per minute.
(b) The headlamp must be operated at maximum power for 50 to 70 percent of each cycle.
(c) The lowest intensity at any test point must be not less than 17 percent of the maximum intensity measured at the same point.
(d) The modulator switch must be wired in the power lead of the beam filament being modulated and not in the ground side of the circuit.
(e) Means must be provided so that both the lower beam and upper beam remain operable in the event of a modulator failure.
(f) The system must include a sensor mounted with the axis of its sensing element perpendicular to a horizontal plane. Headlamp modulation must cease whenever the level of light emitted by a tungsten filament light operating at 3000° Kelvin is either less than 270 lux of direct light for upward pointing sensors or less than 60 lux of reflected light for downward pointing sensors. The light is measured by a silicon cell type light meter that is located at the sensor and pointing in the same direction as the sensor. A Kodak Gray Card (Kodak R-27) is placed at ground level to simulate the road surface in testing downward pointing sensors.
(g) When tested in accordance with the test profile shown in Figure 9, the voltage drop across the modulator when the lamp is on at all test conditions for 12 volt systems and 6 volt systems must not be greater than 0.45 volt. The modulator must meet all the provisions of the standard after completion of the test profile shown in Figure 9.
(h) Means must be provided so that both the lower and upper beam function at design voltage when the headlamp control switch is in either the lower or upper beam position when the modulator is off.
S10.17.5.2Replacement modulators. Each modulator not intended as original equipment, or its container, must be labeled with the maximum wattage, and the minimum wattage appropriate for its use.
S10.17.5.2.1Replacement performance. Each modulator, not intended as original equipment, must comply with S10.17.5.1 (a) through (g) when connected to a headlamp of the maximum rated power and a headlamp of the minimum rated power, and must provide means so that the modulated beam functions at design voltage when the modulator is off.
S10.17.5.2.2Replacement instructions. Instructions, with a diagram, must be provided for mounting the light sensor including location on the motorcycle, distance above the road surface, and orientation with respect to the light.
S10.18Headlamp aimability performance requirements (except for motorcycles)
S10.18.1Headlamp mounting and aiming. Except as provided in this paragraph, each headlamp must be installed on a motor vehicle with a mounting and aiming mechanism that permits aim inspection and adjustment of both vertical and horizontal aim, and is accessible for those purposes without removal of any vehicle parts, except for protective covers removable without the use of tools.
S10.18.1.1The axis of the light beams must be adjustable to the left, right, up, or down from the designed setting, the amount of adjustability to be determined by practical operating conditions and the type of equipment.
S10.18.1.2The adjustments must be conveniently made by one person with tools ordinarily available. When the headlamps are secured, the aim will not be disturbed under ordinary conditions of service.
S10.18.2Headlamp aiming systems. When a headlamp system is installed on a motor vehicle, it must be aimable with at least one of the following: An externally applied aiming device, as specified in S10.18.7; an on-vehicle headlamp aiming device installed by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, as specified in S10.18.8; or by visual/optical means, as specified in S10.18.9.
S10.18.3Aim adjustment interaction. When installed on the vehicle, adjustment of one aim axis through its full on-vehicle range must not cause the aim of the other axis to deviate more than ±0.76°. If the performance specified is not achievable, the requirements of S10.18.3.1 apply, except that if the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs are not applicable, and the instruction must be specific to the aiming mechanism installed.
S10.18.3.1Should the mechanism not meet the requirements of S10.18.3, a cautionary label must be placed adjacent to the mechanism stating the caution and including either the reason for the caution or the corrective action necessary. Each such label must also refer the reader to the vehicle operator's manual for complete instructions. Each such vehicle must be equipped with an operator's manual containing the complete instructions appropriate for the mechanism installed.
S10.18.4Horizontal adjustment-visually aimed headlamp. A visually/optically aimable headlamp that has a lower beam must not have a horizontal adjustment mechanism unless such mechanism meets the requirements of this standard for on vehicle aiming as specified in S10.18.8.
S10.18.5Optical axis marking.
S10.18.5.1Optical axis marking-vehicle. Each motor vehicle must be equipped with headlamps or beam contributors which have a mark or markings that are visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle to identify the optical axis of the headlamp to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.
S10.18.5.2Optical axis marking-lamp. Each headlamp or beam contributor that is not visually/optically aimable in accordance with S10.18.9 of this standard must be equipped with fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references of sufficient detail and accuracy, for determination of an appropriate vehicle plane to be used with the photometric procedures of S14.2.5 for correct alignment with the photometer axis when being tested for photometric compliance, and to serve for the aiming reference when the headlamp or beam contributor is installed on a motor vehicle. The fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references are protrusions, bubble vials, holes, indentations, ridges, scribed lines, or other readily identifiable marks established and described by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer.
S10.18.5.3Optical axis marking-visual/optical aim headlamp. There must be a mark or markings identifying the optical axis of the headlamp visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle, to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment with the headlamp being aimed. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.
S10.18.6Moveable reflectors. Each headlamp aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, must conform with the photometric requirements applicable to it when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 with the lens at any position relative to the reflector within the full range of vertical pitch on the vehicle on which the headlamp system is installed and a horizontal range of ±2.5°. Additionally it must comply with the aiming adjustment requirements of S14.6.
S10.18.7External aiming. Each headlighting system that is capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices must be mechanically aimable using the equipment specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), without the removal of any ornamental trim rings, covers, wipers or other vehicle parts.
S10.18.7.1Headlamp aiming device locating plates. Each headlighting system which is designed to use the Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates with adjustable legs for the 100×165 mm unit and the 142×200 mm unit, and which has adjustable length legs, must meet the following requirements:
S10.18.7.1.1The lens must have three aiming pads which meet the requirements of Figure 4, Dimensional Specifications for Location of Aiming Pads on Replaceable Bulb Headlamp Units. The aiming pads need not be centered at the geometric center of the lens, or on the optical axis. Except as provided in S10.18.7.1.2, a whole number, which represents the distance in tenths of an inch (i.e. 0.3 inch = 3) from the aiming reference plane to the respective aiming pads which are not in contact with that plane, must be inscribed adjacent to each respective aiming pad on the lens. The height of these numbers must be not less than .157 inch (4 mm). If there is interference between the plane and the area of the lens between the aiming pads, the whole number represents the distance to a secondary plane. The secondary plane must be located parallel to the aiming reference plane and as close to the lens as possible without causing interference.
S10.18.7.1.2If the most forward aiming pad is the lower inboard aiming pad, then the dimensions may be placed anywhere on the lens. The dimension for the outboard aiming pad (Dimension F in Figure 4) must be followed by the letter “H” and the dimension for the center aiming pad must be followed by the letter “V.” The dimensions must be expressed in tenths of an inch.
S10.18.7.2Nonadjustable headlamp aiming device locating plates. Each headlamp may be designed to use the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plate for the 100 × 165 mm unit, the 142 × 200 mm unit, the 146 mm diameter unit, or the 178 mm diameter unit of SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), or the 92 × 150 mm Type F unit, and incorporate lens-mounted aiming pads as specified for those units pursuant to Appendix C of part 564 of this chapter. If so designed, no additional lens marking is necessary to designate the type of plate or dimensions.
S10.18.8On-vehicle aiming. Each headlighting system that is capable of being aimed by equipment installed on the vehicle must include a Vehicle Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) that conforms to the following requirements:
S10.18.8.1Aim. The VHAD must provide for headlamp aim inspection and adjustment in both the vertical and horizontal axes.
S10.18.8.1.1Vertical aim. The VHAD must include the necessary references and scales relative to the horizontal plane to assure correct vertical aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An off vehicle measurement of the angle of the plane of the ground is permitted. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “0” position representing angular changes in the axis in the upward and downward directions must be provided.
S10.18.8.1.1.1Each graduation must represent a change in the vertical position of the mechanical axis not larger than 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft) to provide for variations in aim at least 1.2° above and below the horizontal, and have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1°.
S10.18.8.1.1.2The VHAD must be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the upward and downward directions.
S10.18.8.1.1.3Each graduation must indicate a linear movement of the scale indicator of not less than 0.05 in (1.27 mm) if a direct reading analog indicator is used. If a remote reading indicator is provided, it must represent the actual aim movement in a clear, understandable format.
S10.18.8.1.1.4The vertical indicator must perform through a minimum range of ±1.2°.
S10.18.8.1.1.5Means must be provided in the VHAD for compensating for deviations in floor slope less than 1.2° from the horizontal that would affect the correct positioning of the headlamp for vertical aim.
S10.18.8.1.1.6The graduations must be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and must permit aim adjustment to within 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft).
S10.18.8.1.2Horizontal aim. The VHAD must include references and scales relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle necessary to assure correct horizontal aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An “0” mark must be used to indicate alignment of the headlamps relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “0” position representing equal angular changes in the axis relative to the vehicle axis must be provided.
S10.18.8.1.2.1Each graduation must represent a change in the horizontal position of the mechanical axis not greater than 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft) to provide for variations in aim at least 0.76° (4 in at 25 ft) to the left and right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and must have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1°.
S10.18.8.1.2.2The VHAD must be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the left and right directions.
S10.18.8.1.2.3The graduations must be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and must permit aim adjustment to within 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft).
S10.18.8.1.2.4The horizontal indicator must perform through a minimum range of ±0.76° (4 in at 25 ft); however, the indicator itself must be capable of recalibration over a movement of ±2.5° relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle to accommodate any adjustment necessary for recalibrating the indicator after vehicle repair from accident damage.
S10.18.8.2Aiming instructions.
S10.18.8.2.1The instructions for properly aiming the headlighting system using the VHAD must be provided on a label permanently affixed to the vehicle adjacent to the VHAD, or in the vehicle operator's manual. The instructions must advise that the headlighting system is properly aimed if the appropriate vertical plane (as defined by the vehicle manufacturer) is perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and a horizontal plane when the vehicle is on a horizontal surface, and the VHAD is set at “0” vertical and “0” horizontal.
S10.18.8.2.2Should a remote indicator or a remote indicator and adjuster be provided, the instructions must be placed in the operator's manual, and may also be placed on a label adjacent to the VHAD.
S10.18.8.3Permanent calibration. Each headlamp equipped with a VHAD must be manufactured with its calibration permanently fixed by its manufacturer. Calibration in this case means the process of accurately aligning the geometry of the VHAD devices with the beam pattern for the purposes of compliance with the standard.
S10.18.8.4Replacement units. When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 with any replacement headlamp unit(s) or light sources intended for use in the system under test, the VHAD and headlighting system must be designed to conform to the photometric performance requirements applicable for the system under test.
S10.18.8.5Physical tests. Each VHAD must be designed to conform with the performance requirements of S14.8.
S10.18.9Visual/optical aiming. Each visually/optically aimable headlamp must be designed to conform to the following requirements:
S10.18.9.1Vertical aim, lower beam. Each lower beam headlamp must have a cutoff in the beam pattern. It may be either on the left side or the right side of the optical axis, but once chosen for a particular headlamp system's design, the side chosen for the cutoff must not be changed for any headlamps intended to be used as replacements for those system's headlamps.
S10.18.9.1.1Vertical position of the cutoff. The headlamp must be aimed vertically so that the cutoff is on the left side, at 0.4° down from the H-H line, or on the right side, at the H-H line.
S10.18.9.1.2Vertical gradient. The gradient of the cutoff measured at either 2.5° L or 2.0° R must be not less than 0.13 based on the procedure of S10.18.9.1.5.
S10.18.9.1.3Horizontal position of the cutoff. The width must be not less than 2°, with not less than 2° of its actual width centered at either 2.5° L, or 2.0° R.
S10.18.9.1.4Maximum inclination of the cutoff. The vertical location of the highest gradient at the ends of the minimum width must be within ±0.2° of the vertical location of the maximum gradient measured at the appropriate vertical line (at either 2.5° L for a left side cutoff, or 2.0° R for a right side cutoff).
S10.18.9.1.5Measuring the cutoff parameter.
S10.18.9.1.5.1The headlamp is mounted on a headlamp test fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed, is attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp is energized at the specified test voltage. The cutoff parameter must be measured at a distance of 10 m from a photosensor with a 10 mm diameter.
S10.18.9.1.5.2The headlamp beam pattern is aimed with the cutoff at the H-H axis. There is no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD is adjusted to zero.
S10.18.9.1.5.3A vertical scan of the beam pattern is conducted for a headlamp with a left side gradient by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.5° L and scanning from 1.5° U to 1.5° D. For a headlamp with a right side gradient, a vertical scan of the beam pattern is conducted by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.0° R and scanning from 1.5° U to 1.5° D.
S10.18.9.1.5.4Determine the maximum gradient within the range of the scan by using the formula: G = log E(a)−logE(a 0.1), where “G” is the gradient, “E” is illumination and “a” is vertical angular position. The maximum value of the gradient “G” determines the vertical angular location of the cutoff. Perform vertical scans at 1.0° L and R of the measurement point of the maximum gradient to determine the inclination.
S10.18.9.2Horizontal aim, lower beam. There is no adjustment of horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has a VHAD, it is set to zero.
S10.18.9.3Vertical aim, upper beam.
S10.18.9.3.1If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam must not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1 and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.
S10.18.9.3.2If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam is adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is located on the H-H axis.
S10.18.9.4Horizontal aim, upper beam.
S10.18.9.4.1If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the horizontal aim of the upper beam must not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1 and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.
S10.18.9.4.2If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with the lower beam and has fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD, then the headlamp is mounted on a headlamp test fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed, is attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp must be energized at 12.8 ±0.20 mV. There is no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD is adjusted to zero.
S10.18.9.4.3If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, and it does not have a VHAD, the horizontal aim of the upper beam is adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is located on the V-V axis.
S10.18.9.5Photometry. When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5, a visually/optically aimable headlamp must be designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of columns; LB1V or LB2V of Table XIX-a, or LB3V of Table XIX-b, or LB4V of Table XIX-c.
S10.18.9.6Visual/optical aiming identification marking. Each letter used in marking according to this paragraph must be not less than 3 mm high.
S10.18.9.6.1The lens of a lower beam headlamp must be marked “VOL” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the left side of the lower beam pattern. The lens of a lower beam headlamp must be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the right side of the lower beam pattern. The lens of a headlamp that is solely an upper beam headlamp and intended to be visually/optically aimed using the upper beam must be marked “VO”.
S10.18.9.6.2The lens of each sealed beam or integral beam headlamp must be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is of a type that was manufactured before May 1, 1997, and if such headlamp type has been redesigned since then to be visually/optically aimable.
S11Replaceable light source requirements. Each replaceable light source must be designed to conform to the dimensions and electrical specifications furnished with respect to it pursuant to part 564 of this chapter, on file in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397, and must conform to the following requirements:
S11.1Markings. If other than an HB Type, the light source must be marked with the bulb marking designation specified for it in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter. The base of each HB Type must be marked with its HB Type designation. Each replaceable light source must also be marked with the symbol DOT and with a name or trademark in accordance with S6.5.
S11.2Ballast markings. If a ballast is required for operation, each ballast must bear the following permanent markings:
(a) Name or logo of ballast manufacturer;
(b) Ballast part number or unique identification;
(c) Part number or other unique identification of the light source for which the ballast is designed;
(d) Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast combination, if the information for the light source has been filed in appendix B of part 564 of this chapter;
(e) A warning that ballast output voltage presents the potential for severe electrical shock that could lead to permanent injury or death;
(f) Ballast output power in watts and output voltage in rms volts AC or DC; and
(g) The symbol ‘DOT’.
S11.3Gas discharge laboratory life. For light sources that use excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, the “rated laboratory life” is determined in accordance with sections 4.3 and 4.9 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 FEB93, Forward Discharge Lighting Systems (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title).
S11.4Physical tests.
S11.4.1Each replaceable light source must be designed to conform with the performance requirements of the deflection test and pressure test requirements of S14.7.
S11.4.2Replaceable light sources must be designed to conform with the requirements of section VII of appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, or section IV of appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, for maximum power and luminous flux when test by the procedure of S14.7.3.
S12Headlamp concealment device requirements.
S12.1While the headlamp is illuminated, its fully opened headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened should any loss of power to or within the headlamp concealment device occur.
S12.2Whenever any malfunction occurs in a component that controls or conducts power for the actuation of the concealment device, each closed headlamp concealment device must be capable of being fully opened by a means not requiring the use of any tools. Thereafter, the headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened until intentionally closed.
S12.3Except for malfunctions covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device must be capable of being fully opened and the headlamps illuminated by actuation of a single switch, lever, or similar mechanism, including a mechanism that is automatically actuated by a change in ambient light conditions.
S12.4Each headlamp concealment device must be installed so that the headlamp may be mounted, aimed, and adjusted without removing any component of the device, other than components of the headlamp assembly.
S12.5Except for cases of malfunction covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device must, within an ambient temperature range of −20 °F to 120 °F, be capable of being fully opened in not more than 3 seconds after the actuation of a driver-operated control.
S12.6As an alternative to complying with the requirements of S12.1 through S12.5, a vehicle with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming in accordance with this standard may meet the requirements for Concealable lamps in paragraph 5.14 of UNECE Regulation 48 page 17 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), in the English language version.
S12.7Certification election. Manufacturers of vehicles with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming must elect to certify to S12.1 through S12.5 or to S12.6 prior to, or at the time of certification of the vehicle, pursuant to 49 CFR part 567. The selection is irrevocable.
S13Replaceable headlamp lens requirements.
S13.1A replacement lens for a replaceable bulb headlamp or integral beam headlamp that is not required to have a bonded lens must be provided with a replacement seal in a package that includes instructions for the removal and replacement of the lens, the cleaning of the reflector, and the sealing of the replacement lens to the reflector assembly.
S13.2Each replacement headlamp lens with seal, when installed according to the lens manufacturer's instructions on an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, must not cause the headlamp to fail to comply with any of the requirements of this standard.
S14Physical and photometry test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.1General test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.1.1Each lamp, reflective device, item of conspicuity treatment, and item of associated equipment required or permitted by this standard must be designed to conform to all applicable physical test performance requirements specified for it.
S14.1.2Plastic optical materials. All plastic materials used for optical parts such as lenses and reflectors on lamps or reflective devices required or allowed by this standard must conform to the material test requirements of S14.4.2.
S14.1.3All coatings used on optical materials must have added to their formulations an optical brightener, whose presence is detectable by ultraviolet light, to aid in testing for their presence. Other equivalent industry accepted methods may be used as an alternative.
S14.1.4Samples.
S14.1.4.1Samples submitted for laboratory test must be new, unused, manufactured from production tooling and assembled by production processes, and representative of the devices as regularly manufactured and marketed.
S14.1.4.2Each test sample must include not only the device but also accessory equipment necessary to operate in its intended manner. Where necessary a mounting bracket shall be provided so that the device may be rigidly bolted in its operating position on the various test equipment.
S14.1.4.3Dust and photometric tests may be made on a second set of mounted samples, if desired, to expedite completion of the tests.
S14.1.5Laboratory facilities. The laboratory must be equipped to test the sample in accordance with the requirements of the specific device.
S14.2Photometric test procedures. Each lamp and reflective device required or permitted by this standard must be designed to conform to the applicable photometric requirements.
S14.2.1Photometry measurements for all lamps except license plate lamps, headlamps, and DRLs.
S14.2.1.1Mounting. Photometry measurements are made with the sample lamp mounted in its normal operating position.
S14.2.1.2School bus signal lamp aiming. A school bus signal lamp must be aimed with its aiming plane normal to the photometer axis and may be reaimed for photometry by ±1/2° vertically and ±1° horizontally.
S14.2.1.3Measurement distance. Photometric measurements are made at a distance between the light source and the point of measurement of at least 1.2 m for side marker lamps, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and parking lamps, and at least 3 m for turn signal lamps, stop lamps, taillamps, backup lamps, and school bus signal lamps.
S14.2.1.4Location of test points. Test point location must comply with the following nomenclature:
(a) The line formed by the intersection of a vertical plane through the light source of the lamp and normal to the test screen is designated “V”.
(b) The line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane through the light source and normal to the test screen is designated “H”.
(c) The point of intersection of these two lines is designated “H-V”.
(d) Other test points on the test screen are measured in terms of angles from the H and V lines.
(e) Angles to the right (R) and to the left (L) are regarded as being to the right and left of the V line when the observer stands behind the lamp and looks in the direction of its light beam when it is properly aimed for photometry. Similarly, the upward angles designated as U and the downward angles designated as D, refer to light directed at angles above and below the H line, respectively.
S14.2.1.5Multiple compartment and multiple lamp photometry of turn signal lamps, stop lamps, and taillamps.
S14.2.1.5.1When compartments of lamps or arrangements of multiple lamps are photometered together, the H-V axis intersects the midpoint between the optical axes.
S14.2.1.5.2Luminous intensity measurements of multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamp arrangements are made either by:
(a) Measuring all compartments together, provided that a line from the optical axis of each compartment or lamp to the center of the photometer sensing device does not make an angle more than 0.6° with the H-V axis, or
(b) Measuring each compartment or lamp separately by aligning its optical axis with the photometer and adding the value at each test point.
S14.2.1.5.3Multiple compartment turn signal lamps or stop lamps or multiple lamp arrangements of these lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, or buses 2032 mm or more in overall width must use the method of S14.2.1.5.2(b) only.
S14.2.1.6Bulbs. Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ± .010 in of the nominal design position specified in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) or specified by the bulb manufacturer and operated at the bulb's rated mean spherical candela.
S14.2.1.6.1Each lamp designed to use a type of bulb that has not been assigned a mean spherical candela rating by its manufacturer and is not listed in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when used with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated at the bulb's design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb must meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the bulb's design voltage.
S14.2.1.6.2A bulb that is not listed in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) is not required to use a socket that conforms to the requirements of SAE Recommended Practice J567b (1964) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5).
S14.2.2License plate lamp photometry. Photometry compliance of license plate lamps is determined by measurement of the illumination falling upon test stations located on a test plate.
S14.2.2.1Illumination surface. All illumination measurements are made on a rectangular test plate of clean, white blotting paper mounted on the license plate holder in the position normally taken by the license plate. The face of the test plate must be 1.5 mm from the face of the license plate holder.
S14.2.2.2Test stations. Test stations must be located on the face of the test plate as shown in Figure 19 according to the type of vehicle on which the license plate lamps are installed.
S14.2.2.3Bulb requirements of S14.2.1.6 apply to license plate lamp photometry.
S14.2.3Reflex reflector and retroreflective sheeting photometry.
S14.2.3.1Mounting. Each reflex reflector is mounted for photometry with the center of the reflex area at the center of goniometer rotation and at the same horizontal level as the source of illumination.
S14.2.3.2Illumination source. The source of illumination is a lamp with a 50 mm effective diameter and with a filament operating at 2856 °K.
S14.2.3.3Measurement distance. The test distance is 30.5 m [100ft].
S14.2.3.4Test setup The observation point is located directly above the source of illumination. The H-V axis of reflex reflectors is taken as parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for rear reflectors and perpendicular to a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for side reflectors.
S14.2.3.5Photodetector. The photodetector has an opening of not more than 13 mm vertically and 25 mm horizontally.
S14.2.3.6Photometry surface. Reflex reflectors may have any linear or area dimensions but must have no more than 7740 sq mm projected area contained within a 254 mm diameter circle exposed for photometry.
S14.2.3.7Procedure. Photometric measurements of reflex reflectors and retroreflective sheeting must be made at various observation and entrance angles as shown in Table XVI.
S14.2.3.7.1The observation angle is the angle formed by a line from the observation point to the center of the reflector and a second line from the center of the reflector to the source of illumination.
S14.2.3.7.2The entrance angle is the angle between the axis of the reflex reflector and a line from the center of the reflector to the source of illumination.
S14.2.3.7.3The entrance angle is designated left, right, up, and down in accordance with the position of the source of illumination with respect to the axis of the reflex reflector as viewed from behind the reflector.
S14.2.3.7.4Measurements are made of the luminous intensity which the reflex reflector is projecting toward the observation point and the illumination on the reflex reflector from the source of illumination.
S14.2.3.8Measurements.
S14.2.3.8.1Reflex reflectors. The required measurement for reflex reflectors at each test point as shown in Table XVI is the quotient of the projected luminous intensity divided by the illumination expressed as millicandela per lux or candela per footcandle.
S14.2.3.8.2Retroreflective sheeting. The required measurement for retroreflective sheeting reflectors at each test point as shown in Table XVI is candela per lux per square meter of area.
S14.2.3.8.3Reflex reflector photometry measurement adjustments.
S14.2.3.8.3.1Reflex reflectors, which do not have a fixed rotational position on the vehicle, are rotated about their axis through 360° to find the minimum photometric value which must be reported for each test point. If the output falls below the minimum requirement at any test point, the reflector is rotated ±5° about its axis from the angle where the minimum output occurred, and the maximum value within this angle is reported as a tolerance value.
S14.2.3.8.3.2Reflex reflectors, which by their design or construction, permit mounting on a vehicle in a fixed rotational position, are tested in this position. A visual locator, such as the word TOP is not considered adequate to establish a fixed rotational position on the vehicle.
S14.2.3.8.3.3If uncolored reflections from the front surface interfere with photometric readings at any test point, additional readings are taken 1° above, below, right, and left of the test point, and the lowest of these readings and its location is reported provided the minimum test point requirement for the test point is met.
S14.2.4Daytime running lamp (DRL) photometry measurements.
S14.2.4.1Each DRL is tested to the procedure of S14.2.5 when a test voltage of 12.8 v ±20 mv is applied to the input terminals of the lamp switch module or voltage-reducing equipment, whichever is closer to the electrical source on the vehicle.
S14.2.4.2The test distance from the lamp to the photometer is not less than 18.3 m if the lamp is optically combined with a headlamp, or is a separate lamp, and not less than 3 m if the lamp is optically combined with a lamp, other than a headlamp, that is required by this standard.
S14.2.4.3Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ± .010 in. of the nominal design position specified in SAE J573d, Lamp bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, (incorporated by reference, paragraph S5.2 of this section) or specified by the bulb manufacturer.
S14.2.5Headlamp photometry measurements.
S14.2.5.1Mounting. Photometry measurements at the applicable test points are made with the sample headlamp mounted in its normal operating position.
S14.2.5.2Test points in the area from 10° U to 90° U must be measured from the normally exposed surface of the lens face.
S14.2.5.3Measurement distance. Photometric measurements are made at a distance between the light source and the photometer sensor of at least 18.3 m.
S14.2.5.4Seasoning and test voltage. All sealed beam headlamps, integral beam headlamps, beam contributors, and replaceable light sources are seasoned at design voltage for 1% of its average design life or 10 hours, whichever is less prior to a photometry test. A headlamp is tested at 12.8 v. ±20 mv, D.C. as measured at the terminals of the lamp.
S14.2.5.5Aiming. Each headlamp is aimed prior to a photometry test in accordance with the procedure appropriate to its aiming system. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point to allow for variations in readings between laboratories for all headlamps except a Type F upper beam unit not equipped with a VHAD.
S14.2.5.5.1Mechanically aimable headlamps using an external aimer. The headlamp is aimed mechanically with the aiming plane at the design angle(s) to the photometer axis and the mechanical axis of the headlamp on the photometer axis.
S14.2.5.5.2Mechanically aimable headlamps equipped with a VHAD. The headlamp is aimed mechanically using the VHAD in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions as provided with the vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be used.
S14.2.5.5.3Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-vertical aim.
S14.2.5.5.3.1A VOL cutoff headlamp must have the location of the cutoff maximum gradient, as determined by the method of this standard, positioned at 0.4° down from the H-H line.
S14.2.5.5.3.2A VOR cutoff headlamp must have the location of the cutoff maximum gradient, as determined by the method of this standard, positioned at the H-H line.
S14.2.5.5.4Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-horizontal aim. There must be no adjustment of horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has a VHAD, it must be set to zero.
S14.2.5.5.5Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-vertical aim.
S14.2.5.5.5.1A headlamp whose upper beam is combined with a lower beam must not have its vertical aim changed from that set for the lower beam.
S14.2.5.5.5.2A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam must have its maximum beam intensity positioned on the H-H axis.
S14.2.5.5.6Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-horizontal aim.
S14.2.5.5.6.1A headlamp whose upper beam is combined with a lower beam must not have its horizontal aim changed from that set for the lower beam.
S14.2.5.5.6.2A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam and has a fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD must be mounted in its normal operating position on a goniometer such that the mounting fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes and must be energized at 12.8 v ±20 mv. There must be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD, in which case the VHAD must be adjusted to zero.
S14.2.5.5.6.3A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam and is not equipped with a horizontal VHAD, the horizontal aim must be adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is positioned on the V-V axis.
S14.2.5.5.7Simultaneous aim Type F sealed beam headlamps and beam contributor integral beam headlamps.
S14.2.5.5.7.1A headlamp system permitted to use simultaneous aim of lower beams and upper beams must be aimed mechanically for lower beam photometry by centering the lower beam unit or the geometric center of all lower beam contributors on the photometer axis and aligning the aiming plane, aiming reference plane, or other appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer perpendicular to the photometer axis.
S14.2.5.5.7.2The headlamp must be aimed for upper beam photometry by moving the assembly in a plane parallel to the established lower beam aiming plane until the upper beam unit or the geometric center of all upper beam contributors is centered in the photometric axis.
S14.2.5.5.8Motorcycle headlamp-upper beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX. The upper beam of a multiple beam headlamp designed to comply with the requirements of Table XX must be aimed photoelectrically so that the center of the zone of highest intensity falls 0.4° vertically below the lamp axis and is centered laterally. The center of the zone of highest intensity must be established by the intersection of a horizontal plane passing through the point of maximum intensity, and the vertical plane established by balancing the photometric values at 3°L and 3°R.
S14.2.5.5.9Motorcycle headlamp-lower beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX. The beam from a single beam headlamp designed to comply with the requirements of Table XX must be aimed straight ahead with the top of the beam aimed vertically to obtain 2000 cd at H-V.
S14.2.5.6Positioner. The goniometer configuration, used to position the sample headlamp when making photometric measurements at specific angular test points, is horizontal rotation over elevation. The vertical axis of the goniometer must correspond to the design position vertical axis of the sample headlamp which is vertical and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
S14.2.5.7Photometer.
S14.2.5.7.1The photometer must be capable of measuring the luminous intensity of the sample headlamp throughout its illumination range.
S14.2.5.7.2Sensor.
S14.2.5.7.2.1The maximum effective area of the photometric sensor must fit within a circle whose diameter is equal to 0.009 times the actual test distance from the light source of the sample headlamp to the sensor.
S14.2.5.7.2.2The sensor effective area is defined as the actual area of intercepted light striking the detector surface of the photometer. Sensor systems incorporating lens(es) that change the diameter of the intercepted light beam before it reaches the actual detector surface, the maximum size requirements must apply to the total area of the light actually intercepted by the lens surface.
S14.2.5.7.2.3The sensor must be capable of intercepting all direct illumination from the largest illuminated dimension of the sample lamp at the test distance.
S14.2.5.7.3The color response of the photometer must be corrected to that of the 1931 CIE Standard Observer (2-degree) Photopic Response Curve, as shown in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5).
S14.2.5.8Location of test points.
S14.2.5.8.1Test point positions are defined by the positioner. The following nomenclature applies:
S14.2.5.8.1.1The letters “V” and “H” designate the vertical and horizontal planes intersecting both the headlamp light source and the photometer axis. “H-V” designates the zero test point angle at the intersection of the H and V planes. This intersection is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
S14.2.5.8.1.2The letters “U”, “D”, “L”, and “R”, indicating up, down, left and right, respectively, designate the angular position from the H and V planes to the photometer as viewed from the headlamp.
S14.2.5.8.1.3Horizontal angles designated L and R are defined as the plan view angle between the vertical plane and the projection of the light ray from the headlamp onto the horizontal plane.
S14.2.5.8.1.4Vertical angles designated U and D are defined as the true angle between the horizontal plane and the light ray from the headlamp.
S14.2.5.9Beam contributor photometry measurements. In a headlighting system where there is more than one beam contributor providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing an upper beam, each beam contributor must be designed to meet only the applicable photometric performance requirements based upon the following mathematical expression: conforming test point value = 2(test point value)/total number of lower or upper beam contributors for the vehicle, as appropriate.
S14.2.5.10Moveable reflector aimed headlamp photometry measurements.
S14.2.5.10.1A headlamp aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, must conform to the photometry requirements applicable to it with the lens at any position relative to the reflector.
S14.2.5.10.2These positions include not less than the full range of vertical pitch of the vehicle on which the headlamp is installed and not less than ±2.5° from the nominal horizontal aim position for the vehicle on which the headlamp is installed unless the headlamp is visually/optically aimed with a fixed horizontal aim.
S14.3Motorcycle headlamp out of focus test procedure and performance requirements.
S14.3.1Procedure. The sample device must be tested for photometry using bulbs having each of four out-of-focus filament positions. Where conventional bulbs with two pin bayonet bases are used, tests must be made with the light source 0.060 in. above, below, ahead, and behind the designated position. If prefocused bulbs are used, the limiting positions at which tests are made must be 0.020 in. above, below, ahead, and behind the designated position. The sample device may be reaimed for each of the out-of-focus positions of the light source.
S14.3.2Performance requirements. The minimum photometric values for the out-of-design position must be 80% of the in-design position.
S14.4General test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.4.1Color test. The requirement applies to the overall effective color of light emitted by the device and not to the color of the light from a small area of the lens. It does not apply to any pilot, indicator, or tell-tale lights. The color of the sample device must comply when tested by either the Visual Method or the Tristimulus Method.
S14.4.1.1Samples. A test sample for a reflex reflector may be either the reflex reflector or a disc of the same material, technique of fabrication, and dye formulation as the reflex reflector. If a disc is used, the thickness must be twice the thickness of the reflector as measured from the face of the lens to the apexes of the reflecting elements.
S14.4.1.2General procedure.
S14.4.1.2.1The device must be operated at design voltage.
S14.4.1.2.2Components (bulbs, caps, lenses, and the like) must be tested in a fixture or manner simulating the intended application.
S14.4.1.2.3The lamp shall be allowed to reach operating temperature before measurements are made.
S14.4.1.2.4The entire light emitting surface of the sample must be visible from any point on the entrance window of the test instrument.
S14.4.1.2.5The distance between the test instrument and the sample must be large enough so that further increases in distance will not affect the results.
S14.4.1.3Visual method.
S14.4.1.3.1Visual method procedure. The color of light from the sample device must be compared visually with the color of the light from a standard. The standard may consist of a filter or limit glass. In the case of white, CIE Source A is used only as a color reference. The chromaticity coordinates of the color standards must be as close as possible to the limits listed. The color of the standard filters is determined spectro-photometrically.
S14.4.1.3.2Visual method performance requirements. The color must comply with the applicable requirement.
S14.4.1.3.2.1Red. Red is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), yellower, or bluer than the limit standards.
S14.4.1.3.2.2Yellow (Amber). Yellow is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), greener, or redder than the limit standards.
S14.4.1.3.2.3White. White is not acceptable if its color differs materially from that of CIE Source A.
S14.4.1.4Tristimulus method.
S14.4.1.4.1Tristimulus method procedure.
S14.4.1.4.1.1The color of light from the H-V point of a sample device must be measured by photoelectric receivers with spectral responses that approximate CIE standard spectral tristimulus valves.
S14.4.1.4.1.2A sphere may be used to integrate light from a colored source provided that the color shift that results from the spectral selectivity of the sphere paint be corrected by the use of a filter, correction factor, or an appropriate calibration.
S14.4.1.4.1.3Where the sample device does not have uniform spectral characteristics in all useful directions, color measurements must be made at as many directions of view as are required to evaluate the color for those directions that apply to the end use of the device.
S14.4.1.4.2Tristimulus method performance requirements. The color must comply with the applicable requirement.
S14.4.1.4.2.1Red. The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:
y = 0.33 (yellow boundary)
y = 0.98 − x (purple boundary)
S14.4.1.4.2.2Yellow (Amber). The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:
y = 0.39 (red boundary)
y = 0.79 − 0.67x (white boundary)
y = x − 0.12 (green boundary)
S14.4.1.4.2.3White (achromatic). The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:
x = 0.31 (blue boundary)
y = 0.44 (green boundary)
x = 0.50 (yellow boundary)
y = 0.15 0.64x (green boundary)
y = 0.38 (red boundary)
y = 0.05 0.75x (purple boundary)
S14.4.2Plastic optical materials tests. Accelerated weathering procedures are not permitted.
S14.4.2.1Samples.
S14.4.2.1.1Samples of materials shall be injection molded into polished metal molds to produce test specimens with two flat and parallel faces. Alternative techniques may be used to produce equivalent specimens.
S14.4.2.1.2Test specimens shape may vary, but each exposed surface must contain a minimum uninterrupted area of 32 sq cm.
S14.4.2.1.3Samples must be furnished in thicknesses of 1.6 ±0.25 mm, 2.3 ±0.25 mm, 3.2 ±0.25 mm, and 6.4 ±0.25 mm.
S14.4.2.1.4All samples must conform to the applicable color test requirement of this standard prior to testing.
S14.4.2.1.5A control sample, kept properly protected from influences which may change its appearance and properties of each thickness, must be retained.
S14.4.2.2Outdoor exposure test.
S14.4.2.2.1Outdoor exposure tests of 3 years in duration must be made on samples of all materials, including coated and uncoated versions, used for optical parts of devices covered by this standard. Tests are to be conducted in Florida and Arizona.
S14.4.2.2.2Concentrations of polymer components and additives used in plastic materials may be changed without outdoor exposure testing provided the changes are within the limits of composition represented by higher and lower concentrations of these polymer components and additives previously tested to this section and found to meet its requirements.
S14.4.2.2.3Procedure.
S14.4.2.2.3.1One sample of each thickness of each material must be mounted at each exposure site so that at least a minimum uninterrupted area of 32 sq cm of the exposed upper surface of the sample is at an angle of 45° to the horizontal facing south. The sample must be mounted in the open no closer than 30 cm (11.8 in) to its background.
S14.4.2.2.3.2During the exposure time the samples must be cleaned once every three months by washing with mild soap or detergent and water, and then rinsing with distilled water. Rubbing must be avoided.
S14.4.2.2.4Performance requirements. Plastic lenses, other than those incorporating reflex reflectors, used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight must meet the optical material test requirements when covered by the outer lens or other material.
S14.4.2.2.4.1After completion of the outdoor exposure test the haze and loss of surface luster as measured by ASTM D1003-92 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) must not be greater than:
(a) 30% for materials used for outer lenses, other than those incorporating reflex reflectors;
(b) 7% for materials used for reflex reflectors and lenses used in front of reflex reflectors.
S14.4.2.2.4.2After completion of the outdoor exposure test materials used for headlamp lenses must show no deterioration.
S14.4.2.2.4.3After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials, when compared with the unexposed control samples, must not show physical changes affecting performance such as color bleeding, delamination, crazing, or cracking. Additionally materials used for reflex reflectors and lenses used in front of reflex reflectors must not show surface deterioration or dimensional changes.
S14.4.2.2.4.4After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials, when compared with the unexposed control samples, must not have their luminous transmittance changed by more than 25% when tested in accordance with ASTM E308-66 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5) using CIE Illuminant A (2856K).
S14.4.2.2.4.5After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials must conform to the color test of this standard in the range of thickness stated by the material manufacturer.
S14.4.2.3Heat test.
S14.4.2.3.1Procedure. Two samples of each thickness of each material must be supported at the bottom, with at least 51 mm of the sample above the support, in the vertical position in such a manner that, on each side, the minimum uninterrupted area of exposed surface is not less than 3225 sq mm. The samples are placed in a circulating air oven at 79 ±3 °C for two hours.
S14.4.2.3.2Performance requirements. After completion of the heat exposure and cooling to room ambient temperature, a test specimen must show no change in shape and general appearance discernable to the naked eye when compared with an unexposed specimen and continue to conform to the applicable color test requirement of this standard.
S14.5Signal lamp and reflective device physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.5.1Vibration test.
S14.5.1.1Procedure. The sample device, as mounted on the support supplied, must be bolted to the anvil end of the table of the vibration test machine of Figure 21 and vibrated approximately 750 cpm through a distance of 1/8 in. The table must be spring mounted at one end and fitted with steel calks on the underside of the other end. The calks are to make contact with the steel anvil once during each cycle at the completion of the fall. The rack must be operated under a spring tension of 60 to 70 lb. The test must be continued for 1 hour.
S14.5.1.2Performance requirements. After completion of the vibration test a device showing evidence of material physical weakness, lens or reflector rotation, displacement or rupture of parts except bulb failures, must be considered to have failed, providing that the rotation of lens or reflector must not be considered as a failure when tests show compliance with specifications despite such rotation.
S14.5.2Moisture test.
S14.5.2.1Procedure. The sample device must be mounted in its normal operating position with all drain holes open and subjected to a precipitation of 0.1 in of water per minute, delivered at an angle of 45° from a nozzle with a solid cone spray. During the test the device must revolve about its vertical axis at a rate of 4 rpm for a period of 12 hours followed by a one hour drain period where the device does not rotate and the spray stops. After completion of the moisture test the device must be examined for moisture accumulation.
S14.5.2.2Performance requirements. Accumulation of moisture in excess of 2 cc or any visible moisture in a sealed reflex unit must constitute a failure.
S14.5.3Dust test.
S14.5.3.1Samples. A sealed unit is not required to meet the requirements of this test.
S14.5.3.2Procedure. The sample device with any drain hole closed must be mounted in its normal operating position, at least 6 in from the wall in a cubical box with inside measurements of 3 ft on each side containing 10 lb of fine powered cement in accordance with ASTM C150-56 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5). At intervals of 15 minutes during a test period of 5 hours, the dust must be agitated by compressed air or fan blower by projecting blasts of air for a 2 second period in a downward direction into the dust in such a way that the dust is completely and uniformly diffused throughout the entire cube and allowed to settle. After the completion of the dust test the exterior surface of the device must be cleaned.
S14.5.3.3Performance requirements. If after a photometry test the maximum photometric intensity of the device is not more than 10% less than the maximum photometric intensity of the same device after being cleaned both inside and outside, the device is considered to have met the requirements of the dust test.
S14.5.4Corrosion test.
S14.5.4.1Procedure. The sample device must be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with the latest version of ASTM B117-73 (Reapproved 1979) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), for a period of 50 hours, consisting of two periods of 24 hour exposure followed by a 1 hr drying time.
S14.5.4.2Performance requirements. After the completion of the corrosion test there must be no evidence of excessive corrosion which would affect the proper function of the device.
S14.6Headlamp physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.6.1Abrasion test.
S14.6.1.1Procedure.
S14.6.1.1.1Abrading pad. A new, unused abrading pad constructed of 0000 steel wool not less than 2.5 ±.1 cm wide, rubber cemented to a rigid base shaped to the same vertical contour of the lens, is used for each test. The abrading pad support is equal in size to the pad and the center of the support surface is within ±2 mm of parallel to the lens surface. The “grain” of the pad is oriented perpendicular to the direction of motion. The density of the pad is such that when the pad is resting unweighted on the lens, the base of the pad is no closer than 3.2 mm to the lens at its closest point.
S14.6.1.1.2Abrading pad alignment. A sample headlamp is mounted in the abrasion test fixture of Figure 5 with the lens facing upward. When mounted on its support and resting on the lens of the test headlamp, the abrading pad is then weighted such that a pad pressure of 14 ±1 KPa. exists at the center and perpendicular to the face of the lens.
S14.6.1.1.3Abrasion test procedure. The pad is cycled back and forth (1 cycle) for 11 cycles at 4 ±0.8 in (10 ±2 cm) per second over at least 80% of the lens surface, including all the area between the upper and lower aiming pads, but not including lens trim rings and edges. A pivot must be used if it is required to follow the contour of the lens.
S14.6.1.2Performance requirements. After completion of the abrasion test the sample headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.2Chemical resistance test.
S14.6.2.1Procedure.
S14.6.2.1.1Test fluids. The five test fluids used in the chemical resistance test include:
(a) ASTM Reference Fuel C, which is composed of Isooctane 50% volume and Toluene 50% volume. Isooctane must conform to A2.7 in the ASTM Motor Fuels section (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), and Toluene must conform to ASTM D362-84 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5). ASTM Reference Fuel C must be used as specified in: Paragraph A2.3.2 and A2.3.3 of the ASTM Motor Fuels section (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5); and OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.106—Handling Storage and Use of Flammable Combustible Liquids;
(b) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits);
(c) Power steering fluid (as specified by the vehicle manufacturer for use in the motor vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be installed);
(d) Windshield washer fluid consisting of 0.5% monoethanolamine with the remainder 50% concentration of methanol/distilled water by volume; and
(e) Antifreeze (50% concentration of ethylene glycol/distilled water by volume).
S14.6.2.1.2Fluid application. The entire exterior lens surface of the sample headlamp mounted in the headlamp test fixture and top surface of the lens-reflector joint is wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6 inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of five different test fluids listed above. The lamp is wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid. A new lamp sample may be used with each fluid.
S14.6.2.1.3Test duration. After the headlamp sample has been wiped with the test fluid, it must be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 23 °C ±4 °C and a relative humidity of 30% ±10%. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp is wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.
S14.6.2.2Performance requirements. After completion of the chemical resistance test, the sample headlamp must have no surface deterioration, coating delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, color bleeding, or color pickup visible without magnification and the headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.3Corrosion test.
S14.6.3.1Procedure. A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture in designed operating position and including all accessory equipment necessary to operate in its normal manner, is subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), for 50 total hours, consisting of two periods of 24 hours exposure followed by a 1 hour drying period. If a portion of the device is completely protected in service, that portion is covered to prevent salt fog entry during exposure. After removal from the salt spray and the final 1 hour drying period the sample headlamp is examined for corrosion that affects any other applicable tests contained in S14.6. If such corrosion is found, the affected test(s) must be performed on the corrosion sample and the results recorded.
S14.6.3.2Performance requirements. After completion of the corrosion test, the sample headlamp must not have any observed corrosion which would result in the failure of any other applicable tests contained in S14.6 and no corrosion of the headlamp mounting and aiming mechanism that would result in the failure of the aiming adjustment tests, inward force test, or torque deflection test of S14.6.
S14.6.4Corrosion-connector test.
S14.6.4.1Procedure.
S14.6.4.1.1A headlamp connector test must be performed on each filament circuit of the sample headlamp prior to the test in S14.6.4.1.2 according to Figure 4 and S14.6.15. The power source is set to provide 12.8 volts and the resistance must be set to produce 10 amperes.
S14.6.4.1.2The headlamp, with connector attached to the terminals, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, is subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), for 240 hours, consisting of ten successive 24-hour periods.
S14.6.4.1.3During each period, the headlamp is mounted in the middle of the chamber and exposed for 23 hours to the salt spray. The spray is not activated during the 24th hour. The bulb is removed from the headlamp and from the test chamber during the one hour of salt spray deactivation and reinserted for the start of the next test period, at the end of the first and last three 23-hour periods of salt spray exposure, and at the end of any two of the fourth through seventh 23-hour periods of salt-spray exposure.
S14.6.4.1.4The test chamber is closed at all times except for a maximum of 2 minutes which is allowed for removal or replacement of a bulb during each period.
S14.6.4.1.5After the ten periods, the lens-reflector unit without the bulb must be immersed in deionized water for 5 minutes, then secured and allowed to dry by natural convection only.
S14.6.4.1.6Using the voltage, resistance and pre-test set up of S14.6.4.1.1 the current in each filament circuit must be measured after the test conducted in S14.6.4.1.2.
S14.6.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.4.2.1After the completion of the corrosion-connector test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of external or internal corrosion or rust visible without magnification.
S14.6.4.2.2Loss of adhesion of any applied coating must not occur more than 3.2 mm from any sharp edge on the inside or out.
S14.6.4.2.3Corrosion may occur on terminals only if the test current produced during the test of S14.6.4.1.6 is not less than 9.7 amperes.
S14.6.5Dust test.
S14.6.5.1Procedure.
S14.6.5.1.1A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, is positioned within a cubical box, with inside measurements of 900 mm on each side or larger if required for adequate wall clearance (i.e., a distance of at least 150 mm between the headlamp and any wall of the box).
S14.6.5.1.2The box contains 4.5 kg of fine powdered cement which conforms to the ASTM C150-77 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5). Every 15 minutes, the cement is agitated by compressed air or fan blower(s) by projecting blasts of air for a two-second period in a downward direction so that the cement is diffused as uniformly as possible throughout the entire box.
S14.6.5.1.3This test is continued for five hours after which the exterior surfaces of the headlamp are wiped clean.
S14.6.5.2Performance requirements. After completion of the dust test, the sample headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.6Temperature cycle test and internal heat test.
S14.6.6.1Samples. A sample headlamp with one or more replaceable light sources is tested according to the procedures of this section for a temperature cycle test and an internal heat test. The same sample headlamp is used in the temperature cycle test and then in the internal heat test.
S14.6.6.2General procedure.
S14.6.6.2.1Tests are made with all filaments lighted at design voltage that are intended to be used simultaneously in the headlamp and which in combination draw the highest total wattage. These include but are not limited to filaments used for turn signal lamps, fog lamps, parking lamps, and headlamp lower beams lighted with upper beams when the wiring harness is so connected on the vehicle.
S14.6.6.2.2If a turn signal is included in the headlamp assembly, it is operated at 90 flashes a minute with a 75% ±2% current “on time.”
S14.6.6.2.3If the lamp produces both the upper and lower beam, it is tested in both the upper beam mode and the lower beam mode under the conditions above described, except for a headlamp with a single type HB1 or type HB2 light source.
S14.6.6.3Temperature cycle test.
S14.6.6.3.1Procedure.
S14.6.6.3.1.1A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, is subjected to 10 complete consecutive cycles having the thermal cycle profile shown in Figure 6.
S14.6.6.3.1.2During the hot cycle, the lamp, is energized commencing at point “A” of Figure 6 and de-energized at point “B.”
S14.6.6.3.1.3Separate or single test chambers may be used to generate the environment of Figure 6.
S14.6.6.3.1.4All drain holes, breathing devices or other openings or vents of the headlamps are set in their normal operating positions.
S14.6.6.3.2Performance requirements. After completion of the temperature cycle test, the sample headlamp must:
(a) show no evidence of delamination, fractures, entry of moisture, or deterioration of bonding material, color bleeding, warp or deformation visible without magnification;
(b) show no lens warpage greater than 3 mm when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens; and
(c) meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.6.4Internal heat test.
S14.6.6.4.1Procedure.
S14.6.6.4.1.1A sample headlamp lens surface that would normally be exposed to road dirt is uniformly sprayed with any appropriate mixture of dust and water or other materials to reduce the photometric output at the H-V test point of the upper beam (or the 1/2°D-11/2°R test point of the lower beam as applicable) to 25% ±2% of the output originally measured in the applicable photometric compliance test.
S14.6.6.4.1.2A headlamp with a single type HB1 or type HB2 light source is tested on the upper beam only.
S14.6.6.4.1.3Such reduction is determined under the same conditions as that of the original photometric measurement.
S14.6.6.4.1.4After the photometric output of the lamp has been reduced as specified above, the sample lamp and its mounting hardware must be mounted in an environmental chamber in a manner similar to that indicated in Figure 7 “Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.”
S14.6.6.4.1.5The headlamp is soaked for one hour at a temperature of 35° 4° − 0 °C) and then the lamp is energized according to the procedure of this section for one hour in a still air condition, allowing the temperature to rise from the soak temperature.
S14.6.6.4.1.6At the end of one hour the sample lamp is returned to a room ambient temperature of 23° 4° − 0 °C and a relative humidity of 30% ±10% and allowed to stabilize to the room ambient temperature. The lens is then cleaned.
S14.6.6.4.2Performance requirements. After completion of the temperature cycle test and meeting its requirements, and completion of the internal heat test, the sample headlamp must:
(a) have no lens warpage greater than 3 mm when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens, and
(b) meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.7Humidity test.
S14.6.7.1Procedure.
S14.6.7.1.1The test fixture consists of a horizontal steel plate to which three threaded steel or aluminum rods of 1/2 inch diameter are screwed vertically behind the headlamp.
S14.6.7.1.2The sample headlamp assembly is clamped to the vertical rods, which are behind the headlamp. All attachments to the headlamp assembly are made behind the lens and vents or openings, and are not within 2 inches laterally of a vent inlet or outlet.
S14.6.7.1.3The mounted headlamp assembly is oriented in its design operating position, and is placed in a controlled environment at a temperature of 100° 7°−0 °F (38° 4°−0 °C) with a relative humidity of not less than 90%. All drain holes, breathing devices, and other openings are set in their normal operation positions for all phases of the humidity test.
S14.6.7.1.4The headlamp is subjected to 24 consecutive 3-hour test cycles. In each cycle, the headlamp is energized for 1 hour at design voltage with the highest combination of filament wattages that are intended to be used, and then de-energized for 2 hours. If the headlamp incorporates a turn signal then the turn signal flashes at 90 flashes per minute with a 75% ±2% current “on-time.”
S14.6.7.1.5Within 3 minutes after the completion of the 24th cycle, the air flow test will begin. The following procedure shall occur: the mounted assembly is removed, placed in an insulating box and covered with foam material so that there is no visible air space around the assembly; the box is closed, taken to the air flow test chamber, and placed within it. Inside the chamber, the assembly with respect to the air flow, is oriented in its design operating position. The assembly is positioned in the chamber so that the center of the lens is in the center of the opening of the air flow entry duct during the test. The headlamp has at least 3 inches clearance on all sides, and at least 4 inches to the entry and exit ducts at the closest points. If vent tubes are used which extend below the lamp body, the 3 inches are measured from the bottom of the vent tube or its protection. The temperature of the chamber is 73° 7° − 0 °F (23° 4° − 0 °C) with a relative humidity of 30% 10% − 0%. The headlamp is not energized.
S14.6.7.1.6Before the test specified in paragraph S14.6.7.1.7 of this section, the uniformity of the air flow in the empty test chamber at a plane 4 inches downstream of the air entry duct is measured over a 4 inch square grid. The uniformity of air flow at each grid point is ±10% of the average air flow specified in paragraph S14.6.7.1.7 of this section.
S14.6.7.1.7The mounted assembly in the chamber is exposed, for one hour, to an average air flow of 330 0 −30 ft/min as measured with an air velocity measuring probe having an accuracy of ±3% in the 330 ft/min range. The average air flow is the average of the velocity recorded at six points around the perimeter of the lens. The six points are determined as follows: At the center of the lens, construct a horizontal plane. The first two points are located in the plane, 1 inch outward from the intersection of the plane and each edge of the lens. Then, trisect the distance between these two points and construct longitudinal vertical planes at the two intermediate locations formed by the trisection. The four remaining points are located in the vertical planes, one inch above the top edge of the lens, and one inch below the bottom edge of the lens.
S14.6.7.1.8After one hour, the headlamp is removed and inspected for moisture.
S14.6.7.2Performance requirements. After completion of the humidity test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of interior delamination or moisture, fogging or condensation visible without magnification.
S14.6.8Vibration test.
S14.6.8.1Samples. The mounting bracket with a sample headlamp installed must not have a resonant frequency in the 10-55 Hz. range.
S14.6.8.2Procedure. The mounted sample headlamp is bolted to the anvil end of the table of the vibration test machine of Figure 21 and vibrated 750 cpm through a distance of 1/8 in. The table is spring mounted at one end and fitted with steel calks on the underside of the other end. The table is of sufficient size to completely contain the test fixture base with no overhang. The calks are to make contact with the steel anvil once during each cycle at the completion of the fall. The rack is operated under a spring tension of 60 to 70 lb. The vibration is applied in the vertical axis of the headlamp as mounted on the vehicle. Bulb filaments are not energized during the test. The test is continued for 1 hour.
S14.6.8.3Performance requirements. After completion of the vibration test, there must be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.
S14.6.9Sealing test.
S14.6.9.1Procedure.
S14.6.9.1.1An unfixtured sample headlamp in its design mounting position is placed in water at a temperature of 176° ± 5 °F (80° ± 3 °C) for one hour. The headlamp is energized in its highest wattage mode, with the test voltage at 12.8 ± 0.1 V during immersion.
S14.6.9.1.2The lamp is then de-energized and immediately submerged in its design mounting position into water at 32° 5° −0 °F (0° 3° −0 °C). The water is in a pressurized vessel, and the pressure is increased to 10 psi (70 kPa), upon placing the lamp in the water. The lamp must remain in the pressurized vessel for a period of thirty minutes.
S14.6.9.1.3This entire procedure is repeated for four cycles.
S14.6.9.1.4Then the lamp is inspected for any signs of water on its interior. During the high temperature portion of the cycles, the lamp is observed for signs of air escaping from its interior.
S14.6.9.2Performance requirements. After completion of the sealing test, a sample headlamp confirmed to be sealed need not meet the corrosion test, dust test, or humidity test of this Section. If any water is on the interior or air escapes, the lamp is not a sealed lamp.
S14.6.10Chemical resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test.
S14.6.10.1Procedure.
S14.6.10.1.1Test fluids. The three test fluids used in the chemical resistance test include;
(a) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits);
(b) Mineral spirits; and
(c) Fluids other than water contained in the manufacturer's instructions for cleaning the reflector.
S14.6.10.1.2Fluid application. With a sample headlamp in the headlamp test fixture and the lens removed, the entire surface of the reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source is wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of one of the test fluids listed in S14.6.10.1.1. The lamp is wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid.
S14.6.10.1.3Test duration. After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it is stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73° ±7 °F (23° ±4 °C) and a relative humidity of 30% ±10%. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp is wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.
S14.6.10.2Performance requirements. After completion of the chemical resistance test, the sample headlamp must have no surface deterioration, coating delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, color bleeding or color pickup visible without magnification and the headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° re-aim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.11Corrosion resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test.
S14.6.11.1Procedure.
S14.6.11.1.1A sample headlamp with the lens removed, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, must be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title), for 24 hours, while mounted in the middle of the chamber.
S14.6.11.1.2Afterwards, the headlamp must be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73° ±7 °F (23° ±4 °C) and a relative humidity of 30% ±10% and allowed to dry by natural convection only. At the end of the 48-hour period, the reflector must be cleaned according to the instructions supplied with the headlamp manufacturer's replacement lens, and inspected. The lens and seal must then be attached according to these instructions and the headlamp tested for photometric performance.
S14.6.11.2Performance requirements. After the completion of the corrosion test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of corrosion or rust visible without magnification on any part of the headlamp reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source, on any metal light or heat shield assembly, or on a metal reflector of any other lamp. The sample headlamp with the replacement lens installed must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 1/4° re-aim is permitted in any direction at any test point.
S14.6.12Inward force test.
S14.6.12.1Procedure. A sample headlamp mechanism, including the aiming adjusters, must be subjected to an inward force of 222 N directed normal to the headlamp aiming plane and symmetrically about the center of the headlamp lens face.
S14.6.12.2Performance requirements. After the completion of the inward force test, a sample headlamp must not permanently recede by more than 2.5 mm. The aim of the headlamp must not permanently deviate by more than 3.2 mm at a distance of 7.6 m. The aim of any headlamp that is capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied aiming devices must not change by more than 0.30°.
S14.6.13Torque deflection test.
S14.6.13.1Procedure.
S14.6.13.1.1The sample headlamp assembly is mounted in designed vehicle position and set at nominal aim (H=0, V=0).
S14.6.13.1.2A sealed beam headlamp, except Type G and Type H, is removed from its mounting and replaced by the applicable deflectometer. (Type C and Type D-Figure 18, Type A and Type E-Figure 16, Type B-Figure 17, and Type F-Figure 14).
S14.6.13.1.3Sealed beam headlamps Type G and Type H have the adapter of Figure 15 and the deflectometer of Figure 14 attached to the headlamp.
S14.6.13.1.4A torque of 2.25 Nm must be applied to the headlamp assembly through the deflectometer and a reading on the thumbwheel is taken. The torque must be removed and a second reading on the thumbwheel is taken.
S14.6.13.1.5Headlamps other than sealed beam headlamps must have the downward force used to create the torque applied parallel to the aiming reference plane, through the aiming pads, and displaced forward using a lever arm such that the force is applied on an axis that is perpendicular to the aiming reference plane and originates at the center of the aiming pad pattern (see Figure 3).
S14.6.13.1.6For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group I, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane is not less than 168.3 mm plus the distance from the aiming reference plane to the secondary plane, if used.
S14.6.13.1.7For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group II, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane is not less than 167.9 mm plus the distance to the secondary plane, if used.
S14.6.13.1.8For headlamps using the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates for the 146 mm diameter, the 176 mm diameter, and the 92x150 mm sealed beam, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming plane is not, respectively, less than 177.4 mm, 176.2 mm, and 193.7 mm.
S14.6.13.2Performance requirements. The aim of each sample headlamp must not deviate more than 0.30° when the downward torque is removed.
S14.6.14Retaining ring test.
S14.6.14.1Procedure. A sample headlamp with the minimum flange thickness of: Type A-31.5 mm, Type B-10.1 mm, Type C-11.8 mm, Type D-11.8 mm, Type E-31.5 mm, and Type F-8.6 mm, is secured between the appropriate mounting ring and retaining ring (mounting ring and aiming ring for Type F).
S14.6.14.2Performance requirements. The sample headlamp when secured per the procedure must be held tight enough that it will not rattle.
S14.6.15Headlamp connector test.
S14.6.15.1Procedure. A sample headlamp connected into the test circuit of Figure 4 has the power supply adjusted until 10 amperes DC are flowing through the circuit. The test is repeated for each filament circuit of the headlamp.
S14.6.15.2Performance requirements. The voltage drop, as measured in the test circuit of Figure 4, must not exceed 40 mv DC in any applicable filament circuit of the sample headlamp.
S14.6.16Headlamp wattage test.
S14.6.16.1Procedure. A sample headlamp that has been seasoned is energized so as to have 12.8v ±20 mv DC applied across each filament circuit and the current flowing in each circuit is measured.
S14.6.16.2Performance requirements. The wattage of each filament circuit of the sample headlamp must not exceed the applicable value for that type of headlamp as shown in Table II.
S14.6.17Aiming adjustment test-laboratory.
S14.6.17.1Procedure. A sample headlamp is mounted in design position at nominal (H = 0, V = 0) aim with an accurate measuring device such as a spot projector or other equally accurate means attached. The headlamp is adjusted to the extremes of travel in each horizontal and vertical direction.
S14.6.17.2Performance requirements. Visually aimed lower beam headlamps without a VHAD are required not to have a horizontal adjustment mechanism and horizontal aim range requirements do not apply.
S14.6.17.2.1A sample sealed beam headlamp, other than a Type F, tested per the procedure must provide a minimum of ±4.0° adjustment range in both the vertical and horizontal planes and if equipped with independent vertical and horizontal aiming screws, the adjustment must be such that neither the vertical nor horizontal aim must deviate more than 100 mm from horizontal or vertical planes, respectively, at a distance of 7.6 m through an angle of ±4.0°.
S14.6.17.2.2A sample Type F sealed beam, integral beam, replaceable bulb, or combination headlamp tested per the procedure must provide a minimum of ±4.0° adjustment range in the vertical plane and ±2.5° in the horizontal plane and if equipped with independent vertical and horizontal aiming screws, the adjustment must be such that neither the vertical nor horizontal aim must deviate more than 100 mm from horizontal or vertical planes, respectively, at a distance of 7.6 m through an angle of ±2.5° and ±4.0°, respectively.
S14.6.17.2.3A sample headlamp that is aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, and vice versa must provide a minimum adjustment range in the vertical plane not less than the full range of the pitch on the vehicle on which it is installed and ±2.5° in the horizontal plane.
S14.6.18Aiming adjustment test-on vehicle.
S14.6.18.1Procedure.
S14.6.18.1.1A sample headlamp is mounted on the vehicle at nominal (H = 0, V = 0) aim with an accurate measuring device such as a spot projector or other equally accurate means attached.
S14.6.18.1.2The installed range of static pitch angle is, at a minimum, determined from unloaded vehicle weight to gross vehicle weight rating, and incorporates pitch angle effects from maximum trailer or trunk loadings, the full range of tire intermix sizes and suspensions recommended and/or installed by the vehicle manufacturer, and the anticipated effects of variable passenger loading.
S14.6.18.1.3The headlamp is adjusted to the extremes of travel in each horizontal and vertical direction.
S14.6.18.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.18.2.1A sample headlamp tested per the procedure must provide a minimum vertical adjustment range not less than the full range of pitch of the vehicle on which it is installed.
S14.6.18.2.2The vertical aim mechanism must be continuously variable over the full range.
S14.6.18.2.3The adjustment of one aim axis through its full on-vehicle range must not cause the aim of the other axis to deviate more than ±0.76°. If this performance is not achievable, the requirements of S10.18.3.1 apply, except that if the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs are not applicable, and the instruction must be specific to the aiming mechanism installed.
S14.7Replaceable light source physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.7.1Deflection test for replaceable light sources.
S14.7.1.1Procedure.
S14.7.1.1.1With the sample light source rigidly mounted in a fixture in a manner indicated in Figure 8, a force 4.0 ±0.1 pounds (17.8 ±0.4N) is applied at a distance “A” from the reference plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the glass capsule and parallel to the smallest dimension of the pressed glass capsule seal.
S14.7.1.1.2The force is applied (using a rod with a hard rubber tip with a minimum spherical radius of .039 in [1 mm]) radially to the surface of the glass capsule in four locations in a plane parallel to the reference plane and spaced at a distance “A” from that plane. These force applications are spaced 90° apart starting at the point perpendicular to the smallest dimension of the pressed seal of the glass capsule.
S14.7.1.1.3.The bulb deflection is measured at the glass capsule surface at 180° opposite to the force application. Distance “A” for a replaceable light source other than an HB Type is the dimension provided in accordance with appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, section I.A.1 if the light source has a lower beam filament, or as specified in section I.B.1 if the light source has only an upper beam filament.
S14.7.1.2Performance requirements. After completion of the deflection test, a sample light source must have no permanent deflection of the glass envelope exceeding 0.13 mm in the direction of applied force.
S14.7.2Pressure test for replaceable light sources.
S14.7.2.1Procedure.
S14.7.2.1.1The capsule, lead wires and/or terminals, and seal on each sample Type HB1, Type HB3, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light source, and on any other replaceable light source which uses a seal, is installed in a pressure chamber as shown in Figure 10 so as to provide an airtight seal. The diameter of the aperture in Figure 10 on a replaceable light source (other than an HB Type) must be that dimension furnished for such light source in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter.
S14.7.2.1.2The light source is immersed in water for one minute while inserted in a cylindrical aperture specified for the light source, and subjected to an air pressure of 70 KPa (10 psig) on the glass capsule side.
S14.7.2.2Performance requirements. After completion of the pressure test, the sample light source with an airtight seal on the low pressure (connector side) must show no evidence of air bubbles on that side.
S14.7.3Replaceable light source power and flux measurement procedure. The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is submitted in compliance with section VII of appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, or section IV of appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, is made in accordance with this paragraph.
S14.7.3.1Seasoning. The filament or discharge arc is seasoned before measurement of either maximum power and luminous flux.
S14.7.3.1.1Resistive filament source. Seasoning of a light source with a resistive element type filament is made in accordance with this S14.2.5.4 of this standard.
S14.7.3.1.2Discharge source. For a light source using excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, seasoning of the light source system, including any ballast required for its operation, is made in accordance with section 4.0 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 (1993) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5).
S14.7.3.2Test voltage. Measurements are made with a direct current test voltage of 12.8 v regulated within one quarter of one percent.
S14.7.3.3Luminous flux measurement. The measurement of luminous flux is made in accordance with IES LM 45 (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5).
S14.7.3.3.1Resistive filament light source setup. Luminous flux measurements are made with the black cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5, and on any other replaceable light source so designed; and is with the electrical conductor and light source base shrouded with an opaque white cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for the Types HB3 and HB4 is made with the base covered with a white cover as shown in the drawings for Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397. The white covers are used to eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumen measurement that will occur should the reflectance of the light source base and electrical connector be low.
S14.7.3.3.2Discharge light source setup. With the test voltage applied to the ballast input terminals, the measurement of luminous flux is made with the black cap installed, if so designed, and is made with an opaque white colored cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing.
S14.8Vehicle headlamp aiming devices (VHAD) physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.8.1Samples. The same VHAD and associated headlamp(s) or headlamp assembly must be rigidly mounted in a headlamp test fixture with the aiming plane horizontal and vertical and with the scale on the device set at 0.
S14.8.2Scale graduation test.
S14.8.2.1Procedure. Check each graduation on the horizontal and vertical aim scales.
S14.8.2.2Performance requirements. Scale graduation from correct aim must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.
S14.8.3Cold scale graduation test.
S14.8.3.1Procedure. The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly must then be stabilized at −7° ±3 °C in a circulating air environmental test chamber for a 30 minute temperature soak.
S14.8.3.2Performance requirements. After completion of a 30 minute temperature soak the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.
S14.8.4Hot scale graduation test.
S14.8.4.1Procedure. The VHAD and the headlamp assembly with its highest wattage filament, or combination of filaments intended to be used simultaneously, energized at its design voltage, is then stabilized at 38° ±3 °C in a circulating air environmental test chamber for a 30 minute temperature soak.
S14.8.4.2Performance requirements. After completion of a 30 minute temperature soak the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.
S14.8.5Thermal cycle test.
S14.8.5.1Procedure. The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly are then placed in a circulating air environmental test chamber and exposed to a temperature of 60° ±3 °C for 24 hours, followed by a temperature of −40° ±3 °C for 24 hours, and are then permitted to return to room temperature.
S14.8.5.2Performance requirements. After completion of the thermal cycle test the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically and the VHAD and headlamp assembly must show no damage which would impair its ability to perform as specified in this standard.
S14.8.6Corrosion test.
S14.8.6.1Procedure. The VHAD and headlamp assembly are then tested according to the headlamp corrosion test of S14.6.3.
S14.8.6.2Performance requirements. After completion of the corrosion test the sample VHAD and headlamp must not have any observed corrosion that would result in the failure of any other applicable tests contained in this section.
S14.8.7Photometry test.
S14.8.7.1Procedure. The VHAD and headlamp assembly are then tested for photometric compliance according to the procedure of S14.2.5 and for replacement units per S10.18.8.4.
S14.8.7.2Performance requirements. The sample headlamp must comply with the applicable photometric requirements of Table XIX and Table XVIII and with replacement units installed per S10.18.8.4.
S14.9Associated equipment physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.9.1Turn signal operating unit durability test.
S14.9.1.1Power supply specifications. During the test, the unit is operated at 6.4 volts for 6 volt systems or 12.8 volts for 12 volt systems from a power supply meeting the following requirements:
(a) An output current that is at least 10 times the load current;
(b) Voltage regulation that allows a voltage change of less than 5%;
(c) Ripple voltage of not more than 5%;
(d) A response time of not more than 25 milliseconds rise time from 0 to rated current at rated voltage in a pure resistance circuit; and
(e) An output impedance of not more than 0.005 ohms dc.
S14.9.1.2Procedure.
S14.9.1.2.1The sample unit is operated with the maximum bulb load it will experience on the vehicle on which it will be installed. Bulbs that fail during the test are replaced. The turn signal flasher is not to be included in the test circuit. When the unit includes a self-canceling means, the test equipment is arranged so that the unit will be turned “off” in its normal operating manner.
S14.9.1.2.2The test is conducted at a rate not to exceed 15 complete cycles per minute. One complete cycle consists of the following sequence: Off, left turn, off, right turn, and return to off.
S14.9.1.2.3The voltage drop from the input terminal of the device to each lamp output terminal, including 3 in of 16 or 18 gage wire, is measured at the start of the test, at intervals of not more than 25,000 cycles during the test, and at the completion of the test.
S14.9.1.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.1.3.1A turn signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing at least 100,000 cycles, and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.25 volts.
S14.9.1.3.2 A turn signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing at least 175,000 cycles for a unit installed on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus 2032 mm or more in overall width, and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.25 volts.
S14.9.1.3.3If stop signals also operate through the turn signal operating unit, the voltage drop of any additional switch contacts must meet the same requirements as the turn signal contacts.
S14.9.2Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit durability test.
S14.9.2.1Procedure.
S14.9.2.1.1The sample unit is operated at its rated voltage with the maximum bulb load it will experience on the vehicle on which it will be installed. Bulbs that fail during the test are replaced. The hazard warning signal flasher is not to be included in the test circuit.
S14.9.2.1.2The unit is turned “on” and “off” in its normal operating manner at a rate not to exceed 15 complete cycles per minute. One complete cycle consists of the sequence: Off, on, and return to off. The test consists of 10,000 cycles at an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F followed by 1 hour constant “on” at the same temperature.
S14.9.2.1.3The voltage drop from the input terminal of the device to each lamp output terminal, including 3 in of 16 or 18 gage wire, is measured at the start of the test and at the completion of the test.
S14.9.2.2Performance requirements. A hazard warning signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing 10,000 cycles and the 1 hour constant “on” and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.3 volts for either 6.4 or 12.8 line voltage both at the start and completion of the test.
S14.9.3Turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning signal flasher tests.
S14.9.3.1Standard test circuit. All turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning signal flasher tests use the standard test circuit of Figure 22.
S14.9.3.1.1Test circuit setup.
S14.9.3.1.1.1The effective series resistance in the total circuit between the power supply and the bulb sockets (excluding the flasher and bulb load(s) using shorting bars) is 0.10 ±0.01 ohm.
S14.9.3.1.1.2The circuit resistance at A-B of Figure 22 is measured with flasher and bulb load(s) each shorted out with an effective shunt resistance not to exceed 0.005 ohms.
S14.9.3.1.1.3The voltage to the bulbs at C-D of Figure 22 is adjusted to 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) with the flasher shorted out by an effective shunt resistance not to exceed 0.005 ohms. The load current is adjusted by simultaneously adjusting trimmer resistors, R.
S14.9.3.1.1.4For testing fixed-load flashers at other required voltages, adjust the power supply to provide required voltages, at the required temperatures, at C-D of Figure 22, without readjustment of trimming resistors, R.
S14.9.3.1.1.5For variable-load flashers, the circuit is first adjusted for 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) at C-D of Figure 22, with the minimum required load, and the power supply is adjusted to provide other required test voltages, at required temperatures, at C-D of Figure 22, without readjustment of trimming resistors, R (each such required voltage being set with the minimum required load in place). The required voltage tests with the maximum load are conducted without readjusting each corresponding power supply voltage, previously set with minimum bulb load.
S14.9.3.1.1.6A suitable high impedance measuring device connected to points X-Y in Figure 22 is used for measuring flash rate, percent current “on” time, and voltage drop across the flasher. The measurement of these quantities does not affect the circuit.
S14.9.3.2Power supply specifications.
S14.9.3.2.1Starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent current “on” time tests. The power supply used in the standard test circuit for conducting the starting time, the voltage drop, and the flash rate and percent current “on” time tests must comply with the following specifications:
(a) Must not generate any adverse transients not present in motor vehicles;
(b) Be capable of supplying 11-16 vdc for 12 volt flashers and 5-9 vdc for 6 volt flashers to the input terminals of the standard test circuit;
(c) Be capable of supplying required design current(s) continuously and inrush currents as required by the design bulb load complement;
(d) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 2% with changes in the static load from 0 to maximum (not including inrush current) nor for static input line voltage variations;
(e) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 1.0 vdc from 0 to maximum load (including inrush current) and must recover 63% of its maximum excursion within 100 µsec; and
(f) Have a ripple voltage of 75mv, peak to peak.
S14.9.3.2.2Durability tests. The power supply used in the standard test circuit for conducting durability tests must comply with the following specifications:
(a) Must not generate any adverse transients not present in motor vehicles;
(b) Be capable of supplying 13 vdc and 14 vdc for 12 volt flashers and 6.5 vdc and 7 vdc for 6 volt flashers to the input terminals of the standard test circuit;
(c) Be capable of supplying a continuous output current of the design load for one flasher times the number of flashers and inrush currents as required by the design bulb load complement;
(d) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 2% with changes in the static load from 0 to maximum (not including inrush current) and means must be provided to compensate for static input line voltage variations;
(e) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 1.0 vdc from 0 to maximum load (including inrush current) and must recover 63% of its maximum excursion within 5 µsec; and
(f) Have a ripple voltage of 300 mv, peak to peak.
S14.9.3.3Turn signal flasher starting time test.
S14.9.3.3.1Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from fifty representative samples are subjected to a starting time test using the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.3.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.3.2.1The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75 ±10 °F with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their minimum and their maximum design load) connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.
S14.9.3.3.2.2The time measurement starts when the voltage is initially applied. Compliance is based on an average of three starts for each sample separated by a cooling interval of 5 minutes.
S14.9.3.3.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the starting time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:
(a) A flasher having normally closed contacts must open (turn off) within 1.0 second for a device designed to operate two signal lamps, or within 1.25 seconds for a device designed to operate more than two lamps, or
(b) A flasher having normally open contacts must complete the first cycle (close the contacts and then open the contacts) within 1.5 seconds.
S14.9.3.4Turn signal flasher voltage drop test.
S14.9.3.4.1Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the starting time test are subjected to a voltage drop test using the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.4.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.4.2.1The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75 ±10 °F with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their maximum design load) connected and the power source for the standard test circuit adjusted to apply 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts at the bulbs according to the flasher rating.
S14.9.3.4.2.2The voltage drop is measured between the input and load terminals of the flasher during the “on” period after the flashers have completed at least five consecutive cycles.
S14.9.3.4.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the voltage drop test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the lowest voltage drop across any flasher not exceeding 0.80 volt.
S14.9.3.5Turn signal flasher flash rate and percent current “on” time test.
S14.9.3.5.1Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the voltage drop test are subjected to a flash rate and percent of current “on” time test.
S14.9.3.5.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.5.2.1The test is conducted using the standard test circuit with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their minimum and their maximum design load) connected and design voltage applied to the bulbs.
S14.9.3.5.2.2Compliance is determined using the following combinations of ambient temperature and bulb voltage:
(a) 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) and 75° ±10 °F,
(b) 12.0 volts (or 6.0 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,
(c) 15.0 volts (or 7.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,
(d) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F, and
(e) 14.0 volts (or 7.0 volts) and 125° ±5 °F.
S14.9.3.5.2.3Flash rate and percent current “on” time are measured after the flashers have completed five consecutive cycles and are determined by an average of at least three consecutive cycles.
S14.9.3.5.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the flash rate and percent current “on” time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:
(a) The performance of a normally closed type flasher must be within the unshaded portion of the polygon shown in Figure 2, or
(b) The performance of a normally open type flasher must be within the entire rectangle including the shaded areas shown in Figure 2.
S14.9.3.6Turn signal flasher durability test.
S14.9.3.6.1Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from the thirty samples not used in the previous tests are subjected to a durability test.
S14.9.3.6.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.6.2.1Conformance of the samples to the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) is established.
S14.9.3.6.2.2The test is conducted on each sample with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their maximum design load) connected and 14 volts or 7.0 volts, according to the flasher rating, applied to the input terminals of the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.6.2.3The test cycle consists of 15 seconds on followed by 15 seconds off for a total time of 200 hours in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.
S14.9.3.6.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the durability test are considered to have been met if, after completion, 17 of 20 samples comply with the performance requirements of the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) when tested in the standard test circuit with design load and 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) applied to the bulbs.
S14.9.3.7Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher starting time test.
S14.9.3.7.1Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from fifty representative samples are subjected to a starting time test using the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.7.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.7.2.1The test is conducted test in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F with the minimum and maximum load connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.
S14.9.3.7.2.2The time measurement starts when the voltage is initially applied.
S14.9.3.7.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the starting time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:
(a) A flasher having normally closed contacts must open (turn off) within 1.5 seconds after the voltage is applied, or
(b) A flasher having normally open contacts must complete the first cycle (close the contacts and then open the contacts) within 1.5 seconds after the voltage is applied.
S14.9.3.8Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher voltage drop test.
S14.9.3.8.1Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the starting time test are subjected to a voltage drop test using the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.8.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.8.2.1The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F with the maximum design load connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.
S14.9.3.8.2.2The voltage drop is measured between the input and load terminals of the flasher during the “on” period after the flashers have completed at least five consecutive cycles.
S14.9.3.8.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the voltage drop test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the lowest voltage drop across any flasher must not exceed 0.8 volt.
S14.9.3.9Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher flash rate and percent “on” time test.
S14.9.3.9.1Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the voltage drop test are subjected to a flash rate and percent of current “on” time test.
S14.9.3.9.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.9.2.1The test is conducted using the standard test circuit by and applying loads of from two signal lamps to the maximum design loading including pilot indicator.
S14.9.3.9.2.2Compliance is determined using the following combinations of ambient temperature and bulb voltage:
(a) 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) and 75° ±10 °F,
(b) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F,
(c) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,
(d) 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F, and
(e) 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F.
S14.9.3.9.2.3Flash rate and percent current “on” time are measured after the flashers have completed five consecutive cycles and are determined by an average of at least three consecutive cycles.
S14.9.3.9.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the flash rate and percent current “on” time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:
(a) The performance of a normally closed type flasher must be within the unshaded portion of the polygon shown in Figure 2, or
(b) The performance of a normally open type flasher must be within the entire rectangle including the shaded areas shown in Figure 2.
S14.9.3.10Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher durability test.
S14.9.3.10.1Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from the thirty samples not used in the previous tests are subjected to a durability test.
S14.9.3.10.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.10.2.1Conformance of the samples to the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) is established.
S14.9.3.10.2.2The test is conducted on each sample with the maximum design load connected and 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) applied to the input terminals of the standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.10.2.3The flasher is subjected to continuous flashing for a total time of 36 hours in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.
S14.9.3.10.3Performance requirements. The requirements of the durability test are considered to have been met if, after completion, 17 of 20 samples comply with the performance requirements of the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) when tested in the standard test circuit with the power source adjusted to provide design voltage to the bulbs and with a minimum load of two signal lamp bulbs and the maximum design load, including pilot lamps, as specified by the manufacturer at an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.
S14.9.3.11Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device tests.
S14.9.3.11.1Test conditions. All tests are conducted with 13 volts input to the device unless otherwise specified.
S14.9.3.11.2Sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.2.1Samples. The sample device is mounted in and operated in the laboratory in the same environment as that encountered on the vehicle, that is tinted glass, grille work, etc.
S14.9.3.11.2.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.2.2.1The sample device is adjusted for sensitivity in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. It is exposed to a light source capable of providing a variable intensity of at least 1.5 cd to 150 cd at 100 feet from the sample device.
S14.9.3.11.2.2.2The device is switched to the lower beam mode in accordance with the “dim” limits specified and switched back to the upper beam mode in accordance with the “hold” limits specified for the specified test positions.
S14.9.3.11.2.2.3To provide more complete information on sensitivity throughout the required vertical and horizontal angles, a set of constant footcandle curves are made at “dim” sensitivities of 17, 25, and 100 cd at 100 ft.
S14.9.3.11.2.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.2.3.1Operating limits.
Test position(degrees) Dim(cd at 100 ft) Hold(cd at 100 ft)
HV Adjust to 15 1.5 min to 3.75 max.
H2L 25 max 1.5 min.
H4L 40 max 1.5 min.
H6L 75 max 1.5 min.
H2R 25 max 1.5 min.
H5R 150 max to 40 min 1.5 min.
1DV 30 max 1.5 min.
1UV 30 max 1.5 min.
S14.9.3.11.2.3.2There must be no sensitivity voids shown in the constant footcandle curves within the area limited by the test positions.
S14.9.3.11.3Voltage regulation test.
S14.9.3.11.3.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.3.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.3.1.2The “dim” sensitivity is measured at the H-V test position at 11 volts input to the device and at 15 volts input to the device.
S14.9.3.11.3.2Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode at between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft) with the input voltage at 11 volts and at 15 volts.
S14.9.3.11.4Manual override test.
S14.9.3.11.4.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.4.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.4.1.2The device is exposed to a test light that causes it to switch to the lower beam mode.
S14.9.3.11.4.1.3The manufacturer's instructions are followed to cause the device to override the test light and switch to upper beam.
S14.9.3.11.4.1.4In a similar manner, the test light is extinguished to cause the device to switch to the upper beam mode.
S14.9.3.11.4.1.5Again the manufacturer's instructions are followed to cause the device to switch to lower beam.
S14.9.3.11.4.2Performance requirements. The device, when operated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, must switch to the opposite beam with the test light energized and with the test light extinguished.
S14.9.3.11.5Warmup test.
S14.9.3.11.5.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.5.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test and the test lamp extinguished.
S14.9.3.11.5.1.2The test lamp will then be energized at a level of 25 (cd at 100 ft) at the H-V position of the device and the time for the device to switch to lower beam is measured.
S14.9.3.11.5.2Performance requirements. If the warmup time of the device exceeds 10 seconds it shall maintain the headlamps on lower beam during warmup.
S14.9.3.11.6Temperature test.
S14.9.3.11.6.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.6.1.1The sample device is exposed for 1 hour in a temperature corresponding to that at the device mounting location.
S14.9.3.11.6.1.2For a device mounted in the passenger compartment or the engine compartment, the temperature is 210 °F, mounted elsewhere, the temperature is 150 °F.
S14.9.3.11.6.1.3After this exposure the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured over the temperature range of −30 °F to 100 °F.
S14.9.3.11.6.2Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft) over the temperature range of −30 °F to 100 °F.
S14.9.3.11.7Dust test.
S14.9.3.11.7.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.7.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.7.1.2The device is then subjected to the dust test of S14.5.3.
S14.9.3.11.7.1.3At the conclusion of the dust exposure the lens of the device must be wiped clean and the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured.
S14.9.3.11.7.2Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).
S14.9.3.11.8Corrosion test.
S14.9.3.11.8.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.8.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.8.1.2All system components located outside the passenger compartment must be subjected to the corrosion test of S14.5.4 with the device not operating.
S14.9.3.11.8.1.3Water is not permitted to accumulate on any connector socket.
S14.9.3.11.8.1.4At the conclusion of the test the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device must be measured.
S14.9.3.11.8.2Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).
S14.9.3.11.9Vibration test.
S14.9.3.11.9.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.9.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test and the mechanical aim of the photounit determined.
S14.9.3.11.9.1.2The sample device must be mounted in proper vehicle position and subjected to vibration of 5g constant acceleration for 1/2 hour in each of three directions: vertical; horizontal and parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis; and horizontal and normal to the vehicle longitudinal axis.
S14.9.3.11.9.1.3The vibration frequency must be varied from 30 to 200 and back to 30 cycles per second over a period of approximately 1 minute.
S14.9.3.11.9.1.4The device must be operating during the test.
S14.9.3.11.9.1.5At the conclusion of the test the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device and the mechanical aim of the photounit must be measured.
S14.9.3.11.9.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.9.2.1The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).
S14.9.3.11.9.2.2The mechanical aim of the device photounit must not have changed by more than 0.25° from the initial value.
S14.9.3.11.10Sunlight test.
S14.9.3.11.10.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.10.1.1The sample device must be exposed for 1 hour in bright noonday sunlight (5000 fc minimum illumination with a clear sky) with the photounit aimed as it would be in service and facing an unobstructed portion of the horizon in the direction of the sun.
S14.9.3.11.10.1.2The device must then be rested for 1 hour in normal room light at room temperature and the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured.
S14.9.3.11.10.2Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).
S14.9.3.11.11Durability test.
S14.9.3.11.11.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.11.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.11.1.2The device photounit operated at a 13.0 input voltage on a cycle of 90 minutes on and 30 minutes off must be activated by a 60 cd light source at 100 ft, or equivalent, which is cycled on and off 4 times per minute for a period of 200 hours.
S14.9.3.11.11.1.3The device must then rest for 2 hours in a lighted area of 50 to 150 fc after which the H-V “dim” sensitivity must be measured.
S14.9.3.11.11.2Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).
S14.9.3.11.12Return to upper beam test.
S14.9.3.11.12.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.12.1.1The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.12.1.2The lens of the photounit must be exposed to light of 100 fc for 10 seconds.
S14.9.3.11.12.2Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to upper beam mode within 2 seconds after the 100 fc light is extinguished.
Table I-a—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices
Lightingdevice Number and color Mountinglocation Mounting height Device activation
All Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses
Lower Beam Headlamps White, of a headlighting system listed in Table II On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm) The wiring harness or connector assembly of each headlighting system must be designed so that only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the upper beam position, except for certain systems listed in Table II.Steady burning, except that may be flashed for signaling purposes.
Upper Beam Headlamps White, of a headlighting system listed in Table II On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm)
Turn Signal Lamps 2 Amber At or near the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inches Flash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
2 Amber or red Truck tractor exception, see S6.1.1.3 On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable
Taillamps 2 Red On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning. Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.May be activated when the headlamps are activated at less than full intensity as Daytime Running Lamps (DRL).
Stop Lamps 2 Red On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.Must be activated upon application of the service brakes. When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing. May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Side Marker Lamps 2 Amber On each side as far to the front as practicable Not less than 15 inches Steady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes. Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
2 Red (not required on truck tractor). On each side as far to the rear as practicable
Reflex Reflectors 2 Amber On each side as far to the front as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches Not applicable.
2 Red (not required on truck tractor). On each side as far to the rear as practicable
2 Red On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableOn a truck tractor may be mounted on the back of the cab not less than 4 inches above the height of the rear tires.
Backup Lamp 1 White Additional lamps permitted to meet requirements On the rear No requirement Steady burning.Must be activated when the ignition switch is energized and reverse gear is engaged. Must not be energized when the vehicle is in forward motion.
License Plate Lamp 1 White Additional lamps permitted to meet requirements On the rear to illuminate license plate from top or sides No requirement Steady burning.Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or when the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
Additional Lamps Required on All Passenger Cars, and on Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, Less Than 2032 MM in Overall Width
Parking lamps 2 Amber or white On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
Additional Lamp(s) Required on All Passenger Cars, and on Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, Less Than 2032 MM in Overall Width and With a GVWR of 10,000 Lbs or Less
High mounted stop lamp 1 Red, or 2 red where exceptions apply. See Section 6.1.1.2 On the rear including glazing, with the lamp center on the vertical centerline as viewed from the rear Not less than 34 inches except for passenger cars. See Section 6.1.4.1 Steady burning.Must only be activated upon application of the service brakes or may be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Additional Lamps and Reflective Devices Required on All Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, 30 Feet or Longer
Intermediate side marker lamps 2 Amber On each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps Not less than 15 inches Steady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or when the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors 2 Amber On each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches Not applicable.
Additional Lamps Required on All Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, 2032 MM or More in Overall Width
Clearance lamps 2 Amber On the front to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or width of cab on truck tractor, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerlineMay be located at a location other than the front if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle. As near the top as practicable Steady burning.
2 Red(not required on truck tractor) On the rear to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerlineMay be located at a location other than the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle. As near the top as practicable, except where the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of the vehicle.Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors. Steady burning.
Identification lamps 3 Amber On the front, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart As near the top of the vehicle or top of the cab as practicable Steady burning.
3 Red (not required on truck tractor) On the rear, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart As near the top as practicablePracticability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors. Steady burning.
Additional Lamps Required on All School Buses Except Multifunction School Activity Buses
Signal warning lamps 2 Red plus 2 amber optional On the front of the cab as far apart as practicable, but in no case shall the spacing between lamps be less than 40 inchesAmber lamps, when installed, at the same height as and just inboard of the red lamp. As high as practicable but at least above the windshield Flashing alternately between 60 to 120 cycles per minute, with an activation period sufficient to allow the lamp to reach full brightness, when actuated by a manual switch.Amber lamps, when installed, may only be activated by manual or foot operation, and must be automatically deactivated and the red lamps must be automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
2 Red plus 2 amber optional On the rear cab as far apart as practicable, but in no case shall the spacing between lamps be less than 40 inchesAmber lamps, when installed, at the same height as and just inboard of the red lamp. As high as practicable but at least above the top of any side window opening Flashing alternately between 60 to 120 cycles per minute, with an activation period sufficient to allow the lamp to reach full brightness, when actuated by a manual switch.Amber lamps, when installed, may only be activated by manual or foot operation, and must be automatically deactivated and the red lamps must be automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
Daytime Running Lamps Permitted But Not Required on Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses
Daytime running lamp (DRL) 2 identically colored either white, white to yellow, white to selective yellow, selective yellow, or yellow On the front, symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline if not a pair of lamps required by this standard or if not optically combined with a pair of lamps required by this standard Not more than 1.067 meters above the road surface if not a pair of lamps required by this standard or if not optically combined with a pair of lamps required by this standardSee S7.10.13(b) for additional height limitation. Steady burning.Automatically activated as determined by the vehicle manufacturer and automatically deactivated when the headlamp control is in any “on” position. Each DRL optically combined with a turn signal lamp must be automatically deactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is activated, and automatically reactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is deactivated. See S7.10.10.1(c) for additional activation requirements when mounted close to, or combined with, a turn signal lamp.
Table I-b—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices
Lighting device Number and color Mounting location Mounting height Device activation
ALL TRAILERS
Turn Signal Lamps 2 Red or amber On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inches Flash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
Taillamps 2 Red or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wide On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. When a single lamp is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.
Stop Lamps 2 Red, or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wide On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. When a single lamp is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.Must be activated upon application of the service brakes. When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing. May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Side Marker Lamps 2 AmberNone required on trailers less than 1829 mm [6 ft] in overall length including the trailer tongue On each side as far to the front as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongue Not less than 15 inches Steady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.
2 Red On each side as far to the rear as practicable Not less than 15 inches. Not more than 60 inches on trailers 2032 mm or more in overall width
Reflex Reflectors. A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with S8.2 of this standard need not be equipped with reflex reflectors if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the required reflex reflectors 2 AmberNone required on trailers less than 1829 mm [6 ft] in overall length including the trailer tongue On each side as far to the front as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongue Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches Not applicable.
2 Red On each side as far to the rear as practicable
2 Red or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wide On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableWhen a single reflector is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerline.
License Plate Lamp 1 WhiteAdditional lamps permitted to meet requirements On the rear to illuminate license plate from top or sides No requirement Steady burning.
Additional Lamps and Reflective Devices Required on all Trailers 30 Feet or Longer
Intermediate side marker lamps 2 Amber On each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lamps Not less than 15 inches Steady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.
Intermediate side reflex reflectorsA trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with S8.2 of this standard need not be equipped with reflex reflectors if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the required reflex reflectors 2 Amber On each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectors Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches Not applicable.
Additional Lamps Required on all Trailers 2032 MM or More in Overall Width
Clearance lamps 2 Amber On the front to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerlineMay be located at a location other than the front if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle As near the top as practicable Steady burning.
2 Red On the rear to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerlineMay be located at a location other than the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle As near the top as practicable, except where the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of the vehicle. Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors Steady burning.
2 Amber to front and red to rear On a boat trailer the requirement for front and rear clearance lamps may be met by installation at or near the midpoint on each side of a dual facing lamp so as to indicate the extreme width. May be located at a location other than the front and the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle As near the top as practicable Steady burning.
Identification lamps 3 Red On the rear, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart As near the top as practicablePracticability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors Steady burning.
Table I-c—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices
Lighting device Number and color Mounting location Mounting height Device activation
All Motorcycles
Lower Beam Headlamps White, of a headlighting system listed in S10.17 On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. See additional requirements in S10.17.1.1, S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3 Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm) The wiring harness or connector assembly of each headlighting system must be designed so that only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the upper beam position, except for certain systems listed in Table II.
Upper Beam Headlamps White, of a headlighting system listed in S10.17 On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. See additional requirements in S10.17.1.1, S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3 Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm) Steady burning, except that may be flashed for signaling purposes.
The upper beam or the lower beam, but not both, may be wired to modulate from a higher intensity to a lower intensity in accordance with S10.17.5
Turn Signal Lamps 2 Amber. None required on a motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less At or near the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline of lamps) of 16 inches. Minimum edge to edge separation distance between a turn signal lamp and headlamp is 4 inches Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inches Flash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
2 Amber or red. None required on a motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less At or near the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline to centerline of lamps) of 9 inches
Minimum edge to edge separation distance between the turn signal lamp and the taillamp or stop lamp is 4 inches, when a single stop and taillamp is installed on the vertical centerline and the turn signal lamps are red
Taillamps 1 Red On the rear, on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.
Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
Stop Lamps 1 Red On the rear, on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inches Steady burning.
Must be activated upon application of the service brakes.
When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing. May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Reflex Reflectors 2 Amber On each side as far to the front as practicable Not less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inches Not applicable.
2 Red On each side as far to the rear as practicable
1 Red On the rear, on the vertical centerline except that, if two are used on the rear, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline
License Plate Lamp 1 White On the rear to illuminate license plate No requirement Steady burning.
Additional lamps permitted to meet requirements Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
Table II-b—Headlighting Systems—Combination
System designation System composition Photometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aim Lower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
(1) Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.
(2) Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.
(3) Beam contributor photometric allocation formula of S14.2.5.9 may apply.
2 LAMP SYSTEM A COMBINATION OF TWO DIFFERENT HEADLAMPS CHOSEN FROM; TYPE F, AN INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMP, OR A REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMP UB2 (1) LB2M (1) LB2V (1)
4 LAMP SYSTEM ANY COMBINATION OF FOUR DIFFERENT HEADLAMPS CHOSEN FROM; TYPE F, AN INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMP (3), OR A REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMP UB1 LB1M (2) LB1V (2)
Table II-c—Headlighting Systems—Integral Beams
System designation Beam composition Photometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aim Lower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
(1) Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.
(2) Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.
(3) Lower beams must remain activated when upper beams are activated.
(4) Beam contributor photometric allocation formula of S14.2.5.9 applies.
2 LAMP SYSTEM UPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAM UB2 (1) OR UB3 LB2M (1) OR LB3M LB2V (1) OR LB3V
4 LAMP SYSTEM UPPER BEAM UB4 N.A. N.A.
UPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAM UB5 LB4M LB2V
4 LAMP SYSTEM UPPER BEAM (U) UB1 N.A. N.A.
LOWER BEAM (L) N.A. (2) LB1M (2) LB1V (2)
4 LAMP SYSTEM UPPER BEAM UB6 N.A. N.A.
LOWER BEAM N.A. (3) LB5M (3) LB4V (3)
BEAM CONTRIBUTOR UPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAM UB1 (4) LB1M (2)(4) LB1V (2)(4)
Table II-d—Headlighting Systems—Replaceable Bulb
System designation Light source composition Photometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aim Lower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
(1) Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.
(2) Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.
2 LAMP SYSTEM ANY DUAL FILAMENT TYPE, OTHER THAN HB2, USED ALONE OR WITH ANOTHER DUAL FILAMENT TYPE OTHER THAN HB2 UB2 (1) OR UB3 LB2M (1) OR LB3M LB2V (1) OR LB3V
2 LAMP SYSTEM HB2 OR ANY SINGLE FILAMENT TYPE USED ALONE OR WITH ANY OTHER SINGLE OR DUAL FILAMENT TYPE UB2 (1) OR UB3 LB2M (1) LB2V (1)
4 LAMP SYSTEM ANY DUAL FILAMENT TYPE, OTHER THAN HB2, USED ALONE OR WITH ANOTHER DUAL FILAMENT TYPE OTHER THAN HB2 UB1 (2) OR UB3 LB1M (2) OR LB3M LB1V (2) OR LB3V
4 LAMP SYSTEM HB2 OR ANY SINGLE FILAMENT TYPE USED ALONE OR WITH ANY OTHER SINGLE OR DUAL FILAMENT TYPE. (U & L) UB1 (2) LB1M (2) LB1V (2)
Table III—Marking Requirements Location
Lamp, reflective device, or othercomponent Marking Marking location Requirement
HEADLAMPS, BEAM CONTRIBUTORS, OR HEADLAMP REPLACEABLE LENS
“DOT” Lens S6.5.1
Optical axis marking See requirement S10.18.5
Manufacturer name and/or trademark Lens S6.5.3
Voltage See requirement S6.5.3
Part number or trade number See requirement S6.5.3
HEADLAMP REPLACEABLE LENS Manufacturer identification Lens S6.5.3
Headlamp identification
REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPS “U” or “L” (4 lamp system) Lens S10.15.4
Replaceable bulb type Lens S6.5.3.4
SEALED BEAM HEADLAMPS “sealed beam” Lens S6.5.3.3
Type designation See requirements S6.5.3.3
INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMPS “U” or “L” (4 lamp system) Lens S10.14.4
MOTORCYCLE REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPS “motorcycle” Lens S10.17.2
VISUALLY/OPTICALLY AIMED HEADLAMPS “VOR” or “VOL” or “VO” Lens S10.18.9.6
EXTERNALLY AIMED HEADLAMPS Aim pad location & “H” or “V“ Lens S10.18.7.1
VEHICLE HEADLAMP AIMING DEVICES (VHAD) Aiming scale(s) See requirement S10.18.8
(HEADLAMP) REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCES “DOT” See requirement S11.1
Replaceable light source designation See requirement
Manufacturer name and/or trademark See requirement
REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCE BALLASTS Manufacturer name or logo See requirement S11.2
Part number
Light source identification
Rated laboratory life
High voltage warning
Output in watts and volts
“DOT”
LAMPS (OTHER THAN HEADLAMPS), REFLECTIVE DEVICES, AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT “DOT” See requirement S6.5.1.2
DAYTIME RUNNING LAMPS (DRL) “DRL” Lens S6.5.2
CONSPICUITY REFLEX REFLECTORS “DOT-C” Exposed surface S8.2.2.1
RETROREFLECTIVE SHEETING “DOT-C2” or “DOT-C3” or “DOT-C4” Exposed surface S8.2.1.3
Table IV-a—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements
Lighting device Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall widthminimum effective projected luminous lens area (sq mm) Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall widthminimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp (sq mm) Motorcyclesminimum effective projected luminous lens area (sq mm)
Single compartment lamp Multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps Multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps
Each compartment or lamp Combined compartments or lamps Each compartment or lamp Single or combined compartments or lamps
1 A motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less may be equipped with a stop lamp whose minimum effective projected luminous lens area is not less than 2258 sq mm.
Front turn signal lamp 2200 2200 7500 2200 2258
Rear turn signal lamp 5000 2200 5000 7500 2200 2258
Stop lamp 5000 2200 5000 7500 2200 1 5000
Table IV-b—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements
Lighting device Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall width and with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less using a single lamp minimum effective projected luminous lens area (sq mm) Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall width and with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less using dual lamps of identical size and shape minimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp (sq mm)
High-mounted stop lamp 2903 1452
Table IV-c—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements
Lighting device School busminimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp (sq mm)
School bus signal lamp 12,258
Table V-a—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices
Lighting device Required visibility
Backup lamp Lamps must be mounted so that the optical center of at least one lamp is visible from any eye point elevation from at least 1828 mm (6 ft) to 610 mm (2 ft) above the horizontal plane on which the vehicle is standing; and from any position in the area, rearward of a vertical plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, 914 mm (3 ft), to the rear of the vehicle and extending 914 mm (3 ft) beyond each side of the vehicle.
High-mounted stop lamp Signal must be visible to the rear through a horizontal angle from 45° to the left to 45° to the right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. (Single lamp or two lamps together where required by S6.1.1.2 of this standard).
School bus signal lamp Signal of front lamps to the front and rear lamps to the rear must be unobstructed within area bounded by 5° up to 10° down and 30° left to 30° right.
Table V-b—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices—Lens Area Visibility Option
1 IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.
2 Where a lamp is mounted with its axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, the vertical test point angles located below the horizontal plane subject to visibility requirements may be reduced to 5° down.
3 Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted at the front on each side of a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus, of 2032 mm or more overall width, only one such area need comply.
4 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.
5 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.
Lighting device Corner points1 2 Required visibility
Motorcycle All other
Turn signal lamp 3 15° UP-20° IB 15° UP-45° OB 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-45° OB Unobstructed minimum
15° DOWN-20° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB effective projected
Stop lamp 15° UP-45° RIGHT 4 15° UP-45° LEFT 4 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-45° OB luminous lens area
15° DOWN-45° RIGHT 4 15° DOWN-45° LEFT 4 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB of 1,250 sq mm in any
Taillamp 15° UP-45° RIGHT 5 15° UP-45° LEFT 5 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-45° OB direction throughout
15° DOWN-45° RIGHT 5 15° DOWN-45° LEFT 5 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB the pattern defined by
Parking lamp No Requirement No Requirement 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-45° OB the specified corner
No Requirement No Requirement 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB points.
Table V-c—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices—Luminous Intensity Visibility Option
1 IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.
2 Where a lamp is mounted with its axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, the vertical test point angles located below the horizontal plane subject to visibility requirements may be reduced to 5° down
3 Inboard and outboard corner points are 80° for a single taillamp installed on a motorcycle
4 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.
5 If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.
Lighting device Corner points 1 2 Required visibility Minimum luminous intensity in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the specified corner points.
Motorcycle All Other Candela
Turn signal lamp 15° UP-20° IB 15° UP-80° OB 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-80° OB 0.3
15° DOWN-20° IB 15° DOWN-80° OB 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-80° OB
Stop lamp 15° UP-45° RIGHT 4 15° UP-45° LEFT 4 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-45° OB 0.3
15° DOWN-45° RIGHT 4 15° DOWN-45° LEFT 4 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-45° OB
Taillamp 3 15° UP-80° RIGHT 5 15° UP-80° LEFT 5 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-80° OB 0.05
15° DOWN-80° RIGHT 5 15° DOWN-80° LEFT 5 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-80° OB
Parking lamp No Requirement No Requirement 15° UP-45° IB 15° UP-80° OB 0.05
No Requirement No Requirement 15° DOWN-45° IB 15° DOWN-80° OB
Table V-d—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices (Legacy Visibility Alternative)
1 IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.
Lighting device Required visibility 1
Turn signal lamp All passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, and trailers of less than 2032 mm overall width Unobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1250 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-V toH-45° OB.
All multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and trailers of 2032 mm or more overall width Unobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1300 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-V to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.
Stop lamp Unobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1250 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-45° IB to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.
Taillamp Unobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 2 sq in through horizontal angle of H-45° IB to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.
Table X—Side Marker Lamp Photometry Requirements
Test point(degrees) Minimum photometric intensity (cd) (2) red lamps Minimum photometric intensity (cd) (2) amber lamps
(1) Where a side marker lamp installed on a motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall length and less than 80 inches (2 m) in overall width has the lateral angle nearest the other required side marker lamp on the same side of the vehicle reduced from 45° by design as specified by S7.4.13.2, the photometric intensity measurement may be met at the lesser angle.
(2) The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.
(3) Where side marker lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.
10U:
45L (1) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (1) 0.25 0.62
H:
45L (1) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (1) 0.25 0.62
10D: (3)
45L (1) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (1) 0.25 0.62
Table XI—Clearance and Identification Lamps Photometry Requirements
Test point(degrees) Minimum photometric intensity (cd) (2) red lamps Minimum photometric intensity (cd) (2) amber lamps
(1) Where clearance lamps or identification lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.
(2) The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.
(3) When optically combined with a stop lamp or turn signal lamp, this maximum applies on or above the horizontal.
(4) Where clearance lamps are installed at locations other than on the front and rear due to the necessity to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle, they need not meet the photometric intensity requirement at any test point that is 45° inboard.
10U:
45L (4) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (4) 0.25 0.62
H:
45L (4) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (4) 0.25 0.62
10D: (1)
45L (4) 0.25 0.62
V 0.25 0.62
45R (4) 0.25 0.62
Maximum photometric intensity (3) (cd) red lamps 15
Table XVI-a—Reflex Reflector Photometry Requirements
Observation angle(degrees) Entrance angle(degrees) Minimum performance
Red reflectors Amber reflectors White reflectors
(cd/incident ft-c) (mcd/lux) (cd/incident ft-c) (mcd/lux) (cd/incident ft-c) (mcd/lux)
(1) Where reflex reflectors are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the required specified downward angle.
0.2 0 4.5 420 11.25 1050 18 1680
10U 3.0 280 7.5 700 12 1120
10D (1) 3.0 280 7.5 700 12 1120
20L 1.5 140 3.75 350 6 560
20R 1.5 140 3.75 350 6 560
1.5 0 0.07 6 0.175 15 0.28 24
10U 0.05 5 0.125 12.5 0.2 20
10D (1) 0.05 5 0.125 12.5 0.2 20
20L 0.03 3 0.075 7.5 0.12 12
20R 0.03 3 0.075 7.5 0.12 12
Table XVI-b—Additional Photometry Requirements for Conspicuity Reflex Reflectors
Observation angle(degrees) Entrance angle(degrees) Minimum performance
Red(mcd/lux) White horizontal orientation(mcd/lux) White vertical orientation(mcd/lux)
0.2 0 300 1250 1680
20L TO 20R 560
30L TO 30R 300 1250
45L TO 45R 75 300
10U TO 10D 1120
Table XVI-c—Retroreflective Sheeting Photometry Requirements
Observation angle(degrees) Entrance angle(degrees) Minimum performance
Grade dot-C2 Grade dot-C3 Grade dot-C4
White Red White Red White Red
(cd/lux/sq m) (cd/lux/sq m) (cd/lux/sq m) (cd/lux/sq m) (cd/lux/sq m) (cd/lux/sq m)
0.2 −4 250 60 165 40 125 30
30 250 60 165 40 125 30
45 60 15 40 10 30 8
0.5 −4 65 15 43 10 33 8
30 65 15 43 10 33 8
45 15 4 10 3 8 2
Table XVII—School Bus Signal Lamp Photometry Requirements
Test point(degrees) Minimum photometric intensity (cd) (2) red lamps Minimum photometric intensity (cd) amber lamps
(1) Where school bus signal lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.
(2) The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.
5U:
20L 150 375
10L 300 750
5L 300 750
V 300 750
5R 300 750
10R 300 750
20R 150 375
H:
30L 30 75
20L 180 450
10L 400 1000
5L 500 1250
V 600 1500
5R 500 1250
10R 400 1000
20R 180 450
30R 30 75
5D:
30L 30 75
20L 200 500
10L 300 750
5L 450 1125
V 450 1125
5R 450 1125
10R 300 750
20R 200 500
30R 30 75
10D: (1)
5L 40 100
V 40 100
5R 40 100
Appendix to § 571.108Table of Contents
Sec.
571.108Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
S1Scope.
S2Purpose.
S3Application.
S4Definitions.
S5References to SAE publications.
S5.2Incorporation by reference.
S6Vehicle requirements.
S6.1Required lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment by vehicle type.
S6.1.1Quantity.
S6.1.1.1Conspicuity systems.
S6.1.1.2High-mounted stop lamps.
S6.1.1.3Truck tractor rear turn signal lamps.
S6.1.1.4Daytime running lamps.
S6.1.2Color.
S6.1.3Mounting location.
S6.1.3.3License plate lamp.
S6.1.3.4High-mounted stop lamp.
S6.1.3.4.1Interior mounting.
S6.1.3.4.2Accessibility.
S6.1.3.5Headlamp beam mounting.
S6.1.3.5.1Vertical headlamp arrangement.
S6.1.3.5.2Horizontal headlamp arrangement.
S6.1.3.6Auxiliary lamps mounted near identification lamps.
S6.1.4Mounting height.
S6.1.4.1High-mounted stop lamps.
S6.1.5Activation.
S6.1.5.1Hazard warning signal.
S6.1.5.2Simultaneous beam activation.
S6.2Impairment.
S6.2.3Headlamp obstructions.
S6.3Equipment combinations.
S6.4Lens area, visibility and school bus signal lamp aiming.
S6.4.1Effective projected luminous lens area requirements.
S6.4.2Visibility.
S6.4.3Visibility options.
S6.4.3(a)Lens area option.
S6.4.3(b)Luminous intensity option.
S6.4.4Legacy visibility alternative.
S6.4.5School bus signal lamp aiming.
S6.5Marking.
S6.5.1DOT marking.
S6.5.2DRL marking.
S6.5.3Headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.1Trademark.
S6.5.3.2Voltage and trade number.
S6.5.3.3Sealed beam headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.4Replaceable bulb headlamp markings.
S6.5.3.5Additional headlamp markings.
S6.6Associated equipment.
S6.6.3License plate holder.
S6.7Replacement equipment.
S6.7.1General.
S6.7.2Version of this standard.
S7Signal lamp requirements.
S7.1Turn signal lamps.
S7.1.1Front turn signal lamps.
S7.1.1.1Number.
S7.1.1.2Color of light.
S7.1.1.3Mounting location.
S7.1.1.4Mounting height.
S7.1.1.5Activation.
S7.1.1.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.1.1.7Visibility.
S7.1.1.8Indicator.
S7.1.1.9Markings.
S7.1.1.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.1.1.10.2Spacing measurement for non-reflector lamps.
S7.1.1.10.3Spacing measurement for lamps with reflectors.
S7.1.1.10.4Spacing based photometric multipliers.
S7.1.1.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.1.1.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.
S7.1.1.12Ratio to parking lamps and clearance lamps.
S7.1.1.13Photometry.
S7.1.1.14Physical tests.
S7.1.2Rear turn signal lamps.
S7.1.2.1Number.
S7.1.2.2Color of light.
S7.1.2.3Mounting location.
S7.1.2.4Mounting height.
S7.1.2.5Activation.
S7.1.2.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.1.2.7Visibility.
S7.1.2.8Indicator.
S7.1.2.9Markings.
S7.1.2.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.1.2.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.1.2.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.
S7.1.2.12Ratio to taillamps and clearance lamps.
S7.1.2.13Photometry.
S7.1.2.14Physical tests.
S7.1.3Combined lamp bulb indexing.
S7.2Taillamps.
S7.2.1Number.
S7.2.2Color of light.
S7.2.3Mounting location.
S7.2.4Mounting height.
S7.2.5Activation.
S7.2.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.2.7Visibility.
S7.2.8Indicator.
S7.2.9Markings.
S7.2.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.2.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.2.11.4Taillamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.
S7.2.12Ratio.
S7.2.13Photometry.
S7.2.14Physical tests.
S7.3Stop lamps.
S7.3.1Number.
S7.3.2Color of light.
S7.3.3Mounting location.
S7.3.4Mounting height.
S7.3.5Activation.
S7.3.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.3.7Visibility.
S7.3.8Indicator.
S7.3.9Markings.
S7.3.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.3.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.3.11.4Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.
S7.3.12Ratio to taillamps.
S7.3.13Photometry.
S7.3.14Physical tests.
S7.3.15Combined lamp bulb indexing.
S7.4Side marker lamps.
S7.4.1Number.
S7.4.2Color of light.
S7.4.3Mounting location.
S7.4.4Mounting height.
S7.4.5Activation.
S7.4.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.4.7Visibility.
S7.4.8Indicator.
S7.4.9Markings.
S7.4.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.4.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.4.12Ratio.
S7.4.13Photometry.
S7.4.13.2Inboard photometry.
S7.4.14Physical tests.
S7.5Clearance and identification lamps.
S7.5.1Number.
S7.5.2Color of light.
S7.5.3Mounting location.
S7.5.4Mounting height.
S7.5.5Activation.
S7.5.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.5.7Visibility.
S7.5.8Indicator.
S7.5.9Markings.
S7.5.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.5.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.5.12Ratio.
S7.5.12.1Clearance lamps.
S7.5.12.2Identification lamps.
S7.5.13Photometry.
S7.5.14Physical tests.
S7.6Backup lamps.
S7.6.1Number.
S7.6.2Color of light.
S7.6.3Mounting location.
S7.6.4Mounting height.
S7.6.5Activation.
S7.6.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.6.7Visibility.
S7.6.8Indicator.
S7.6.9Markings.
S7.6.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.6.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.6.12Ratio.
S7.6.13Photometry.
S7.6.14Physical tests.
S7.7License plate lamps.
S7.7.1Number.
S7.7.2Color of light.
S7.7.3Mounting location.
S7.7.4Mounting height.
S7.7.5Activation.
S7.7.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.7.7Visibility.
S7.7.8Indicator.
S7.7.9Markings.
S7.7.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.7.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.7.12Ratio.
S7.7.13Photometry.
S7.7.14Physical tests.
S7.7.15Installation.
S7.7.15.4Incident light from single lamp.
S7.7.15.5Incident light from multiple lamps.
S7.8Parking lamps.
S7.8.1Number.
S7.8.2Color of light.
S7.8.3Mounting location.
S7.8.4Mounting height.
S7.8.5Activation.
S7.8.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.8.7Visibility.
S7.8.8Indicator.
S7.8.9Markings.
S7.8.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.8.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.8.12Ratio.
S7.8.13Photometry.
S7.8.14Physical tests.
S7.9High-mounted stop lamps.
S7.9.1Number.
S7.9.2Color of light.
S7.9.3Mounting location.
S7.9.4Mounting height.
S7.9.5Activation.
S7.9.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.9.7Visibility.
S7.9.8Indicator.
S7.9.9Markings.
S7.9.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.9.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.9.12Ratio.
S7.9.13Photometry.
S7.9.14Physical tests.
S7.10Daytime running lamps (DRLs).
S7.10.1Number.
S7.10.2Color of light.
S7.10.3Mounting location.
S7.10.4Mounting height.
S7.10.5Activation.
S7.10.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.10.7Visibility.
S7.10.8Indicator.
S7.10.9Markings.
S7.10.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.10.10.1Spacing to turn signal lamps.
S7.10.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.10.12Ratio.
S7.10.13Photometry.
S7.10.14Physical tests.
S7.11School bus signal lamps.
S7.11.1Number.
S7.11.2Color of light.
S7.11.3Mounting location.
S7.11.4Mounting height.
S7.11.5Activation.
S7.11.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S7.11.7Visibility.
S7.11.8Indicator.
S7.11.9Markings.
S7.11.10Spacing to other lamps.
S7.11.11Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.
S7.11.12Ratio.
S7.11.13Photometry.
S7.11.14Physical tests.
S8Reflective device requirements.
S8.1Reflex reflectors.
S8.1.1Number.
S8.1.2Color.
S8.1.3Mounting location.
S8.1.4Mounting height.
S8.1.5Activation.
S8.1.6Effective projected luminous lens area.
S8.1.7Visibility.
S8.1.8Indicator.
S8.1.9Markings.
S8.1.10Spacing to other lamps or reflective devices.
S8.1.11Photometry.
S8.1.12Physical tests.
S8.1.13Alternative side reflex reflector material.
S8.2Conspicuity systems.
S8.2.1Retroreflective sheeting.
S8.2.1.2Retroreflective sheeting material.
S8.2.1.3Certification marking.
S8.2.1.4Application pattern.
S8.2.1.4.1Alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.1.5Application location.
S8.2.1.6Application spacing.
S8.2.1.7Photometry.
S8.2.2Conspicuity reflex reflectors.
S8.2.2.1Certification marking.
S8.2.2.2Application pattern.
S8.2.2.2.1Alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.2.2.2White material.
S8.2.2.3Photometry.
S8.2.3Conspicuity system installation on trailers.
S8.2.3.1Trailer rear.
S8.2.3.1.1Element 1-alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.3.1.2Element 2-white.
S8.2.3.1.3Element 3-alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.3.2Trailer side-alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.4Conspicuity system installation on truck tractors.
S8.2.4.1Element 1-alternating red and white materials.
S8.2.4.2Element 2-white.
S9Associated equipment requirements.
S9.1Turn signal operating unit.
S9.1.2Physical tests.
S9.2Turn signal flasher.
S9.2.2Physical tests.
S9.3Turn signal pilot indicator.
S9.3.4Indicator size and color.
S9.3.6Turn signal lamp failure.
S9.4Headlamp beam switching device.
S9.4.1Semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device.
S9.4.1.1Operating instructions.
S9.4.1.2Manual override.
S9.4.1.3Fail safe operation.
S9.4.1.4Automatic dimming indicator.
S9.4.1.5Lens accessibility.
S9.4.1.6Mounting height.
S9.4.1.7Physical tests.
S9.5Upper beam headlamp indicator.
S9.5.1Indicator size and location.
S9.6Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit.
S9.6.2Operating unit switch.
S9.6.3Physical tests.
S9.7Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher.
S9.7.2Physical tests.
S9.8Vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator.
S9.8.4Indicator size and color.
S10Headlighting system requirements.
S10.1Vehicle headlighting systems.
S10.2Aiming.
S10.3Number.
S10.4Color of light.
S10.5Mounting location.
S10.6Mounting height.
S10.7Activation.
S10.8Effective projected luminous lens area.
S10.9Visibility.
S10.10Indicator.
S10.11Markings.
S10.12Spacing to other lamps.
S10.13Sealed beam headlighting systems.
S10.13.1Installation.
S10.13.2Simultaneous aim.
S10.13.3Photometry.
S10.13.4Physical tests.
S10.14Integral beam headlighting systems.
S10.14.1Installation.
S10.14.2Aimability.
S10.14.3Simultaneous aim.
S10.14.4Markings.
S10.14.5Additional light sources.
S10.14.6Photometry.
S10.14.7Physical tests.
S10.15Replaceable bulb headlighting systems.
S10.15.1Installation.
S10.15.2Aiming restrictions.
S10.15.3Replacement lens reflector units.
S10.15.4Markings.
S10.15.5Additional light sources.
S10.15.6Photometry.
S10.15.7Physical tests.
S10.16Combination headlighting systems.
S10.16.1Installation.
S10.16.2Photometry.
S10.16.3Physical tests.
S10.17Motorcycle headlighting systems.
S10.17.1Installation.
S10.17.1.1Single headlamp.
S10.17.1.2Two headlamps with both beams.
S10.17.1.3Two headlamps, upper beam and lower beam.
S10.17.2Motorcycle replaceable bulb headlamp marking.
S10.17.3Photometry.
S10.17.4Physical tests.
S10.17.5Motorcycle headlamp modulation system.
S10.17.5.1.Modulation.
S10.17.5.2Replacement modulators.
S10.17.5.2.1Replacement performance.
S10.17.5.2.2Replacement instructions.
S10.18Headlamp aimability performance requirements.
S10.18.1Headlamp mounting and aiming.
S10.18.2Headlamp aiming systems.
S10.18.3Aim adjustment interaction.
S10.18.4Horizontal adjustment-visually aimed headlamp.
S10.18.5Optical axis marking.
S10.18.5.1Optical axis marking-vehicle.
S10.18.5.2Optical axis marking-lamp.
S10.18.5.3Optical axis marking-visual aim headlamp.
S10.18.6Moveable reflectors.
S10.18.7External aiming.
S10.18.7.1Headlamp aiming device locating plates.
S10.18.7.2Nonadjustable headlamp aiming device locating plates.
S10.18.8On-vehicle aiming.
S10.18.8.1Aim.
S10.18.8.1.1Vertical aim.
S10.18.8.1.2Horizontal aim.
S10.18.8.2Aiming instructions.
S10.18.8.3Permanent calibration.
S10.18.8.4Replacement units.
S10.18.8.5Physical tests.
S10.18.9Visual/optical aiming.
S10.18.9.1Vertical aim, lower beam.
S10.18.9.1.1Vertical position of the cutoff.
S10.18.9.1.2Vertical gradient.
S10.18.9.1.3Horizontal position of the cutoff.
S10.18.9.1.4Maximum inclination of the cutoff.
S10.18.9.1.5Measuring the cutoff parameter.
S10.18.9.2Horizontal aim, lower beam.
S10.18.9.3Vertical aim, upper beam.
S10.18.9.4Horizontal aim, upper beam.
S10.18.9.5Photometry.
S10.18.9.6Visual/optical identification marking.
S11Replaceable light source requirements.
S11.1Markings.
S11.2Ballast markings.
S11.3Gas discharge laboratory life.
S11.4Physical tests.
S12Headlamp concealment device requirements.
S12.7Certification election.
S13Replaceable headlamp lens requirements.
S14Physical and photometry test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.1General test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.1.2Plastic optical materials.
S14.1.4Samples.
S14.1.5Laboratory facilities.
S14.2Photometric test procedures.
S14.2.1Photometry measurements for all lamps except license lamps, headlamps, and DRLs.
S14.2.1.1Mounting.
S14.2.1.2School bus signal lamp aiming.
S14.2.1.3Measurement distance.
S14.2.1.4Location of test points.
S14.2.1.5Multiple compartment and multiple lamp photometry of turn signal lamps, stop lamps, and taillamps.
S14.2.1.6Bulbs.
S14.2.2License plate lamp photometry.
S14.2.2.1Illumination surface.
S14.2.2.2Test stations.
S14.2.3Reflex reflector and retroreflective sheeting photometry.
S14.2.3.1Mounting.
S14.2.3.2Illumination source.
S14.2.3.3Measurement distance.
S14.2.3.4Test setup.
S14.2.3.5Photodetector .
S14.2.3.6Photometry surface.
S14.2.3.7Procedure.
S14.2.3.8Measurements.
S14.2.3.8.1Reflex reflectors.
S14.2.3.8.2Retroreflective sheeting.
S14.2.3.8.3Reflex reflector photometry measurement adjustments.
S14.2.4Daytime running lamp (DRL) photometry measurements.
S14.2.5Headlamp photometry measurements.
S14.2.5.1Mounting.
S14.2.5.3Measurement distance.
S14.2.5.4Seasoning and test voltage.
S14.2.5.5Aiming.
S14.2.5.5.1Mechanically aimable headlamps using an external aimer.
S14.2.5.5.2Mechanically aimable headlamps equipped with a VHAD.
S14.2.5.5.3Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-vertical aim.
S14.2.5.5.4Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-horizontal aim.
S14.2.5.5.5Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-vertical aim.
S14.2.5.5.6Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-horizontal aim.
S14.2.5.5.7Simultaneous aim Type F sealed beam headlamps and beam contributor integral beam headlamps.
S14.2.5.5.8Motorcycle headlamp-upper beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX.
S14.2.5.5.9Motorcycle headlamp-lower beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX.
S14.2.5.6Positioner.
S14.2.5.7Photometer.
S14.2.5.7.2Sensor.
S14.2.5.8Location of test points.
S14.2.5.9Beam contributor photometry measurements.
S14.2.5.10Moveable reflector aimed headlamp photometry measurements.
S14.3Motorcycle headlamp out of focus test procedure and performance requirements.
S14.3.1Procedure.
S14.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.4General test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.4.1Color test.
S14.4.1.1Samples.
S14.4.1.2General procedure.
S14.4.1.3Visual method.
S14.4.1.3.1Visual method procedure.
S14.4.1.3.2Visual method performance requirements.
S14.4.1.3.2.1Red.
S14.4.1.3.2.2Yellow (Amber).
S14.4.1.3.2.3White.
S14.4.1.4Tristimulus method.
S14.4.1.4.1Tristimulus method procedure.
S14.4.1.4.2Tristimulus method performance requirements.
S14.4.1.4.2.1Red.
S14.4.1.4.2.2Yellow (Amber).
S14.4.1.4.2.3White (achromatic).
S14.4.2Plastic optical materials tests.
S14.4.2.1Samples.
S14.4.2.2Outdoor exposure test.
S14.4.2.2.3Procedure.
S14.4.2.2.4Performance requirements.
S14.4.2.3Heat test.
S14.4.2.3.1Procedure.
S14.4.2.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.5Signal lamp and reflective device physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.5.1Vibration test.
S14.5.1.1Procedure.
S14.5.1.2Performance requirements.
S14.5.2Moisture test.
S14.5.2.1Procedure.
S14.5.2.2Performance requirements.
S14.5.3Dust test.
S14.5.3.1Samples.
S14.5.3.2Procedure.
S14.5.3.3Performance requirements.
S14.5.4Corrosion test.
S14.5.4.1Procedure.
S14.5.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.6Headlamp physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.6.1Abrasion test.
S14.6.1.1Procedure.
S14.6.1.1.1Abrading pad.
S14.6.1.1.2Abrading pad alignment.
S14.6.1.1.3Abrasion test procedure.
S14.6.1.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.2Chemical resistance test.
S14.6.2.1Procedure.
S14.6.2.1.1Test fluids.
S14.6.2.1.2Fluid application.
S14.6.2.1.3Test duration.
S14.6.2.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.3Corrosion test.
S14.6.3.1Procedure.
S14.6.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.4Corrosion-connector test.
S14.6.4.1Procedure.
S14.6.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.5Dust test.
S14.6.5.1Procedure.
S14.6.5.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.6Temperature cycle test and internal heat test.
S14.6.6.1Samples.
S14.6.6.2General procedure.
S14.6.6.3Temperature cycle test.
S14.6.6.3.1Procedure.
S14.6.6.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.6.4Internal heat test.
S14.6.6.4.1Procedure.
S14.6.6.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.7Humidity test.
S14.6.7.1Procedure.
S14.6.7.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.8Vibration test.
S14.6.8.1Samples.
S14.6.8.2Procedure.
S14.6.8.3Performance requirements.
S14.6.9Sealing test.
S14.6.9.1Procedure.
S14.6.9.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.10Chemical resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps.
S14.6.10.1Procedure.
S14.6.10.1.1Test fluids.
S14.6.10.1.2Fluid application.
S14.6.10.1.3Test duration.
S14.6.10.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.11Corrosion resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps.
S14.6.11.1Procedure.
S14.6.11.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.12Inward force test.
S14.6.12.1Procedure.
S14.6.12.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.13Torque deflection test.
S14.6.13.1Procedure.
S14.6.13.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.14Retaining ring test.
S14.6.14.1Procedure.
S14.6.14.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.15Headlamp connector test.
S14.6.15.1Procedure.
S14.6.15.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.16Headlamp wattage test.
S14.6.16.1Procedure.
S14.6.16.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.17Aiming adjustment test-laboratory.
S14.6.17.1Procedure.
S14.6.17.2Performance requirements.
S14.6.18Aiming adjustment test-on vehicle.
S14.6.18.1Procedure.
S14.6.18.2Performance requirements.
S14.7Replaceable light source physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.7.1Deflection test for replaceable light sources.
S14.7.1.1Procedure.
S14.7.1.2Performance requirements.
S14.7.2Pressure test for replaceable light sources.
S14.7.2.1Procedure.
S14.7.2.2Performance requirements.
S14.7.3Replaceable light source power and flux measurement procedure.
S14.7.3.1Seasoning.
S14.7.3.1.1Resistive filament source.
S14.7.3.1.2Discharge source.
S14.7.3.2Test voltage.
S14.7.3.3Luminous flux measurement.
S14.7.3.3.3.2Discharge light source setup.
S14.8Vehicle headlamp aiming devices (VHAD) physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.8.1Samples.
S14.8.2Scale graduation test.
S14.8.2.1Procedure.
S14.8.2.2Performance requirements.
S14.8.3Cold scale graduation test.
S14.8.3.1Procedure.
S14.8.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.8.4Hot scale graduation test.
S14.8.4.1Procedure.
S14.8.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.8.5Thermal cycle test.
S14.8.5.1Procedure.
S14.8.5.2Performance requirements.
S14.8.6Corrosion test.
S14.8.6.1Procedure.
S14.8.6.2Performance requirements.
S14.8.7Photometry test.
S14.8.7.1Procedure.
S14.8.7.2Performance requirements.
S14.9Associated equipment physical test procedures and performance requirements.
S14.9.1Turn signal operating unit durability test.
S14.9.1.1Power supply specifications.
S14.9.1.2Procedure.
S14.9.1.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.2Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit durability test.
S14.9.2.1Procedure.
S14.9.2.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3Turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning flasher tests.
S14.9.3.1Standard test circuit.
S14.9.3.1.1Test circuit setup.
S14.9.3.2Power supply specifications.
S14.9.3.2.1Starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent current “on” time tests.
S14.9.3.2.2Durability tests.
S14.9.3.3Turn signal flasher starting time test.
S14.9.3.3.1Samples.
S14.9.3.3.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.3.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.4Turn signal flasher voltage drop test.
S14.9.3.4.1Samples.
S14.9.3.4.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.4.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.5Turn signal flasher flash rate and percent current “on” time test.
S14.9.3.5.1Samples.
S14.9.3.5.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.5.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.6Turn signal flasher durability test.
S14.9.3.6.1Samples.
S14.9.3.6.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.6.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.7Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher starting time test.
S14.9.3.7.1Samples.
S14.9.3.7.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.7.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.8Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher voltage drop test.
S14.9.3.8.1Samples.
S14.9.3.8.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.8.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.9Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher flash rate and percent “on” time test.
S14.9.3.9.1Samples.
S14.9.3.9.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.9.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.10Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher durability test.
S14.9.3.10.1Samples.
S14.9.3.10.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.10.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device tests.
S14.9.3.11.1Test conditions.
S14.9.3.11.2Sensitivity test.
S14.9.3.11.2.1Samples.
S14.9.3.11.2.2Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.2.3Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.2.3.1Operating limits.
S14.9.3.11.3Voltage regulation test.
S14.9.3.11.3.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.3.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.4Manual override test.
S14.9.3.11.4.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.4.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.5Warmup test.
S14.9.3.11.5.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.5.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.6Temperature test.
S14.9.3.11.6.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.6.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.7Dust test.
S14.9.3.11.7.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.7.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.8Corrosion test.
S14.9.3.11.8.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.8.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.9Vibration test.
S14.9.3.11.9.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.9.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.10Sunlight test.
S14.9.3.11.10.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.10.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.11Durability test.
S14.9.3.11.11.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.11.2Performance requirements.
S14.9.3.11.12Return to upper beam test.
S14.9.3.11.12.1Procedure.
S14.9.3.11.12.2Performance requirements.
Table I-aRequired lamps and reflective devicesAll passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPV), trucks, and buses
Table I-bRequired lamps and reflective devicesAll trailers
Table I-cRequired lamps and reflective devicesAll motorcycles
Table II-aHeadlighting systemsSealed beams
Table II-bHeadlighting systemsCombination
Table II-cHeadlighting systemsIntegral beams
Table II-dHeadlighting systemsReplaceable bulb
Table IIIMarking requirements location
Table IV-aEffective projected luminous lens area requirements
Table IV-bEffective projected luminous lens area requirements
Table IV-cEffective projected luminous lens area requirements
Table V-aVisibility requirements of installed lighting devices
Table V-bVisibility requirements of installed lighting devicesLens area visibility option
Table V-cVisibility requirements of installed lighting devicesLuminous intensity visibility option
Table V-dVisibility requirements of installed lighting devices (Legacy visibility alternative)
Table VI-aFront turn signal lamp photometry requirements
Table VI-bFront turn signal lamp photometry requirements
Table VIIRear turn signal lamp photometry requirements
Table VIIITaillamp photometry requirements
Table IXStop lamp photometry requirements
Table XSide marker lamp photometry requirements
Table XIClearance and identification lamps photometry requirements
Table XIIBackup lamp photometry requirements
Table XIII-aMotorcycle turn signal lamp alternative photometry requirements
Table XIII-bMotor driven cycle stop lamp alternative photometry requirements
Table XIVParking lamp photometry requirements
Table XVHigh-mounted stop lamp photometry requirements
Table XVI-aReflex reflector photometry requirements
Table XVI-bAdditional photometry requirements for conspicuity reflex reflectors
Table XVI-cRetroreflective sheeting photometry requirements
Table XVIISchool bus signal lamp photometry requirements
Table XVIIIHeadlamp upper beam photometry requirements
Table XIX-aHeadlamp lower beam photometry requirements
Table XIX-bHeadlamp lower beam photometry requirements
Table XIX-cHeadlamp lower beam photometry requirements
Table XXMotorcycle and motor driven cycle headlamp photometry requirements
Figure 1Chromaticity diagram
Figure 2Flasher performance chart
Figure 3Replaceable bulb headlamp aim pads
Figure 4Headlamp connector test setup
Figure 5Headlamp abrasion test fixture
Figure 6Thermal cycle test profile
Figure 7Dirt/Ambient test setup
Figure 8Replaceable light source deflection test setup
Figure 9Environmental test profile
Figure 10Replaceable light source pressure test setup
Figure 11Trailer conspicuity treatment examples
Figure 12-1Trailer conspicuity detail I
Figure 12-2Trailer conspicuity detail II
Figure 13Tractor conspicuity treatment examples
Figure 1492x150 Headlamp aim deflection test setup
Figure 15Types G and H headlamp aim deflection test setup
Figure 16Types A and E headlamp aim deflection test setup
Figure 17Type B headlamp aim deflection test setup
Figure 18Types C and D headlamp aim deflection test setup
Figure 19License plate lamp target locations
Figure 20License plate lamp measurement of incident light angle
Figure 21Vibration test machine
Figure 22Flasher standard test circuit

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 49.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-02-25; vol. 79 # 37 - Tuesday, February 25, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10396 - Child Restraint Systems
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      Final rule; response to petition for reconsideration.
      Effective date: The amendments made by this final rule are effective February 27, 2014. Compliance dates: The compliance date of the amendments of this final rule is February 27, 2015. Optional early compliance is permitted. Accordingly, child restraints manufactured on or after February 27, 2014 until February 26, 2015, may comply by meeting either the requirements specified in the February 27, 2012, final rule (77 FR 11626) or those requirements as amended by today's final rule. Child restraints manufactured on or after February 27, 2015 must meet the requirements as amended by today's final rule. If you wish to petition for reconsideration of this rule, your petition must be received by April 11, 2014.
      49 CFR Part 571

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 49 published on 2013-10-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 49 CFR 571 after this date.

  • 2014-02-25; vol. 79 # 37 - Tuesday, February 25, 2014
    1. 79 FR 10396 - Child Restraint Systems
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      Final rule; response to petition for reconsideration.
      Effective date: The amendments made by this final rule are effective February 27, 2014. Compliance dates: The compliance date of the amendments of this final rule is February 27, 2015. Optional early compliance is permitted. Accordingly, child restraints manufactured on or after February 27, 2014 until February 26, 2015, may comply by meeting either the requirements specified in the February 27, 2012, final rule (77 FR 11626) or those requirements as amended by today's final rule. Child restraints manufactured on or after February 27, 2015 must meet the requirements as amended by today's final rule. If you wish to petition for reconsideration of this rule, your petition must be received by April 11, 2014.
      49 CFR Part 571