9 CFR 381.170 - Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry.

Status message

There is 1 rule appearing in the Federal Register for 9 CFR 381. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
§ 381.170 Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 68064, Nov. 3, 2011.
(a) The following standards specify the various classes of the specified kinds of poultry, and the requirements for each class:
(1) Chickens—
(i) Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen. A Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen is a young immature chicken (usually 5 to 6 weeks of age) weighing not more than 2 pounds ready-to-cook weight, which was prepared from a Cornish chicken or the progeny of a Cornish chicken crossed with another breed of chicken.
(ii) Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen. A Rock Cornish fryer, roaster, or hen is the progeny of a cross between a purebred Cornish and a purebred Rock chicken, without regard to the weight of the carcass involved; however, the term “fryer,” “roaster,” or “hen” shall apply only if the carcasses are from birds with ages and characteristics that qualify them for such designation under paragraph (a)(1) (iii) or (iv) of this section.
(iii) Broiler or fryer. A broiler or fryer is a young chicken (usually under 13 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage.
(iv) Roaster or roasting chicken. A bird of this class is a young chicken (usually 3 to 5 months of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that may be somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.
(v) Capon. A capon is a surgically unsexed male chicken (usually under 8 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.
(vi) Hen, fowl, or baking or stewing. A bird of this class is a mature female chicken (usually more than 10 months of age) with meat less tender than that of a roaster, or roasting chicken and nonflexible breastbone tip.
(vii) Cock or rooster. A cock or rooster is a mature male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and hardened breastbone tip.
(2) Turkeys—
(i) Fryer-roaster turkey. A fryer-roaster turkey is a young immature turkey (usually under 16 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.
(ii) Young turkey. A young turkey is a turkey (usually under 8 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than in a fryer-roaster turkey. Sex designation is optional.
(iii) Yearling turkey. A yearling turkey is a fully matured turkey (usually under 15 months of age) that is reasonably tender-meated and with reasonably smooth-textured skin. Sex designation is optional.
(iv) Mature turkey or old turkey (hen or tom). A mature or old turkey is an old turkey of either sex (usually in excess of 15 months of age) with coarse skin and toughened flesh.
(3) Ducks—
(i) Broiler duckling or fryer duckling. A broiler duckling or fryer duckling is a young duck (usually under 8 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a soft bill and soft windpipe.
(ii) Roaster duckling. A roaster duckling is a young duck (usually under 16 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.
(iii) Mature duck or old duck. A mature duck or an old duck is a duck (usually over 6 months of age), of either sex, with toughened flesh, hardened bill, and hardened windpipe.
(4) Geese—
(i) Young goose. A young goose may be of either sex, is tender-meated, and has a windpipe that is easily dented.
(ii) Mature goose or old goose. A mature goose or old goose may be of either sex and has toughened flesh and hardened windpipe.
(5) Guineas—
(i) Young guinea. A young guinea may be of either sex, is tender-meated, and has a flexible breastbone cartilage.
(ii) Mature guinea or old guinea. A mature guinea or an old guinea may be of either sex, has toughened flesh, and a hardened breastbone.
(b) The following standards specify the requirements for the specified cuts of poultry:
(1) “Breasts” shall be separated from the back at the shoulder joint and by a cut running backward and downward from that point along the junction of the vertebral and sternal ribs. The ribs may be removed from the breasts, and the breasts may be cut along the breastbone to make two approximately equal halves; or the wishbone portion, as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, may be removed before cutting the remainder along the breastbone to make three parts. Pieces cut in this manner may be substituted for lighter or heavier pieces for exact weight-making purposes and the package may contain two or more of such parts without affecting the appropriateness of the labeling as e.g., “chicken breasts.” Neck skin shall not be included with the breasts, except that “turkey breasts” may include neck skin up to the whisker.
(2) “Breasts with ribs” shall be separated from the back at the junction of the vertebral ribs and back. Breasts with ribs may be cut along the breastbone to make two approximately equal halves; or the wishbone portion, as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, may be removed before cutting the remainder along the breastbone to make three parts. Pieces cut in this manner may be substituted for lighter or heavier pieces for exact weight-making purposes and the package may contain two or more of such parts without affecting the appropriateness of the labeling as “breasts with ribs.” Neck skin shall not be included, except that “turkey breasts with ribs” may include neck skin up to the whisker.
(3) “Wishbones” (Pulley Bones), with covering muscle and skin tissue, shall be severed from the breast approximately halfway between the end of the wishbone (hypocledium) and front point of the breastbone (cranial process of the sternal crest) to a point where the wishbone joins the shoulder. Neck skin shall not be included with the wishbone.
(4) “Drumsticks” shall be separated from the thigh by a cut through the knee joint (femorotibial and patellar joint) and from the hock joint (tarsal joint).
(5) “Thighs” shall be disjointed at the hip joint and may include the pelvic meat, but shall not include the pelvic bones. Back skin shall not be included.
(6) “(Kind) legs” shall be the poultry product which includes the thigh and the drumstick, i.e., the whole leg, and may include the pelvic meat, but shall not include the pelvic bones. Back skin shall not be included.
(7) “Wings” shall include the entire wing with all muscle and skin tissue intact, except that the wingtip may be removed.
(8) “Backs” shall include the pelvic bones and all the vertebrae posterior to the shoulder joint. The meat shall not be peeled from the pelvic bones. The vertebral ribs and/or scapula may be removed or included without affecting the appropriateness of the name. Skin shall be substantially intact.
(9) “Stripped backs” shall include the vertebrae from the shoulder joint to the tail, and include the pelvic bones. The meat may be stripped off of the pelvic bones.
(10) “Necks”, with or without neck skin, shall be separated from the carcass at the shoulder joint.
(11) “Halves” are prepared by making a full-length back and breast split of an eviscerated poultry carcass so as to produce approximately equal right and left sides.
(12) “Quarters” consist of the entire eviscerated poultry carcass, which has been cut into four equal parts, but excluding the neck.
(13) “Breast quarter” consists of half a breast with the wing and a portion of the back attached.
(14) “Breast quarter without wing” consists of a front quarter of a poultry carcass, from which the wing has been removed.
(15) “Leg quarter” consists of a poultry thigh and drumstick, with a portion of the back attached.
(16) “Thigh with back portion” consists of a poultry thigh with back portion attached.
(17) “Legs with pelvic bone” consists of a poultry leg with adhering meat and skin and pelvic bone.
(18) “Wing drummette” consists of the humerus of a poultry wing with adhering skin and meat attached.
(19) “Wing portion” consists of a poultry wing except that the drummette has been removed.
(20) “Cut-up Poultry” is any cut-up or disjointed portion of poultry or any edible part thereof, as described in this section.
(21) “Giblets” consist of approximately equal numbers of hearts, gizzards, and livers, as determined on a count basis.
(22) “Major portions” of eviscerated poultry carcasses are either carcasses from which parts may be missing, or the front or rear portions of transversely-split carcasses.
[37 FR 9706, May 16, 1972, as amended at 39 FR 4569, Feb. 5, 1974; 63 FR 48960, Sept. 11, 1998]
Effective Date Note:
At 76 FR 68064, Nov. 3, 2011, § 381.170 was amended by revising paragraph (a), effective Jan. 1, 2014. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows:
§ 381.170 Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry.
(a) The following standards specify the various classes of the specified kinds of poultry and the requirements for each class:
(1) Chickens—(i) Rock Cornish game hen or Cornish game hen. A “Rock Cornish game hen” or “Cornish game hen” is a young, immature chicken (less than 5 weeks of age), of either sex, with a ready-to-cook carcass weight of not more than 2 pounds.
(ii) Broiler or fryer. A “broiler” or “fryer” is a young chicken (less than 10 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and flexible breastbone cartilage.
(iii) Roaster or roasting chicken. A “roaster” or “roasting chicken” is a young chicken (between 8 and 12 weeks of age), of either sex, with a ready-to-cook carcass weight of 5 pounds or more, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than that of a broiler or fryer.
(iv) Capon. A “capon” is a surgically neutered male chicken (less than 4 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin.
(v) Hen, fowl, baking chicken, or stewing chicken. A “hen,” “fowl,” “baking chicken,” or “stewing chicken” is an adult female chicken (more than 10 months of age) with meat less tender than that of a roaster or roasting chicken and a nonflexible breastbone tip.
(vi) Cock or rooster. A “cock” or “rooster” is an adult male chicken with coarse skin, toughened and darkened meat, and a nonflexible breastbone tip.
(2) Turkeys—(i) Fryer-roaster turkey. A “fryer-roaster turkey” is an immature turkey (less than 12 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin, and flexible breastbone cartilage.
(ii) Young turkey. A “young turkey” is a turkey (less than 8 months of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated with soft, pliable, smooth-textured skin and breastbone cartilage that is less flexible than that of a fryer-roaster turkey.
(iii) Yearling turkey. A “yearling turkey” is a turkey (less than 15 months of age), of either sex, that is reasonably tender-meated with reasonably smooth-textured skin.
(iv) Mature or old (hen or tom) turkey. A “mature turkey” or “old turkey” is an adult turkey (more than 15 months of age), of either sex, with coarse skin and toughened flesh. Sex designation is optional.
(3) Ducks—(i) Duckling. A “duckling” is a young duck (less than 8 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a soft bill and soft windpipe.
(ii) Roaster duck. A “roaster duck” is a young duck (less than 16 weeks of age), of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a bill that is not completely hardened and a windpipe that is easily dented.
(iii) Mature duck or old duck. A “mature duck” or an “old duck” is an adult duck (more than 6 months of age), of either sex, with toughened flesh, a hardened bill, and a hardened windpipe.
(4) Geese—(i) Young goose. A “young goose” is an immature goose, of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a windpipe that is easily dented.
(ii) Mature goose or old goose. A “mature goose” or “old goose” is an adult goose, of either sex, that has toughened flesh and a hardened windpipe.
(5) Guineas—(i) Young guinea. A “young guinea” is an immature guinea, of either sex, that is tender-meated and has a flexible breastbone cartilage.
(ii) Mature guinea or old guinea. A “mature guinea” or “old guinea” is an adult guinea, of either sex, that has toughened flesh and a non-flexible breastbone.

Title 9 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 9.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-03-26; vol. 79 # 58 - Wednesday, March 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 16656 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Food Safety and Inspection Service
      Final rule.
      Effective Date: May 27, 2014.
      9 CFR Part 381

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 7 - AGRICULTURE
U.S. Code: Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS

§ 451 - Congressional statement of findings

§ 452 - Congressional declaration of policy

§ 453 - Definitions

§ 454 - Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs

§ 455 - Inspection in official establishments

§ 456 - Operation of premises, facilities and equipment

§ 457 - Labeling and container standards

§ 458 - Prohibited acts

§ 459 - Compliance by all establishments

§ 460 - Miscellaneous activities subject to regulation

§ 461 - Offenses and punishment

§ 462 - Reporting of violations; notice; opportunity to present views

§ 463 - Rules and regulations

§ 464 - Exemptions

§ 465 - Limitations upon entry of poultry products and other materials into official establishments

§ 466 - Imports

§ 467 - Inspection services

§ 467a - Administrative detention; duration; pending judicial proceedings; notification of government authorities; release; removal of official marks

§ 467b - Seizure and condemnation

§ 467c - Federal court jurisdiction of enforcement and injunction proceedings and other kinds of cases; limitations; United States as plaintiff; subpenas

§ 467d - Administration and enforcement; applicability of penalty provisions; conduct of inquiries; power and jurisdiction of courts

§ 467e - Non-Federal jurisdiction of federally regulated matters; prohibition of additional or different requirements for establishments...purposes of adulterated or misbranded and imported articles; other matters

§ 467f - Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applications

§ 468 - Cost of inspection; overtime

§ 469 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 470 - Omitted

Title 9 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 9 CFR 381 after this date.

  • 2014-03-26; vol. 79 # 58 - Wednesday, March 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 16656 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Food Safety and Inspection Service
      Final rule.
      Effective Date: May 27, 2014.
      9 CFR Part 381