8 CFR 1236.1 - Apprehension, custody, and detention.

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§ 1236.1 Apprehension, custody, and detention.
(a) Detainers. The issuance of a detainer under this section shall be governed by the provisions of § 287.7 of 8 CFR chapter I.
(b) Warrant of arrest—
(1) In general. At the time of issuance of the notice to appear, or at any time thereafter and up to the time removal proceedings are completed, the respondent may be arrested and taken into custody under the authority of Form I-200, Warrant of Arrest. A warrant of arrest may be issued only by those immigration officers listed in § 287.5(e)(2) of 8 CFR chapter I and may be served only by those immigration officers listed in § 287.5(e)(3) of 8 CFR chapter I.
(2) If, after the issuance of a warrant of arrest, a determination is made not to serve it, any officer authorized to issue such warrant may authorize its cancellation.
(c) Custody issues and release procedures—
(1) In general.
(i) After the expiration of the Transition Period Custody Rules (TPCR) set forth in section 303(b)(3) of Div. C of Pub. L. 104-208, no alien described in section 236(c)(1) of the Act may be released from custody during removal proceedings except pursuant to section 236(c)(2) of the Act.
(ii) Paragraph (c)(2) through (c)(8) of this section shall govern custody determinations for aliens subject to the TPCR while they remain in effect. For purposes of this section, an alien “subject to the TPCR” is an alien described in section 303(b)(3)(A) of Div. C of Pub. L. 104-208 who is in deportation proceedings, subject to a final order of deportation, or in removal proceedings. The TPCR do not apply to aliens in exclusion proceedings under former section 236 of the Act, aliens in expedited removal proceedings under section 235(b)(1) of the Act, or aliens subject to a final order of removal.
(2) Aliens not lawfully admitted. Subject to paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section, but notwithstanding any other provision within this section, an alien subject to the TPCR who is not lawfully admitted is not eligible to be considered for release from custody.
(i) An alien who remains in status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, conditionally admitted for permanent residence, or lawfully admitted for temporary residence is “lawfully admitted” for purposes of this section.
(ii) An alien in removal proceedings, in deportation proceedings, or subject to a final order of deportation, and not described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, is not “lawfully admitted” for purposes of this section unless the alien last entered the United States lawfully and is not presently an applicant for admission to the United States.
(3) Criminal aliens eligible to be considered for release. Except as provided in this section, or otherwise provided by law, an alien subject to the TPCR may be considered for release from custody if lawfully admitted. Such an alien must first demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, that release would not pose a danger to the safety of other persons or of property. If an alien meets this burden, the alien must further demonstrate, by clear and convincing evidence, that the alien is likely to appear for any scheduled proceeding (including any appearance required by the Service or EOIR) in order to be considered for release in the exercise of discretion.
(4) Criminal aliens ineligible to be considered for release except in certain special circumstances. An alien, other than an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence, subject to section 303(b)(3)(A) (ii) or (iii) of Div. C. of Pub. L. 104-208 is ineligible to be considered for release if the alien:
(i) Is described in section 241(a)(2)(C) of the Act (as in effect prior to April 1, 1997), or has been convicted of a crime described in section 101(a)(43)(B), (E)(ii) or (F) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997);
(ii) Has been convicted of a crime described in section 101(a)(43)(G) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997) or a crime or crimes involving moral turpitude related to property, and sentenced therefor (including in the aggregate) to at least 3 years' imprisonment;
(iii) Has failed to appear for an immigration proceeding without reasonable cause or has been subject to a bench warrant or similar legal process (unless quashed, withdrawn, or cancelled as improvidently issued);
(iv) Has been convicted of a crime described in section 101(a)(43)(Q) or (T) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997);
(v) Has been convicted in a criminal proceeding of a violation of section 273, 274, 274C, 276, or 277 of the Act, or has admitted the factual elements of such a violation;
(vi) Has overstayed a period granted for voluntary departure;
(vii) Has failed to surrender or report for removal pursuant to an order of exclusion, deportation, or removal;
(viii) Does not wish to pursue, or is statutorily ineligible for, any form of relief from exclusion, deportation, or removal under this chapter or the Act; or
(ix) Is described in paragraphs (c)(5)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section but has not been sentenced, including in the aggregate but not including any portions suspended, to at least 2 years' imprisonment, unless the alien was lawfully admitted and has not, since the commencement of proceedings and within the 10 years prior thereto, been convicted of a crime, failed to comply with an order to surrender or a period of voluntary departure, or been subject to a bench warrant or similar legal process (unless quashed, withdrawn, or cancelled as improvidently issued). An alien eligible to be considered for release under this paragraph must meet the burdens described in paragraph (c)(3) of this section in order to be released from custody in the exercise of discretion.
(5) Criminal aliens ineligible to be considered for release.
(i) A criminal alien subject to section 303(b)(3)(A)(ii) or (iii) of Div. C of Pub. L. 104-208 is ineligible to be considered for release if the alien has been sentenced, including in the aggregate but not including any portions suspended, to at least 2 years' imprisonment, and the alien
(A) Is described in section 237(a)(2)(D)(i) or (ii) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997), or has been convicted of a crime described in section 101(a)(43)(A), (C), (E)(i), (H), (I), (K)(iii), or (L) of the Act (as in effect on April 1, 1997);
(B) Is described in section 237(a)(2)(A)(iv) of the Act; or
(C) Has escaped or attempted to escape from the lawful custody of a local, State, or Federal prison, agency, or officer within the United States.
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, a permanent resident alien who has not, since the commencement of proceedings and within the 15 years prior thereto, been convicted of a crime, failed to comply with an order to surrender or a period of voluntary departure, or been subject to a bench warrant or similar legal process (unless quashed, withdrawn, or cancelled as improvidently issued), may be considered for release under paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(6) Unremovable aliens and certain long-term detainees.
(i) If the district director determines that an alien subject to section 303(b)(3)(A)(ii) or (iii) of Div. C of Pub. L. 104-208 cannot be removed from the United States because the designated country of removal or deportation will not accept the alien's return, the district director may, in the exercise of discretion, consider release of the alien from custody upon such terms and conditions as the district director may prescribe, without regard to paragraphs (c)(2), (c)(4), and (c)(5) of this section.
(ii) The district director may also, notwithstanding paragraph (c)(5) of this section, consider release from custody, upon such terms and conditions as the district director may prescribe, of any alien described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section who has been in the Service's custody for six months pursuant to a final order of deportation terminating the alien's status as a lawful permanent resident.
(iii) The district director may release an alien from custody under this paragraph only in accordance with the standards set forth in paragraph (c)(3) of this section and any other applicable provisions of law.
(iv) The district director's custody decision under this paragraph shall not be subject to redetermination by an immigration judge, but, in the case of a custody decision under paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section, may be appealed to the Board of Immigration Appeals pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(iii) of this section.
(7) Construction. A reference in this section to a provision in section 241 of the Act as in effect prior to April 1, 1997, shall be deemed to include a reference to the corresponding provision in section 237 of the Act as in effect on April 1, 1997. A reference in this section to a “crime” shall be considered to include a reference to a conspiracy or attempt to commit such a crime. In calculating the 10-year period specified in paragraph (c)(4) of this section and the 15-year period specified in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, no period during which the alien was detained or incarcerated shall count toward the total. References in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section to the “district director” shall be deemed to include a reference to any official designated by the Commissioner to exercise custody authority over aliens covered by that paragraph. Nothing in this part shall be construed as prohibiting an alien from seeking reconsideration of the Service's determination that the alien is within a category barred from release under this part.
(8) Any officer authorized to issue a warrant of arrest may, in the officer's discretion, release an alien not described in section 236(c)(1) of the Act, under the conditions at section 236(a)(2) and (3) of the Act; provided that the alien must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the officer that such release would not pose a danger to property or persons, and that the alien is likely to appear for any future proceeding. Such an officer may also, in the exercise of discretion, release an alien in deportation proceedings pursuant to the authority in section 242 of the Act (as designated prior to April 1, 1997), except as otherwise provided by law.
(9) When an alien who, having been arrested and taken into custody, has been released, such release may be revoked at any time in the discretion of the district director, acting district director, deputy district director, assistant district director for investigations, assistant district director for detention and deportation, or officer in charge (except foreign), in which event the alien may be taken into physical custody and detained. If detained, unless a breach has occurred, any outstanding bond shall be revoked and canceled.
(10) The provisions of § 103.6 of 8 CFR chapter I shall apply to any bonds authorized. Subject to the provisions of this section, the provisions of § 1003.19 of this chapter shall govern availability to the respondent of recourse to other administrative authority for release from custody.
(11) An immigration judge may not exercise the authority provided in this section, and the review process described in paragraph (d) of this section shall not apply, with respect to any alien beyond the custody jurisdiction of the immigration judge as provided in § 1003.19(h) of this chapter.
(d) Appeals from custody decisions—
(1) Application to immigration judge. After an initial custody determination by the district director, including the setting of a bond, the respondent may, at any time before an order under 8 CFR part 1240 becomes final, request amelioration of the conditions under which he or she may be released. Prior to such final order, and except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the immigration judge is authorized to exercise the authority in section 236 of the Act (or section 242(a)(1) of the Act as designated prior to April 1, 1997 in the case of an alien in deportation proceedings) to detain the alien in custody, release the alien, and determine the amount of bond, if any, under which the respondent may be released, as provided in § 1003.19 of this chapter. If the alien has been released from custody, an application for amelioration of the terms of release must be filed within 7 days of release.
(2) Application to the district director. After expiration of the 7-day period in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the respondent may request review by the district director of the conditions of his or her release.
(3) Appeal to the Board of Immigration Appeals. An appeal relating to bond and custody determinations may be filed to the Board of Immigration Appeals in the following circumstances:
(i) In accordance with § 1003.38 of this chapter, the alien or the Service may appeal the decision of an immigration judge pursuant to paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(ii) The alien, within 10 days, may appeal from the district director's decision under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.
(4) Effect of filing an appeal. The filing of an appeal from a determination of an immigration judge or district director under this paragraph shall not operate to delay compliance with the order (except as provided in § 1003.19(i)), nor stay the administrative proceedings or removal.
(e) Privilege of communication. Every detained alien shall be notified that he or she may communicate with the consular or diplomatic officers of the country of his or her nationality in the United States. Existing treaties with the following countries require immediate communication with appropriate consular or diplomatic officers whenever nationals of the following countries are detained in removal proceedings, whether or not requested by the alien and even if the alien requests that no communication be undertaken in his or her behalf. When notifying consular or diplomatic officials, Service officers shall not reveal the fact that any detained alien has applied for asylum or withholding of removal.
Albania 1

Footnote(s):
1 Arrangements with these countries provide that U.S. authorities shall notify responsible representatives within 72 hours of the arrest or detention of one of their nationals.

Antigua
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Barbados
Belarus
Belize
Brunei
Bulgaria
China (People's Republic of) 2

Footnote(s):
2 When Taiwan nationals (who carry “Republic of China” passports) are detained, notification should be made to the nearest office of the Taiwan Economic and Cultural Representative's Office, the unofficial entity representing Taiwan's interests in the United States.

Costa Rica
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Dominica
Fiji
Gambia, The
Georgia
Ghana
Grenada
Guyana
Hungary
Jamaica
Kazakhstan
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Malaysia
Malta
Mauritius
Moldova
Mongolia
Nigeria
Philippines
Poland
Romania
Russian Federation
St. Kitts/Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent/Grenadines
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovak Republic
South Korea
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Tonga
Trinidad/Tobago
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Ukraine
United Kingdom 3

Footnote(s):
3 British dependencies are also covered by this agreement. They are: Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Hong Kong, Bermuda, Montserrat, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Their residents carry British passports.

U.S.S.R. 4

Footnote(s):
4 All U.S.S.R. successor states are covered by this agreement. They are: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan
Zambia
(f) Notification to Executive Office for Immigration Review of change in custody status. The Service shall notify the Immigration Court having administrative control over the Record of Proceeding of any change in custody location or of release from, or subsequent taking into, Service custody of a respondent/applicant pursuant to § 1003.19(g) of this chapter.
[62 FR 10360, Mar. 6, 1997; 62 FR 15363, Apr. 1, 1997, as amended at 63 FR 27449, May 19, 1998; 65 FR 80294, Dec. 21, 2000]

Title 8 published on 2014-01-01

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