49 CFR 579.4 - Terminology.

§ 579.4 Terminology.
(a) Statutory terms. The terms dealer, defect, distributor, motor vehicle, motor vehicle equipment, and State are used as defined in 49 U.S.C. 30102.
(b) Regulatory terms. The term Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is used as defined in § 565.3(o) of this chapter. The terms bus, Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR), motorcycle, multipurpose passenger vehicle, passenger car, trailer, and truck are used as defined in § 571.3(b) of this chapter. The term Booster seat is used as defined in S4 of § 571.213 of this chapter. The term Tire Identification Number (TIN) is the “tire identification number” described in § 574.5 of this chapter. The term Limited production tire is used as defined in § 575.104(c)(2) of this chapter.
(c) Other terms. The following terms apply to this part:
Administrator means the Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), or the Administrator's delegate.
Affiliate means, in the context of an affiliate of or person affiliated with a specified person, a person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediates, controls or is controlled by, or is under common control with, the person specified. The term person usually is a corporation.
Air bag means an air bag or other automatic occupant restraint device (other than a “seat belt” as defined in this subpart) installed in a motor vehicle that restrains an occupant in the event of a vehicle crash without requiring any action on the part of the occupant to obtain the benefit of the restraint. This term includes inflatable restraints (front and side air bags), knee bolsters, and any other automatic restraining device that may be developed that does not include a restraining belt or harness. This term also includes all air bag-related components, such as the inflator assembly, air bag module, control module, crash sensors and all hardware and software associated with the air bag. This term includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Base means the detachable bottom portion of a child restraint system that may remain in the vehicle to provide a base for securing the system to a seat in a motor vehicle.
Bead means all the materials in a tire below the sidewalls in the rim contact area, including bead rubber components, the bead bundle and rubber coating if present, the body ply and its turn-up including the rubber coating, rubber, fabric, or metallic reinforcing materials, and the inner-liner rubber under the bead area.
Brand name owner means a person that markets a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment under its own trade name whether or not it is the fabricator or importer of the vehicle or equipment.
Buckle and restraint harness means the components of a child restraint system that are intended to restrain a child seated in such a system, including the belt webbing, buckles, buckle release mechanism, belt adjusters, belt positioning devices, and shields.
Child restraint system means any system that meets, or is offered for sale in the United States as meeting, any definition in S4 of § 571.213 of this chapter, or that is offered for sale as a child restraint system in a foreign country.
Claim means a written request or written demand for relief, including money or other compensation, assumption of expenditures, or equitable relief, related to a motor vehicle crash, accident, the failure of a component or system of a vehicle or an item of motor vehicle equipment, or a fire originating in or from a motor vehicle or a substance that leaked from a motor vehicle. Claim includes, but is not limited to, a demand in the absence of a lawsuit, a complaint initiating a lawsuit, an assertion or notice of litigation, a settlement, covenant not to sue or release of liability in the absence of a written demand, and a subrogation request. A claim exists regardless of any denial or refusal to pay it, and regardless of whether it has been settled or resolved in the manufacturer's favor. The existence of a claim may not be conditioned on the receipt of anything beyond the document(s) stating a claim. Claim does not include demands related to asbestos exposure, to emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interiors, or to end-of-life disposal of vehicles, parts or components of vehicles, equipment, or parts or components of equipment.
Common green tires means tires that are produced to the same internal specifications but that have, or may have, different external characteristics and may be sold under different tire line names.
Consumer complaint means a communication of any kind made by a consumer (or other person) to or with a manufacturer addressed to the company, an officer thereof or an entity thereof that handles consumer matters, a manufacturer website that receives consumer complaints, a manufacturer electronic mail system that receives such information at the corporate level, or that are otherwise received by a unit within the manufacturer that receives consumer inquiries or complaints, including telephonic complaints, expressing dissatisfaction with a product, or relating the unsatisfactory performance of a product, or any actual or potential defect in a product, or any event that allegedly was caused by any actual or potential defect in a product, but not including a claim of any kind or a notice involving a fatality or injury.
Control (including the terms controlling, controlled by, and under common control with) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise.
Customer satisfaction campaign, consumer advisory, recall, or other activity involving the repair or replacement of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment means any communication by a manufacturer to, or made available to, more than one dealer, distributor, lessor, lessee, other manufacturer, or owner, whether in writing or by electronic means, relating to repair, replacement, or modification of a vehicle, component of a vehicle, item of equipment, or a component thereof, the manner in which a vehicle or child restraint system is to be maintained or operated (excluding promotional and marketing materials, customer satisfaction surveys, and operating instructions or owner's manuals that accompany the vehicle or child restraint system at the time of first sale); or advice or direction to a dealer or distributor to cease the delivery or sale of specified models of vehicles or equipment.
Dealer field report means a field report from a dealer or authorized service facility of a manufacturer of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment.
Electrical system means any electrical or electronic component of a motor vehicle that is not included in one of the other reporting categories enumerated in subpart C of this part, and specifically includes the battery, battery cables, alternator, fuses, and main body wiring harnesses of the motor vehicle and the ignition system, including the ignition switch and starter motor. The term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Engine and engine cooling means the component (e.g., motor) of a motor vehicle providing motive power to the vehicle, and includes the exhaust system (including the exhaust emission system), the engine control unit, engine lubrication system, and the underhood cooling system for that engine. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Equipment comprises original and replacement equipment: (1) Original equipment means an item of motor vehicle equipment (other than a tire) that was installed in or on a motor vehicle at the time of its delivery to the first purchaser if the item of equipment was installed on or in the motor vehicle at the time of its delivery to a dealer or distributor for distribution; or the item of equipment was installed by the dealer or distributor with the express authorization of the motor vehicle manufacturer.
(2) Replacement equipment means motor vehicle equipment other than original equipment, and tires.
Exterior lighting mean all the exterior lamps (including any interior-mounted center highmounted stop lamp if mounted in the interior of a vehicle), lenses, reflectors, and associated equipment of a motor vehicle, including all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Field report means a communication in writing, including communications in electronic form, from an employee or representative of a manufacturer of motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment, a dealer or authorized service facility of such manufacturer, or an entity known to the manufacturer as owning or operating a fleet, to the manufacturer regarding the failure, malfunction, lack of durability, or other performance problem of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment, or any part thereof, produced for sale by that manufacturer and transported beyond the direct control of the manufacturer, regardless of whether verified or assessed to be lacking in merit, but does not include any document covered by the attorney-client privilege or the work product exclusion.
Fire means combustion or burning of material in or from a vehicle as evidenced by flame. The term also includes, but is not limited to, thermal events and fire-related phenomena such as smoke and melt, but does not include events and phenomena associated with a normally functioning vehicle such as combustion of fuel within an engine or exhaust from an engine.
Fleet means more than ten motor vehicles of the same make, model, and model year.
Foreign country means a country other than the United States.
Foreign government means the central government of a foreign country as well as any political subdivision of that country.
Fuel system means all components of a motor vehicle used to receive and store fuel, and to transfer fuel between the vehicle's fuel storage, engine, or fuel emission systems. This term includes, but is not limited to, the fuel tank and filler cap, neck, and pipe, along with associated piping, hoses, and clamps, the fuel pump, fuel lines, connectors from the fuel tank to the engine, the fuel injection/carburetion system (including fuel injector rails and injectors), and the fuel vapor recovery system(s), canister(s), and vent lines. The term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Good will means the repair or replacement of a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment, including labor, paid for by the manufacturer, at least in part, when the repair or replacement is not covered under warranty, or under a safety recall reported to NHTSA under part 573 of this chapter.
Handle means any element of a child restraint system that is designed to facilitate carrying the restraint outside a motor vehicle, other than an element of the seat shell.
Incomplete light vehicle means an incomplete vehicle as defined in § 568.3 of this chapter which, when completed, will be a light vehicle.
Integrated child restraint system means a factory-installed built-in child restraint system as defined in S4 of § 571.213 of this chapter and includes any factory-authorized built-in child restraint system.
Latch means a latching, locking, or linking system of a motor vehicle and all its components fitted to a vehicle's exterior doors, rear hatch, liftgate, tailgate, trunk, or hood. This term also includes, but is not limited to, devices for the remote operation of a latching device such as remote release cables (and associated components), electric release devices, or wireless control release devices, and includes all components covered in FMVSS No. 206. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Light vehicle means any motor vehicle, except a bus, motorcycle, or trailer, with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less.
Make means a name that a manufacturer applies to a group of vehicles.
Manufacturer means a person manufacturing or assembling motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment, or importing motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment for resale. This term includes any parent corporation, any subsidiary or affiliate, and any subsidiary or affiliate of a parent corporation of such a person.
Medium-heavy vehicle means any motor vehicle, except a trailer, with a GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs.
Minimal specificity means:
(1) For a vehicle, the make, model, and model year,
(2) For a child restraint system, the manufacturer and the model (either the model name or model number),
(3) For a tire, the manufacturer, tire line, and tire size, and
(4) For other motor vehicle equipment, the manufacturer and, if there is a model or family of models identified on the item of equipment, the model name or model number.
Model means a name that a manufacturer of motor vehicles applies to a family of vehicles within a make which have a degree of commonality in construction, such as body, chassis or cab type. For equipment other than child restraint systems, it means the name that the manufacturer uses to designate it. For child restraint systems, it means the name that the manufacturer uses to identify child restraint systems with the same seat shell, buckle, base (if so equipped) and restraint system.
Model year means the year that a manufacturer uses to designate a discrete model of vehicle, irrespective of the calendar year in which the vehicle was manufactured. If the manufacturer has not assigned a model year, it means the calendar year in which the vehicle was manufactured.
Notice means a document, other than a media article, that does not include a demand for relief, and that a manufacturer receives from a person other than NHTSA.
Other safety campaign means an action in which a manufacturer communicates with owners and/or dealers in a foreign country with respect to conditions under which motor vehicles or equipment should be operated, repaired, or replaced that relate to safety (excluding promotional and marketing materials, customer satisfaction surveys, and operating instructions or owner's manuals that accompany the vehicle or child restraint system at the time of first sale); or advice or direction to a dealer or distributor to cease the delivery or sale of specified models of vehicles or equipment.
Parking brake means a mechanism installed in a motor vehicle which is designed to prevent the movement of a stationary motor vehicle, including all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Platform means the basic structure of a vehicle including, but not limited to, the majority of the floorpan or undercarriage, and elements of the engine compartment. The term includes a structure that a manufacturer designates as a platform. A group of vehicles sharing a common structure or chassis shall be considered to have a common platform regardless of whether such vehicles are of the same type, are of the same make, or are sold by the same manufacturer.
Power train means the components or systems of a motor vehicle which transfer motive power from the engine to the wheels, including the transmission (manual and automatic), gear selection devices and associated linkages, clutch, constant velocity joints, transfer case, driveline, differential(s), and all driven axle assemblies. This term includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Product evaluation report means a field report prepared by, and containing the observations or comments of, a manufacturer's employee who submitted the report concerning the operation or performance of a vehicle or child restraint system as part of the employee's personal use of the vehicle or child restraint system under a manufacturer's program authorizing such use, but does not include a report by an employee who has been granted personal use of a vehicle or child restraint system for the specific purpose of facilitating the employee's technical or engineering evaluation of a known or suspected problem with that vehicle or child restraint system.
Production year means, for equipment and tires, the calendar year in which the item was produced.
Property damage means physical injury to tangible property.
Property damage claim means a claim for property damage, excluding that part of a claim, if any, pertaining solely to damage to a component or system of a vehicle or an item of equipment itself based on the alleged failure or malfunction of the component, system, or item, and further excluding matters addressed under warranty.
Rear-facing infant seat means a child restraint system that is designed to position a child to face only in the direction opposite to the normal direction of travel of the motor vehicle.
Reporting period means a calendar quarter of a year, unless otherwise stated.
Rollover means a single-vehicle crash in which a motor vehicle rotates on its longitudinal axis to at least 90 degrees, regardless of whether it comes to rest on its wheels.
Safety recall means an offer by a manufacturer to owners of motor vehicles or equipment in a foreign country to provide remedial action to address a defect that relates to motor vehicle safety or a failure to comply with an applicable safety standard or guideline, whether or not the manufacturer agrees to pay the full cost of the remedial action.
Seats means all components of a motor vehicle that are subject to FMVSS Nos. 202, 207, and 209, including all electrical and electronic components within the seat that are related to seat positioning, heating, and cooling. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Seat belts means any belt system, other than an air bag, that may or may not require the occupant to latch, fasten, or secure the components of the seat belt/webbing based restraint system to ready its use for protection of the occupant in the event of a vehicle crash. This term includes the webbing, buckle, anchorage, retractor, belt pretensioner devices, load limiters, and all components, hardware and software associated with an automatic or manual seat belt system addressed by FMVSS No. 209 or 210. This term also includes integrated child restraint systems in vehicles, and includes any device (and all components of that device), installed in a motor vehicle in accordance with FMVSS No. 213, which is designed for use as a safety restraint device for a child too small to use a vehicle's seat belts. This term includes all vehicle components installed in accordance with FMVSS No. 225. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Seat shell means the portion of a child restraint system that provides the structural shape, form and support for the system, and for other components of the system such as belt attachment points, and anchorage points to allow the system to be secured to a passenger seat in a motor vehicle, but not including a shield.
Service brake system means all components of the service braking system of a motor vehicle intended for the transfer of braking application force from the operator to the wheels of a vehicle, including the foundation braking system, such as the brake pedal, master cylinder, fluid lines and hoses, braking assist components, brake calipers, wheel cylinders, brake discs, brake drums, brake pads, brake shoes, and other related equipment installed in a motor vehicle in order to comply with FMVSS Nos. 105, 121, 122, or 135 (except equipment relating specifically to a parking brake). This term also includes systems and devices for automatic control of the brake system such as antilock braking, traction control, stability control, and enhanced braking. The term includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Sidewall means the area of a tire between the tread and the bead area, including the sidewall rubber components, the body ply and its coating rubber under the side area, and the inner-liner rubber under the body ply in the side area.
SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) means the alpha-numeric designation assigned by a manufacturer to uniquely identify a tire product. This term is sometimes referred to as a product code, a product ID, or a part number.
Steering system means all steering control system components, including the steering system mechanism and its associated hardware, the steering wheel, steering column, steering shaft, linkages, joints (including tie-rod ends), steering dampeners, and power steering assist systems. This term includes a steering control system as defined by FMVSS No. 203 and any subsystem or component of a steering control system, including those components defined in FMVSS No. 204. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Structure means any part of a motor vehicle that serves to maintain the shape and size of the vehicle, including the frame, the floorpan, the body, bumpers, doors, tailgate, hatchback, trunk lid, hood, and roof. The term also includes all associated mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Suspension system means all components and hardware associated with a motor vehicle suspension system, including the associated control arms, steering knuckles, spindles, joints, bushings, ball joints, springs, shock absorbers, stabilizer (anti sway) bars, and bearings that are designed to minimize the impact on the vehicle chassis of shocks from road surface irregularities that may be transmitted through the wheels, and to provide stability when the vehicle is being operated through a range of speed, load, and dynamic conditions. The term also includes all electronic control systems and mechanisms for active suspension control, as well as all associated components such as switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Tire means an item of motor vehicle equipment intended to interface between the road and a motor vehicle. The term includes all the tires of a vehicle, including the spare tire. For purposes of §§ 579.21 through 579.24 and § 579.27 of this part, this term also includes the tire inflation valves, tubes, and tire pressure monitoring and regulating systems, as well as all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Tire line means the entire name used by a tire manufacturer to designate a tire product including all prefixes and suffixes as they appear on the sidewall of a tire.
Trailer hitch means all coupling systems, devices, and components thereof, designed to join or connect any two motor vehicles. This term also includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Tread (also known as crown) means all materials in the tread area of a tire including the rubber that makes up the tread, the sub-base rubber, when present, between the tread base and the top of the belts, the belt material, either steel and/or fabric, and the rubber coating of the same including any rubber inserts, the body ply and its coating rubber under the tread area of the tire, and the inner-liner rubber under the tread.
Type means, in the context of a light vehicle, a vehicle certified by its manufacturer pursuant to § 567.4(g)(7) of this chapter as a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, or truck, or a vehicle identified by its manufacturer as an incomplete vehicle pursuant to § 568.4 of this chapter. In the context of a medium heavy vehicle and bus, it means one of the following categories: Truck, tractor, transit bus, school bus, coach, recreational vehicle, emergency vehicle, or other. In the context of a trailer, it means one of the following categories: Recreational trailers, van trailers, flatbed trailer, trailer converter dolly, lowbed trailer, dump trailer, tank trailer, dry bulk trailer, livestock trailer, boat trailer, auto transporter, or other. In the context of a child restraint system, it means the category of child restraint system selected from one of the following: rear-facing infant seat, booster seat, or other.
Vehicle speed control means the systems and components of a motor vehicle that control vehicle speed either by command of the operator or by automatic control, including, but not limited, to the accelerator pedal, linkages, cables, springs, speed control devices (such as cruise control) and speed limiting devices. This term includes, but is not limited to the items addressed by FMVSS No. 124 and all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Visibility means the systems and components of a motor vehicle through which a driver views the surroundings of the vehicle including windshield, side windows, back window, and rear view mirrors, and systems and components used to wash and wipe windshields and back windows. This term includes those vehicular systems and components that can affect the ability of the driver to clearly see the roadway and surrounding area, such as the systems and components identified in FMVSS Nos. 103, 104, and 111. This term also includes the defogger/defroster system, the heater core, blower fan, windshield wiper systems, mirrors, windows and glazing material, heads-up display (HUD) systems, and exterior view-based television systems, but does not include exterior lighting systems which are defined under “Lighting.” This term includes all associated switches, control units, connective elements (such as wiring harnesses, hoses, piping, etc.), and mounting elements (such as brackets, fasteners, etc.).
Warranty means any written affirmation of fact or written promise made in connection with the sale or lease of a motor vehicle or motor vehicle equipment by a manufacturer to a buyer or lessee that relates to the nature of the material or workmanship and affirms or promises that such material or workmanship is defect free or will meet a specified level of performance over a specified period of time (including any extensions of such specified period of time), or any undertaking in writing in connection with the sale or lease by a manufacturer of a motor vehicle or item of motor vehicle equipment to refund, repair, replace, or take other remedial action with respect to such product in the event that such product fails to meet the specifications set forth in the undertaking.
Warranty adjustment means any payment or other restitution, such as, but not limited to, replacement, repair, credit, or cash refund, made by a tire manufacturer to a consumer or to a dealer, in reimbursement for payment or other restitution to a consumer, pursuant to a warranty program offered by the manufacturer or goodwill.
Warranty claim means any claim paid by a manufacturer, including provision of a credit, pursuant to a warranty program, an extended warranty program, or good will. It does not include claims for reimbursement for costs or related expenses for work performed to remedy a safety-related defect or noncompliance reported to NHTSA under part 573 of this chapter, or in connection with a motor vehicle emissions-related recall under the Clean Air Act or in accordance with State law as authorized under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b) or 7507.
Wheel means the assembly or component of a motor vehicle to which a tire is mounted. The term includes any item of motor vehicle equipment used to attach the wheel to the vehicle, including inner cap nuts and the wheel studs, bolts, and nuts.
Work product means a document in the broad sense of the word, prepared in anticipation of litigation where there is a reasonable prospect of litigation and not for some other purpose such as a business practice, and prepared or requested by an attorney or an agent for an attorney.
(d) Identical or substantially similar motor vehicle, item of motor vehicle equipment, or tire.
(1) A motor vehicle sold or in use outside the United States is identical or substantially similar to a motor vehicle sold or offered for sale in the United States if—
(i) Such a vehicle has been sold in Canada or has been certified as complying with the Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards;
(ii) Such a vehicle is listed in the VSP or VSA columns of appendix A to part 593 of this chapter;
(iii) Such a vehicle is manufactured in the United States for sale in a foreign country; or
(iv) Such a vehicle uses the same vehicle platform as a vehicle sold or offered for sale in the United States.
(2) An item of motor vehicle equipment sold or in use outside the United States is identical or substantially similar to equipment sold or offered for sale in the United States if such equipment and the equipment sold or offered for sale in the United States have one or more components or systems that are the same, and the component or system performs the same function in vehicles or equipment sold or offered for sale in the United States, regardless of whether the part numbers are identical.
(3) A tire sold or in use outside the United States is substantially similar to a tire sold or offered for sale in the United States if it has the same size, speed rating, load index, load range, number of plies and belts, and similar ply and belt construction and materials, placement of components, and component materials, irrespective of plant of manufacture or tire line.
[43 FR 38833, Aug. 31, 1978, as amended at 67 FR 63310, Oct. 11, 2002; 68 FR 4113, Jan. 28, 2003; 68 FR 18142, Apr. 15, 2003; 68 FR 35142, June 11, 2003; 69 FR 20557, Apr. 16, 2004; 72 FR 29443, May 29, 2007; 74 FR 47757, Sept. 17, 2009]

Title 49 published on 2014-10-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

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