How are the terms used in these regulations defined?
In addition to the definitions contained in part 10 of this subchapter, and unless the context otherwise requires, in this part:
Affected by trade means that either a species is known to be in trade and the trade has or may have a detrimental impact on the status of the species, or a species is suspected to be in trade or there is demonstrable potential international demand for the species that may be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.
Annotation means an official footnote to the listing of a species in the CITES Appendices. A reference annotation provides information that further explains the listing (such as “p.e.” for possibly extinct). A substantive annotation is an integral part of a species listing. It designates whether the listing includes or excludes a geographically separate population, subspecies, species, group of species, or higher taxon, and the types of specimens included in or excluded from the listing, such as certain parts, products, or derivatives. A substantive annotation may designate export quotas adopted by the CoP. For species transferred from Appendix I to II subject to an annotation relating to specified types of specimens, other types of specimens that are not specifically included in the annotation are treated as if they are Appendix-I specimens.
Appropriate and acceptable destination, when used in an Appendix-II listing annotation for the export of, or international trade in, live animals, means that the Management Authority of the importing country has certified, based on advice from the Scientific Authority of that country, that the proposed recipient is suitably equipped to house and care for the animal (see criteria in § 23.65 ). Such certification must be provided before a CITES document is issued by the Management Authority of the exporting or re-exporting country.
Artificially propagated means a cultivated plant that meets the criteria in § 23.64.
ATA carnet means a type of international customs document (see § 23.50 ). ATA is a combination of the French and English words “Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission.”
Bred for commercial purposes means any specimen of an Appendix-I wildlife species bred in captivity for commercial purposes. Any Appendix-I specimen that does not meet the definition of “bred for noncommercial purposes” is considered to be bred for commercial purposes.
Bred for noncommercial purposes means any specimen of an Appendix-I wildlife species bred in captivity for noncommercial purposes, where each donation, exchange, or loan of the specimen is noncommercial and is conducted between facilities that are involved in a cooperative conservation program.
Bred in captivity means wildlife that is captive-bred and meets the criteria in § 23.63.
Captive-bred means wildlife that is the offspring (first (F1) or subsequent generations) of parents that either mated or otherwise transferred egg and sperm under controlled conditions if reproduction is sexual, or of a parent that was maintained under controlled conditions when development of the offspring began if reproduction is asexual, but does not meet the bred-in-captivity criteria (see § 23.63 ).
Certificate means a CITES document or CITES exemption document that identifies on its face the type of certificate it is, including re-export certificate, introduction-from-the-sea certificate, and certificate of origin.
CITES document or CITES exemption document means any certificate, permit, or other document issued by a Management Authority of a Party or a competent authority of a non-Party whose name and address is on file with the Secretariat to authorize the international movement of CITES specimens.
Commercial means related to an activity, including actual or intended import, export, re-export, sale, offer for sale, purchase, transfer, donation, exchange, or provision of a service, that is reasonably likely to result in economic use, gain, or benefit, including, but not limited to, profit (whether in cash or in kind).
Cooperative conservation program means a program in which participating captive- breeding facilities produce Appendix-I specimens bred for noncommercial purposes and participate in or support a recovery activity for that species in cooperation with one or more of the species' range countries.
Coral (dead) means pieces of coral in which the skeletons of the individual polyps are still intact, but which contain no living coral tissue.
Coral fragments, including coral gravel and coral rubble, means loose pieces of broken finger-like coral between 2 and 30 mm in diameter that contain no living coral tissue (see § 23.92 for exemptions).
Coral (live) means pieces of coral that are alive.
Coral rock means hard consolidated material greater than 30 mm in diameter that consists of pieces of coral and possibly also cemented sand, coralline algae, or other sedimentary rocks that contain no living coral tissue. Coral rock includes live rock and substrate, which are terms for pieces of coral rock to which are attached live specimens of other invertebrate species or coralline algae that are not listed in the CITES Appendices.
Coral sand means material that consists entirely, or in part, of finely crushed coral no larger than 2 mm in diameter and that contains no living coral tissue (see § 23.92 for exemptions).
Country of origin means the country where the wildlife or plant was taken from the wild or was born or propagated in a controlled environment, except in the case of a plant specimen that qualified for an exemption under the provisions of CITES, the country of origin is the country in which the specimen ceased to qualify for the exemption.
Cultivar means a horticulturally derived plant variety that has been selected for specific morphological, physiological, or other characteristics, such as color, a large flower, or disease resistance.
Cultivated means a plant grown or tended by humans for human use. A cultivated plant can be treated as artificially propagated under CITES only if it meets the criteria in § 23.64.
Export means to send, ship, or carry a specimen out of a country (for export from the United States, see part 14 of this subchapter).
Flasked means plant material obtained in vitro, in solid or liquid media, transported in sterile containers.
Household effect means a dead wildlife or plant specimen that is part of a household move and meets the criteria in § 23.15.
Hybrid means any wildlife or plant that results from a cross of genetic material between two separate taxa when one or both are listed in Appendix I, II, or III. See § 23.42 for plant hybrids and § 23.43 for wildlife hybrids.
Import means to bring, ship, or carry a specimen into a country (for import into the United States, see part 14 of this subchapter).
International trade means the import, introduction from the sea, export, or re-export across jurisdictional or international boundaries for any purpose whether commercial or noncommercial.
In-transit shipment means the transshipment of any wildlife or plant through an intermediary country when the specimen remains under customs control and either the shipment meets the requirements of § 23.22 or the sample collection covered by an ATA carnet meets the requirements of § 23.50.
Introduction from the sea means transportation into a country of specimens of any species that were taken in the marine environment not under the jurisdiction of any country.
ISO country code means the two-letter country code developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to represent the name of a country and its subdivisions.
Live rock see the definition for coral rock.
Management Authority means a governmental agency officially designated by, and under the supervision of, either a Party to implement CITES, or a non-Party to serve in the role of a Management Authority, including the issuance of CITES documents on behalf of that country.
Noncommercial means related to an activity that is not commercial. Noncommercial includes, but is not limited to, personal use.
Non-Party means a country that has not deposited an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession to CITES with the Depositary Government (Switzerland), or a country that was a Party but subsequently notified the Depositary Government of its denunciation of CITES and the denunciation is in effect.
Offspring of first generation (F1) means a wildlife specimen produced in a controlled environment from parents at least one of which was conceived in or taken from the wild.
Offspring of second generation (F2) or subsequent generations means a wildlife specimen produced in a controlled environment from parents that were also produced in a controlled environment.
Parental stock means the original breeding or propagating specimens that produced the subsequent generations of captive or cultivated specimens.
Party means a country that has given its consent to be bound by the provisions of CITES by depositing an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession with the Depositary Government (Switzerland), and for which such consent is in effect.
Permit means a CITES document that identifies on its face import permit or export permit.
Personal effect means a dead wildlife or plant specimen, including a tourist souvenir, that is worn as clothing or accessories or is contained in accompanying baggage and meets the criteria in § 23.15.
Personal use means use that is not commercial and is for an individual's own consumption or enjoyment.
Precautionary measures means the actions taken that will be in the best interest of the conservation of the species when there is uncertainty about the status of a species or the impact of trade on the conservation of a species.
Pre-Convention means a specimen that was acquired (removed from the wild or born or propagated in a controlled environment) before the date the provisions of the Convention first applied to the species and that meets the criteria in § 23.45, and any product (including a manufactured item) or derivative made from such specimen.
Primarily commercial purposes means an activity whose noncommercial aspects do not clearly predominate (see § 23.62 ).
Propagule means a structure, such as a cutting, seed, or spore, which is capable of propagating a plant.
Readily recognizable means any specimen that appears from a visual, physical, scientific, or forensic examination or test; an accompanying document, packaging, mark, or label; or any other circumstances to be a part, product, or derivative of any CITES wildlife or plant, unless such part, product, or derivative is specifically exempt from the provisions of CITES or this part.
Re-export means to send, ship, or carry out of a country any specimen previously imported into that country, whether or not the specimen has been altered since import.
Reservation means the action taken by a Party to inform the Secretariat that it is not bound by the effect of a specific listing (see § 23.21 ).
Scientific Authority means a governmental or independent scientific institution or entity officially designated by either a Party to implement CITES, or a non-Party to serve the role of a Scientific Authority, including making scientific findings.
Secretariat means the entity designated by the Treaty to perform certain administrative functions (see § 23.84 ).
Shipment means any CITES specimen in international trade whether for commercial or noncommercial use, including any personal item.
Species means any species, subspecies, hybrid, variety, cultivar, color or morphological variant, or geographically separate population of that species.
Specimen means any wildlife or plant, whether live or dead. This term includes any readily recognizable part, product, or derivative unless otherwise annotated in the Appendices.
Sustainable us e means the use of a species in a manner and at a level that maintains wild populations at biologically viable levels for the long term. Such use involves a determination of the productive capacity of the species and its ecosystem to ensure that utilization does not exceed those capacities or the ability of the population to reproduce, maintain itself, and perform its role or function in its ecosystem.
Trade means the same as international trade.
Transit see the definition for in-transit shipment.
Traveling exhibition means a display of live or dead wildlife or plants for entertainment, educational, cultural, or other display purposes that is temporarily moving internationally.