9 CFR 381.409 - Nutrition label content.

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§ 381.409 Nutrition label content.
(a) All nutrient and food component quantities shall be declared in relation to a serving as defined in this section.
(b)
(1) The term “serving” or “serving size” means an amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion by persons 4 years of age or older, which is expressed in a common household measure that is appropriate to the product. When the product is specially formulated or processed for use by infants or by toddlers, a serving or serving size means an amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion by infants up to 12 months of age or by children 1 through 3 years of age, respectively.
(2) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(8), (b)(12), and (b)(14) of this section and for products that are intended for weight control and are available only through a weight-control or weight-maintenance program, the serving size declared on a product label shall be determined from the “Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed Per Eating Occasion—General Food Supply” (Reference Amount(s)) that appear in § 381.412(b) using the procedures described in this paragraph (b). For products that are both intended for weight control and available only through a weight-control program, a manufacturer may determine the serving size that is consistent with the meal plan of the program. Such products must bear a statement, “for sale only through the ___ program” (fill in the blank with the name of the appropriate weight-control program, e.g., Smith's Weight Control), on the principal display panel. However, the Reference Amounts in § 381.412(b) shall be used for purposes of evaluating whether weight-control products that are available only through a weight-control program qualify for nutrition claims.
(3) The declaration of nutrient and food component content shall be on the basis of the product “as packaged” for all products, except that single-ingredient, raw products that are not ground or chopped poultry products as described in § 381.401 may be declared on the basis of the product “as consumed.” For single-ingredient, raw products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, if data are based on the product “as consumed,” the data must be presented in accordance with § 381.445(d). In addition to the required declaration on the basis of “as packaged” for products other than single-ingredient, raw products that are not ground or chopped poultry products as described in § 381.401, the declaration may also be made on the basis of “as consumed,” provided that preparation and cooking instructions are clearly stated.
(4) For products in discrete units (e.g., chicken wings, and individually packaged products within a multi-serving package), and for products which consist of two or more foods packaged and presented to be consumed together where the ingredient represented as the main ingredient is in discrete units (e.g., chicken wings and barbecue sauce), the serving size shall be declared as follows:
(i) If a unit weighs 50 percent or less of the Reference Amount, the serving size shall be the number of whole units that most closely approximates the Reference Amount for the product category.
(ii) If a unit weighs more than 50 percent but less than 67 percent of the Reference Amount, the manufacturer may declare one unit or two units as the serving size.
(iii) If a unit weighs 67 percent or more but less than 200 percent of the Reference Amount, the serving size shall be one unit.
(iv) If a unit weighs 200 percent or more of the Reference Amount, the manufacturer may declare one unit as the serving size if the whole unit can reasonably be consumed at a single eating occasion.
(v) For products that have Reference Amounts of 100 grams (or milliliter) or larger and are individual units within a multi-serving package, if a unit contains more than 150 percent but less than 200 percent of the Reference Amount, the manufacturer may decide whether to declare the individual unit as 1 or 2 servings.
(vi) For products which consist of two or more foods packaged and presented to be consumed together where the ingredient represented as the main ingredient is in discrete units (e.g., chicken wings and barbecue sauce), the serving size may be the number of discrete units represented as the main ingredient plus proportioned minor ingredients used to make the Reference Amount for the combined product as determined in § 381.412(c).
(vii) For packages containing several individual single-serving containers, each of which is labeled with all required information including nutrition labeling as specified in this section (i.e., are labeled appropriately for individual sale as single-serving containers), the serving size shall be 1 unit.
(5) For products in large discrete units that are usually divided for consumption (e.g., pizza, pan of poultry lasagna), for unprepared products where the entire contents of the package is used to prepare large discrete units that are usually divided for consumption (e.g., pizza kit), and for products which consist of two or more foods packaged and presented to be consumed together where the ingredient represented as the main ingredient is a large discrete unit usually divided for consumption, the serving size shall be the fractional slice of the ready-to-eat product (e.g., 1/8 quiche, 1/4 pizza) that most closely approximates the Reference Amount for the product category. The serving size may be the fraction of the package used to make the Reference Amount for the unprepared product determined in § 381.412(d) or the fraction of the large discrete unit represented as the main ingredient plus proportioned minor ingredients used to make the Reference Amount of the combined product determined in § 381.412(c). In expressing the fractional slice, manufacturers shall use 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, or smaller fractions that can be generated by further division by 2 or 3.
(6) For nondiscrete bulk products (e.g., whole turkey, turkey breast, ground poultry), and for products which consist of two or more foods packaged and presented to be consumed together where the ingredient represented as the main ingredient is a bulk product (e.g., turkey breast and gravy), the serving size shall be the amount in household measure that most closely approximates the Reference Amount for the product category and may be the amount of the bulk product represented as the main ingredient plus proportioned minor ingredients used to make the Reference Amount for the combined product determined in § 381.412(c).
(7) For labeling purposes, the term “common household measure” or “common household unit” means cup, tablespoon, teaspoon, piece, slice, fraction (e.g., 1/4 pizza), ounce (oz), or other common household equipment used to package food products (e.g., jar or tray). In expressing serving size in household measures, except as specified in paragraphs (b)(7)(iv), (v), and (vi) of this section, the following rules shall be used:
(i) Cups, tablespoons, or teaspoons shall be used wherever possible and appropriate. Cups shall be expressed in 1/4- or 1/3-cup increments, tablespoons in whole number of tablespoons for quantities less than 1/4 cup but greater than or equal to 2 tablespoons (tbsp), 1, 11/3, 11/2, or 12/3 tbsp for quantities less than 2 tbsp but greater than or equal to 1 tbsp, and teaspoons in whole number of teaspoons for quantities less than 1 tbsp but greater than or equal to 1 teaspoon (tsp), and in 1/4-tsp increments for quantities less than 1 tsp.
(ii) If cups, tablespoons or teaspoons are not applicable, units such as piece, slice, tray, jar, and fraction shall be used.
(iii) If cups, tablespoons and teaspoons, or units such as piece, slice, tray, jar, or fraction are not applicable, ounces may be used. Ounce measurements shall be expressed in 0.5-ounce increments most closely approximating the Reference Amount with rounding indicated by the use of the term “about” (e.g., about 2.5 ounces).
(iv) A description of the individual container or package shall be used for single-serving containers and for individually packaged products within multi-serving containers (e.g., can, box, package, meal, or dinner). A description of the individual unit shall be used for other products in discrete units (e.g., wing, slice, link, or patty).
(v) For unprepared products where the entire contents of the package is used to prepare large discrete units that are usually divided for consumption (e.g., pizza kit), the fraction or portion of the package may be used.
(vi) For products that consist of two or more distinct ingredients or components packaged and presented to be consumed together (e.g., chicken wings with a glaze packet), the nutrition information may be declared for each component or as a composite. The serving size may be provided in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(4), (b)(5), and (b)(6) of this section.
(vii) For nutrition labeling purposes, a teaspoon means 5 milliliters (mL), a tablespoon means 15 mL, a cup means 240 mL, and 1 oz in weight means 28 grams (g).
(viii) When a serving size, determined from the Reference Amount in § 381.412(b) and the procedures described in this section, falls exactly half way between two serving sizes (e.g., 2.5 tbsp), manufacturers shall round the serving size up to the next incremental size.
(8) A product that is packaged and sold individually and that contains less than 200 percent of the applicable Reference Amount shall be considered to be a single-serving container, and the entire content of the product shall be labeled as one serving, except for products that have Reference Amounts of 100 g (or mL) or larger, manufacturers may decide whether a package that contains more than 150 percent but less than 200 percent of the Reference Amount is 1 or 2 servings. Packages sold individually that contain 200 percent or more of the applicable Reference Amount may be labeled as a single-serving if the entire content of the package can reasonably be consumed at a single-eating occasion.
(9) A label statement regarding a serving shall be the serving size expressed in common household measures as set forth in paragraphs (b)(2) through (b)(8) of this section and shall be followed by the equivalent metric quantity in parenthesis (fluids in milliliters and all other foods in grams), except for single-serving containers.
(i) For a single-serving container, the parenthetical metric quantity, which will be presented as part of the net weight statement on the principal display panel, is not required except where nutrition information is required on a drained weight basis according to paragraph (b)(11) of this section. However, if a manufacturer voluntarily provides the metric quantity on products that can be sold as single servings, then the numerical value provided as part of the serving size declaration must be identical to the metric quantity declaration provided as part of the net quantity of contents statement.
(ii) The gram or milliliter quantity equivalent to the household measure should be rounded to the nearest whole number except for quantities that are less than 5 g (mL). The gram (mL) quantity between 2 and 5 g (mL) should be rounded to the nearest 0.5 g (mL) and the g (mL) quantity less than 2 g (mL) should be expressed in 0.1-g (mL) increments.
(iii) In addition, serving size may be declared in ounce, in parenthesis, following the metric measure separated by a slash where other common household measures are used as the primary unit for serving size, e.g., 1 slice (28 g/1 oz) for sliced chicken roll. The ounce quantity equivalent to the metric quantity should be expressed in 0.1-oz increments.
(iv) If a manufacturer elects to use abbreviations for units, the following abbreviations shall be used: tbsp for tablespoon, tsp for teaspoon, g for gram, mL for milliliter, and oz for ounce.
(10) Determination of the number of servings per container shall be based on the serving size of the product determined by following the procedures described in this section.
(i) The number of servings shall be rounded to the nearest whole number except for the number of servings between 2 and 5 servings and random weight products. The number of servings between 2 and 5 servings shall be rounded to the nearest 0.5 serving. Rounding should be indicated by the use of the term “about” (e.g., about 2 servings; about 3.5 servings).
(ii) When the serving size is required to be expressed on a drained solids basis and the number of servings varies because of a natural variation in unit size, the manufacturer may state the typical number of servings per container (e.g., usually 5 servings).
(iii) For random weight products, a manufacturer may declare “varied” for the number of servings per container provided the nutrition information is based on the Reference Amount expressed in ounces. The manufacturer may provide the typical number of servings in parenthesis following the “varied” statement (e.g., varied (approximately 8 servings per pound)).
(iv) For packages containing several individual single-serving containers, each of which is labeled with all required information including nutrition labeling as specified in this section (i.e., are labeled appropriately for individual sale as single-serving containers), the number of servings shall be the number of individual packages within the total package.
(v) For packages containing several individually packaged multi-serving units, the number of servings shall be determined by multiplying the number of individual multi-serving units in the total package by the number of servings in each individual unit. The declaration of the number of servings per container need not be included in nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, including those that have been previously frozen.
(11) The declaration of nutrient and food component content shall be on the basis of product as packaged or purchased with the exception of single-ingredient, raw products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401 and products that are packed or canned in water, brine, or oil but whose liquid packing medium is not customarily consumed. Declaration of the nutrient and food component content of products that are packed in liquid which is not customarily consumed shall be based on the drained solids.
(12) The serving size for meal-type products and main-dish products as defined in § 381.413(l) and § 381.413 (m) in single-serve containers will be the entire edible content of the package. Serving size for meal-type products and main-dish products in multi-serve containers will be based on the reference amount applicable to the product in § 381.412(b) if the product is listed in § 381.412(b). Serving size for meal-type products and main-dish products in multi-serve containers that are not listed in § 381.412(b) will be based on the reference amount according to § 381.412(c), (d), and (e).
(13) Another column of figures may be used to declare the nutrient and food component information in the same format as required by § 381.409(e),
(i) Per 100 grams, 100 milliliters, or 1 ounce of the product as packaged or purchased.
(ii) Per one unit if the serving size of a product in discrete units in a multi-serving container is more than one unit.
(14) If a product consists of assortments of poultry products (e.g., variety packs) in the same package, nutrient content shall be expressed on the entire package contents or on each individual product.
(15) If a product is commonly combined with other ingredients or is cooked or otherwise prepared before eating, and directions for such combination or preparations are provided, another column of figures may be used to declare the nutrient contents on the basis of the product as consumed for the product alone (e.g., a cream soup mix may be labeled with one set of Daily Values for the dry mix (per serving), and another set for the serving of the final soup when prepared (e.g., per serving of cream soup mix and 1 cup of vitamin D fortified whole milk)): Provided, that the type and quantity of the other ingredients to be added to the product by the user and the specific method of cooking and other preparation shall be specified prominently on the label.
(c) The declaration of nutrition information on the label or in labeling of a poultry product shall contain information about the level of the following nutrients, except for those nutrients whose inclusion, and the declaration of amounts, is voluntary as set forth in this paragraph. No nutrients or food components other than those listed in this paragraph as either mandatory or voluntary may be included within the nutrition label. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) or (g) of this section, nutrient information shall be presented using the nutrient names specified and in the following order in the formats specified in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section.
(1) “Calories, total,” “Total calories,” or “Calories”: A statement of the caloric content per serving, expressed to the nearest 5-calorie increment up to and including 50 calories, and 10-calorie increment above 50 calories, except that amounts less than 5 calories may be expressed as zero. Energy content per serving may also be expressed in kilojoule units, added in parenthesis immediately following the statement of the caloric content.
(i) Caloric content may be calculated by the following methods. Where either specific or general food factors are used, the factors shall be applied to the actual amount (i.e., before rounding) of food components (e.g., fat, carbohydrate, protein, or ingredients with specific food factors) present per serving.
(A) Using specific Atwater factors (i.e., the Atwater method) given in Table 13, page 25, “Energy Value of Foods—Basis and Derivation,” by A. L. Merrill and B. K. Watt, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agriculture Handbook No. 74 (Slightly revised February 1973), which is incorporated by reference. Table 13 of the “Energy Value of Foods—Basis and Derivation,” Agriculture Handbook No. 74 is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. It is available for inspection at the office of the FSIS Docket Clerk, Room 3171, South Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Copies of the incorporation by reference are available from the Product Assessment Division, Regulatory Programs, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 329, West End Court Building, Washington, DC 20250-3700;
(B) Using the general factors of 4, 4, and 9 calories per gram for protein, total carbohydrate, and total fat, respectively, as described in USDA's Agriculture Handbook No. 74 (Slightly revised February 1973), pages 9-11, which is incorporated by reference. Pages 9-11, Agriculture Handbook No. 74 is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (The availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.);
(C) Using the general factors of 4, 4, and 9 calories per gram for protein, total carbohydrate less the amount of insoluble dietary fiber, and total fat, respectively, as described in USDA's Agriculture Handbook No. 74 (Slightly revised February 1973), pages 9-11, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (The availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.); or
(D) Using data for specific food factors for particular foods or ingredients approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and provided in parts 172 or 184 of 21 CFR, or by other means, as appropriate.
(ii) “Calories from fat”: A statement of the caloric content derived from total fat as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section per serving, expressed to the nearest 5-calorie increment, up to and including 50 calories, and the nearest 10-calorie increment above 50 calories, except that label declaration of “calories from fat” is not required on products that contain less than 0.5 gram of fat per serving and amounts less than 5 calories may be expressed as zero. This statement shall be declared as provided in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
(iii) “Calories from saturated fat” or “Calories from saturated” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the caloric content derived from saturated fat as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section per serving may be declared voluntarily, expressed to the nearest 5-calorie increment, up to and including 50 calories, and the nearest 10-calorie increment above 50 calories, except that amounts less than 5 calories may be expressed as zero. This statement shall be indented under the statement of calories from fat as provided in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
(2) “Fat, total” or “Total fat”: A statement of the number of grams of total fat per serving defined as total lipid fatty acids and expressed as triglycerides. Amounts shall be expressed to the nearest 0.5 (1/2)-gram increment below 5 grams and to the nearest gram increment above 5 grams. If the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content shall be expressed as zero.
(i) “Saturated fat” or “Saturated”: A statement of the number of grams of saturated fat per serving defined as the sum of all fatty acids containing no double bonds, except that label declaration of saturated fat content information is not required for products that contain less than 0.5 gram of total fat per serving if no claims are made about fat or cholesterol content, and if “calories from saturated fat” is not declared. Saturated fat content shall be indented and expressed as grams per serving to the nearest 0.5 (1/2)-gram increment below 5 grams and to the nearest gram increment above 5 grams. If the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content shall be expressed as zero.
(A) “Stearic Acid” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of stearic acid per serving may be declared voluntarily, except that when a claim is made about stearic acid, label declaration shall be required. Stearic acid content shall be indented under saturated fat and expressed to the nearest 0.5 (1/2)-gram increment below 5 grams and the nearest gram increment above 5 grams. If the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content shall be expressed as zero.
(B) [Reserved]
(ii) “Polyunsaturated fat” or “Polyunsaturated” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of polyunsaturated fat per serving defined as cis,cis-methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids may be declared voluntarily, except that when monounsaturated fat is declared, or when a claim about fatty acids or cholesterol is made on the label or in labeling of a product other than one that meets the criteria in § 381.462(b)(1) for a claim for “fat free,” label declaration of polyunsaturated fat is required. Polyunsaturated fat content shall be indented and expressed as grams per serving to the nearest 0.5 (1/2)-gram increment below 5 grams and to the nearest gram increment above 5 grams. If the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content shall be expressed as zero.
(iii) “Monounsaturated fat” or “Monounsaturated” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of monounsaturated fat per serving defined as cis-monounsaturated fatty acids may be declared voluntarily, except that when polyunsaturated fat is declared, or when a claim about fatty acids or cholesterol is made on the label or in labeling of a product other than one that meets the criteria in § 381.462(b)(1) for a claim for “fat free,” label declaration of monounsaturated fat is required. Monounsaturated fat content shall be indented and expressed as grams per serving to the nearest 0.5 (1/2)-gram increment below 5 grams and to the nearest gram increment above 5 grams. If the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content shall be expressed as zero.
(3) “Cholesterol”: A statement of the cholesterol content per serving expressed in milligrams to the nearest 5-milligram increment, except that label declaration of cholesterol information is not required for products that contain less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol per serving and make no claim about fat, fatty acids, or cholesterol content, or such products may state the cholesterol content as zero. If the product contains 2 to 5 milligrams of cholesterol per serving, the content may be stated as “less than 5 milligrams.”
(4) “Sodium”: A statement of the number of milligrams of sodium per serving expressed as zero when the serving contains less than 5 milligrams of sodium, to the nearest 5-milligram increment when the serving contains 5 to 140 milligrams of sodium, and to the nearest 10-milligram increment when the serving contains greater than 140 milligrams.
(5) “Potassium” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of milligrams of potassium per serving may be declared voluntarily, except that when a claim is made about potassium content, label declaration shall be required. Potassium content shall be expressed as zero when the serving contains less than 5 milligrams of potassium, to the nearest 5-milligram increment when the serving contains 5 to 140 milligrams of potassium, and to the nearest 10-milligram increment when the serving contains greater than 140 milligrams.
(6) “Carbohydrate, total” or “Total carbohydrate”: A statement of the number of grams of total carbohydrate per serving expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, or, if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero. Total carbohydrate content shall be calculated by subtraction of the sum of the crude protein, total fat, moisture, and ash from the total weight of the product. This calculation method is described in USDA's Agriculture Handbook No. 74 (Slightly revised February 1973), pages 2 and 3, which is incorporated by reference. Pages 2 and 3, Agriculture Handbook No. 74 is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (The availability of this incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section.).
(i) “Dietary fiber”: A statement of the number of grams of total dietary fiber per serving, indented and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, declaration of dietary fiber is not required, or, alternatively, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(A) “Soluble fiber” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of soluble dietary fiber per serving may be declared voluntarily except when a claim is made on the label or in labeling about soluble fiber, label declaration shall be required. Soluble fiber content shall be indented under dietary fiber and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(B) “Insoluble fiber” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of insoluble dietary fiber per serving may be declared voluntarily except when a claim is made on the label or in labeling about insoluble fiber, label declaration shall be required. Insoluble fiber content shall be indented under dietary fiber and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(ii) “Sugars”: A statement of the number of grams of sugars per serving, except that label declaration of sugars content is not required for products that contain less than 1 gram of sugars per serving if no claims are made about sweeteners, sugars, or sugar alcohol content. Sugars shall be defined as the sum of all free mono- and disaccharides (such as glucose, fructose, lactose, and sucrose). Sugars content shall be indented and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(iii) “Sugar alcohol” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of sugar alcohols per serving may be declared voluntarily on the label, except that when a claim is made on the label or in labeling about sugar alcohol or sugars when sugar alcohols are present in the product, sugar alcohol content shall be declared. For nutrition labeling purposes, sugar alcohols are defined as the sum of saccharide derivatives in which a hydroxyl group replaces a ketone or aldehyde group and whose use in the food is listed by FDA (e.g., mannitol or xylitol) or is generally recognized as safe (e.g., sorbitol). In lieu of the term “sugar alcohol,” the name of the specific sugar alcohol (e.g., “xylitol”) present in the product may be used in the nutrition label, provided that only one sugar alcohol is present in the product. Sugar alcohol content shall be indented and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(iv) “Other carbohydrate” (VOLUNTARY): A statement of the number of grams of other carbohydrate per serving may be declared voluntarily. Other carbohydrate shall be defined as the difference between total carbohydrate and the sum of dietary fiber, sugars, and sugar alcohol, except that if sugar alcohol is not declared (even if present), it shall be defined as the difference between total carbohydrate and the sum of dietary fiber and sugars. Other carbohydrate content shall be indented and expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero.
(7) “Protein”: A statement of the number of grams of protein per serving expressed to the nearest gram, except that if a serving contains less than 1 gram, the statement “Contains less than 1 gram” or “less than 1 gram” may be used as an alternative, and if the serving contains less than 0.5 gram, the content may be expressed as zero. When the protein in products represented or purported to be for adults and children 4 or more years of age has a protein quality value that is a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of less than 20 expressed as a percent, or when the protein in a product represented or purported to be for children greater than 1 but less than 4 years of age has a protein quality value that is a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of less than 40 expressed as a percent, either of the following shall be placed adjacent to the declaration of protein content by weight: The statement “not a significant source of protein,” or a listing aligned under the column headed “Percent Daily Value” of the corrected amount of protein per serving, as determined in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, calculated as a percentage of the Daily Reference Value (DRV) or Reference Daily Intake (RDI), as appropriate, for protein and expressed as percent of Daily Value. When the protein quality in a product as measured by the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is less than 40 percent of the reference standard (casein) for a product represented or purported to be for infants, the statement “not a significant source of protein” shall be placed adjacent to the declaration of protein content. Protein content may be calculated on the basis of the factor of 6.25 times the nitrogen content of the food as determined by appropriate methods of analysis in accordance with § 381.409(h), except when the procedure for a specific food requires another factor.
(i) A statement of the corrected amount of protein per serving, as determined in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section, calculated as a percentage of the RDI or DRV for protein, as appropriate, and expressed as percent of Daily Value, may be placed on the label, except that such a statement shall be given if a protein claim is made for the product, or if the product is represented or purported to be for infants or children under 4 years of age. When such a declaration is provided, it shall be placed on the label adjacent to the statement of grams of protein and aligned under the column headed “Percent Daily Value,” and expressed to the nearest whole percent. However, the percentage of the RDI for protein shall not be declared if the product is represented or purported to be for infants and the protein quality value is less than 40 percent of the reference standard.
(ii) The corrected amount of protein (grams) per serving for products represented or purported to be for adults and children 1 or more years of age is equal to the actual amount of protein (grams) per serving multiplied by the amino acid score corrected for protein digestibility. If the corrected score is above 1.00, then it shall be set at 1.00. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score shall be determined by methods given in sections 5.4.1, 7.2.1, and 8 in “Protein Quality Evaluation, Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation,” Rome, 1990, which is incorporated by reference. Sections 5.4.1, 7.2.1, and 8 of the “Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation,” as published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. It is available for inspection at the office of the FSIS Docket Clerk, Room 3171, South Building, 14th and Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Copies of the incorporation by reference are available from the Product Assessment Division, Regulatory Programs, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 329, West End Court Building, Washington, DC 20250-3700. For products represented or purported to be for infants, the corrected amount of protein (grams) per serving is equal to the actual amount of protein (grams) per serving multiplied by the relative protein quality value. The relative protein quality value shall be determined by dividing the subject product's protein PER value by the PER value for casein. If the relative protein value is above 1.00, it shall be set at 1.00.
(iii) For the purpose of labeling with a percent of the DRV or RDI, a value of 50 grams of protein shall be the DRV for adults and children 4 or more years of age, and the RDI for protein for children less than 4 years of age, infants, pregnant women, and lactating women shall be 16 grams, 14 grams, 60 grams, and 65 grams, respectively.
(8) Vitamins and minerals: A statement of the amount per serving of the vitamins and minerals as described in this paragraph, calculated as a percent of the RDI and expressed as percent of Daily Value.
(i) For purposes of declaration of percent of Daily Value as provided for in paragraphs (d) through (g) of this section, products represented or purported to be for use by infants, children less than 4 years of age, pregnant women, or lactating women shall use the RDI's that are specified for the intended group. For products represented or purported to be for use by both infants and children under 4 years of age, the percent of Daily Value shall be presented by separate declarations according to paragraph (e) of this section based on the RDI values for infants from birth to 12 months of age and for children under 4 years of age. Similarly, the percent of Daily Value based on both the RDI values for pregnant women and for lactating women shall be declared separately on products represented or purported to be for use by both pregnant and lactating women. When such dual declaration is used on any label, it shall be included in all labeling, and equal prominence shall be given to both values in all such labeling. All other products shall use the RDI for adults and children 4 or more years of age.
(ii) The declaration of vitamins and minerals as a percent of the RDI shall include vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron, in that order, and shall include any of the other vitamins and minerals listed in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section when they are added, or when a claim is made about them. Other vitamins and minerals need not be declared if neither the nutrient nor the component is otherwise referred to on the label or in labeling or advertising and the vitamins and minerals are:
(A) Required or permitted in a standardized food (e.g., thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin in enriched flour) and that standardized food is included as an ingredient (i.e., component) in another product; or
(B) Included in a product solely for technological purposes and declared only in the ingredients statement. The declaration may also include any of the other vitamins and minerals listed in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section when they are naturally occurring in the food. The additional vitamins and minerals shall be listed in the order established in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section.
(iii) The percentages for vitamins and minerals shall be expressed to the nearest 2-percent increment up to and including the 10-percent level, the nearest 5-percent increment above 10 percent and up to and including the 50-percent level, and the nearest 10-percent increment above the 50-percent level. Amounts of vitamins and minerals present at less than 2 percent of the RDI are not required to be declared in nutrition labeling but may be declared by a zero or by the use of an asterisk (or other symbol) that refers to another asterisk (or symbol) that is placed at the bottom of the table and that is followed by the statement “Contains less than 2 percent of the Daily Value of this (these) nutrient (nutrients).” Alternatively, if vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, or iron is present in amounts less than 2 percent of the RDI, label declaration of the nutrient(s) is not required if the statement “Not a significant source of ____ (listing the vitamins or minerals omitted)” is placed at the bottom of the table of nutrient values.
(iv) The following RDI's and nomenclature are established for the following vitamins and minerals which are essential in human nutrition:
Vitamin A, 5,000 International Units
Vitamin C, 60 milligrams
Calcium, 1.0 gram
Iron, 18 milligrams
Vitamin D, 400 International Units
Vitamin E, 30 International Units
Thiamin, 1.5 milligrams
Riboflavin, 1.7 milligrams
Niacin, 20 milligrams
Vitamin B6, 2.0 milligrams
Folate, 0.4 milligram
Vitamin B12, 6 micrograms
Biotin, 0.3 milligram
Pantothenic acid, 10 milligrams
Phosphorus, 1.0 gram
Iodine, 150 micrograms
Magnesium, 400 milligrams
Zinc, 15 milligrams
Copper, 2.0 milligrams
(v) The following synonyms may be added in parenthesis immediately following the name of the nutrient or dietary component:
Vitamin C—Ascorbic acid
Thiamin—Vitamin B1
Riboflavin—Vitamin B2
Folate—Folacin
Calories—Energy
(vi) A statement of the percent of vitamin A that is present as beta-carotene may be declared voluntarily. When the vitamins and minerals are listed in a single column, the statement shall be indented under the information on vitamin A. When vitamins and minerals are arrayed horizontally, the statement of percent shall be presented in parenthesis following the declaration of vitamin A and the percent of Daily Value of vitamin A in the product (e.g., “Percent Daily Value: Vitamin A 50 (90 percent as beta-carotene)”). When declared, the percentages shall be expressed in the same increments as are provided for vitamins and minerals in paragraph (c)(8)(iii) of this section.
(9) For the purpose of labeling with a percent of the DRV, the following DRV's are established for the following food components based on the reference caloric intake of 2,000 calories:
Food component Unit of measurement DRV
Fat grams (g) 65
Saturated fatty acids ......do 20
Cholesterol milligrams (mg) 300
Total carbohydrate grams (g) 300
Fiber ......do 25
Sodium milligrams (mg) 2400
Potassium ......do 3500
Protein grams (g) 50
(d)
(1) Nutrient information specified in paragraph (c) of this section shall be presented on products in the following format, except on products on which dual columns of nutrition information are declared as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section, on those products on which the simplified format is permitted to be used as provided for in paragraph (f) of this section, on products for infants and children less than 4 years of age as provided for in § 381.500(c), and on products in packages that have a total surface area available to bear labeling of 40 or less square inches as provided for in paragraph (g) of this section.
(i) The nutrition information shall be set off in a box by use of hairlines and shall be all black or one color type, printed on a white or other neutral contrasting background whenever practical.
(ii) All information within the nutrition label shall utilize:
(A) A single easy-to-read type style,
(B) Upper and lower case letters,
(C) At least one point leading (i.e., space between two lines of text) except that at least four points leading shall be utilized for the information required by paragraphs (d)(7) and (d)(8) of this section, and
(D) Letters should never touch.
(iii) Information required in paragraphs (d)(3), (d)(5), (d)(7), and (d)(8) of this section shall be in type size no smaller than 8 point. Except for the heading “Nutrition Facts,” the information required in paragraphs (d)(4), (d)(6), and (d)(9) of this section and all other information contained within the nutrition label shall be in type size no smaller than 6 point. When provided, the information described in paragraph (d)(10) of this section shall also be in type no smaller than 6 point.
(iv) The headings required by paragraphs (d)(2), (d)(4), and (d)(6) of this section (i.e., “Nutrition Facts,” “Amount Per Serving,” and “% Daily Value*”), the names of all nutrients that are not indented according to requirements of paragraph (c) of this section (i.e., Calories, Total fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, Potassium, Total carbohydrate, and Protein), and the percentage amounts required by paragraph (d)(7)(ii) of this section shall be highlighted by bold or extra bold type or other highlighting (reverse printing is not permitted as a form of highlighting) that prominently distinguishes it from other information. No other information shall be highlighted.
(v) A hairline rule that is centered between the lines of text shall separate “Amount Per Serving” from the calorie statements required in paragraph (d)(5) of this section and shall separate each nutrient and its corresponding percent of Daily Value required in paragraphs (d)(7)(i) and (d)(7)(ii) of this section from the nutrient and percent of Daily Value above and below it.
(2) The information shall be presented under the identifying heading of “Nutrition Facts” which shall be set in a type size larger than all other print size in the nutrition label and, except for labels presented according to the format provided for in paragraph (d)(11) of this section, unless impractical, shall be set the full width of the information provided under paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
(3) Information on serving size shall immediately follow the heading. Such information shall include:
(i) “Serving Size”: A statement of the serving size as specified in paragraph (b)(9) of this section.
(ii) “Servings Per Container”: The number of servings per container, except that this statement is not required on single-serving containers as defined in paragraph (b)(8) of this section or on single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401.
(4) A subheading “Amount Per Serving” shall be separated from serving size information by a bar.
(5) Information on calories shall immediately follow the heading “Amount Per Serving” and shall be declared in one line, leaving sufficient space between the declaration of “Calories” and “Calories from fat” to allow clear differentiation, or, if “Calories from saturated fat” is declared, in a column with total “Calories” at the top, followed by “Calories from fat” (indented), and “Calories from saturated fat” (indented).
(6) The column heading “% Daily Value,” followed by an asterisk (e.g., “% Daily Value*”), shall be separated from information on calories by a bar. The position of this column heading shall allow for a list of nutrient names and amounts as described in paragraph (d)(7) of this section to be to the left of, and below, this column heading. The column heading “Percent Daily Value,” “Percent DV,” or “% DV” may be substituted for “% Daily Value.”
(7) Except as provided for in paragraph (g) of this section, and except as permitted by § 381.500(d)(2), nutrient information for both mandatory and any voluntary nutrients listed in paragraph (c) of this section that are to be declared in the nutrition label, except vitamins and minerals, shall be declared as follows:
(i) The name of each nutrient, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, shall be given in a column and followed immediately by the quantitative amount by weight for that nutrient appended with a “g” for grams or “mg” for milligrams.
(ii) A listing of the percent of the DRV as established in paragraphs (c)(7)(iii) and (c)(9) of this section shall be given in a column aligned under the heading “% Daily Value” established in paragraph (d)(6) of this section with the percent expressed to the nearest whole percent for each nutrient declared in the column described in paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section for which a DRV has been established, except that the percent for protein may be omitted as provided in paragraph (c)(7) of this section. The percent shall be calculated by dividing either the amount declared on the label for each nutrient or the actual amount of each nutrient (i.e., before rounding) by the DRV for the nutrient, except that the percent for protein shall be calculated as specified in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section. The numerical value shall be followed by the symbol for percent (i.e., %).
(8) Nutrient information for vitamins and minerals shall be separated from information on other nutrients by a bar and shall be arrayed horizontally (e.g., Vitamin A 4%, Vitamin C 2%, Calcium 15%, Iron 4%) or may be listed in two columns, except that when more than four vitamins and minerals are declared, they may be declared vertically with percentages listed under the column headed “% Daily Value.”
(9) A footnote, preceded by an asterisk, shall be placed beneath the list of vitamins and minerals and shall be separated from that list by a hairline.
(i) The footnote shall state: Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Calories 2,000 2,500
Total fat Less than 65 g 80 g
Saturated fat Less than 20 g 25 g
Cholesterol Less than 300 mg 300 mg
Sodium Less than 2400 mg 2400 mg
Total carbohydrate 300 g 375 g
Dietary fiber 25 g 30 g
(ii) If the percent of Daily Value is given for protein in the Percent of Daily Value column as provided in paragraph (d)(7)(ii) of this section, protein shall be listed under dietary fiber, and a value of 50 g shall be inserted on the same line in the column headed “2,000” and value of 65 g in the column headed “2,500.”
(iii) If potassium is declared in the column described in paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section, potassium shall be listed under sodium and the DRV established in paragraph (c)(9) of this section shall be inserted on the same line in the numeric columns.
(iv) The abbreviations established in paragraph (g)(2) of this section may be used within the footnote.
(10) Caloric conversion information on a per-gram basis for fat, carbohydrate, and protein may be presented beneath the information required in paragraph (d)(9), separated from that information by a hairline. This information may be presented horizontally (i.e., “Calories per gram: Fat 9, Carbohydrate 4, Protein 4”) or vertically in columns.
(11)
(i) If the space beneath the information on vitamins and minerals is not adequate to accommodate the information required in paragraph (d)(9) of this section, the information required in paragraph (d)(9) may be moved to the right of the column required in paragraph (d)(7)(ii) of this section and set off by a line that distinguishes it and sets it apart from the percent of Daily Value information. The caloric conversion information provided for in paragraph (d)(10) of this section may be presented beneath either side or along the full length of the nutrition label.
(ii) If the space beneath the mandatory declaration of iron is not adequate to accommodate any remaining vitamins and minerals to be declared or the information required in paragraph (d)(9) of this section, the remaining information may be moved to the right and set off by a line that distinguishes it and sets it apart from the percent of Daily Value information given to the left. The caloric conversion information provided for in paragraph (d)(10) of this section may be presented beneath either side or along the full length of the nutrition label.
(iii) If there is not sufficient continuous vertical space (i.e., approximately 3 inches) to accommodate the required components of the nutrition label up to and including the mandatory declaration of iron, the nutrition label may be presented in a tabular display in which the footnote required by paragraph (d)(9) of the section is given to the far right of the label, and additional vitamins and minerals beyond the four that are required (i.e., vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron) are arrayed horizontally following declarations of the required vitamins and minerals.
(12) The following sample label illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section:
(13)
(i) Nutrition labeling on the outer label of packages of poultry products that contain two or more products in the same packages (e.g., variety packs) or of packages that are used interchangeably for the same type of food (e.g., poultry salad containers) may use an aggregate display.
(ii) Aggregate displays shall comply with format requirements of paragraph (d) of this section to the maximum extent possible, except that the identity of each food shall be specified to the right of the “Nutrition Facts” title, and both the quantitative amount by weight (i.e., g/mg amounts) and the percent Daily Value for each nutrient shall be listed in separate columns under the name of each food.
(14) When nutrition labeling appears in a second language, the nutrition information may be presented in a separate nutrition label for each language or in one nutrition label with the information in the second language following that in English. Numeric characters that are identical in both languages need not be repeated (e.g., “Protein/Proteinas 2 g”). All required information must be included in both languages.
(e) Nutrition information may be presented for two or more forms of the same product (e.g., both “raw” and “cooked”) or for common combinations of foods as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, or for different units (e.g., per 100 grams) as provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, or for two or more groups for which RDI's are established (e.g., both infants and children less than 4 years of age) as provided for in paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section. When such dual labeling is provided, equal prominence shall be given to both sets of values. Information shall be presented in a format consistent with paragraph (d) of this section, except that:
(1) Following the subheading of “Amount Per Serving,” there shall be two or more column headings accurately describing the forms of the same product (e.g., “raw” and “roasted”), the combinations of foods, the units, or the RDI groups that are being declared. The column representing the product as packaged and according to the label serving size based on the Reference Amount in § 381.412(b) shall be to the left of the numeric columns.
(2) When the dual labeling is presented for two or more forms of the same product, for combinations of foods, or for different units, total calories and calories from fat (and calories from saturated fat, when declared) shall be listed in a column and indented as specified in paragraph (d)(5) of this section with quantitative amounts declared in columns aligned under the column headings set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
(3) Quantitative information by weight required in paragraph (d)(7)(i) of this section shall be specified for the form of the product as packaged, but may be on the basis of 'as consumed' for single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, and according to the label serving size based on the Reference Amount in § 381.412(b).
(i) Quantitative information by weight may be included for other forms of the product represented by the additional column(s) either immediately adjacent to the required quantitative information by weight for the product as packaged, but may be on the basis of 'as consumed' for single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, and according to the label serving size based on the Reference Amount in § 381.412(b) or as a footnote.
(A) If such additional quantitative information is given immediately adjacent to the required quantitative information, it shall be declared for all nutrients listed and placed immediately following and differentiated from the required quantitative information (e.g., separated by a comma). Such information shall not be put in a separate column.
(B) If such additional quantitative information is given in a footnote, it shall be declared in the same order as the nutrients are listed in the nutrition label. The additional quantitative information may state the total nutrient content of the product identified in the second column or the nutrient amounts added to the product as packaged, but may be on the basis of 'as consumed' for single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, for only those nutrients that are present in different amounts than the amounts declared in the required quantitative information. The footnote shall clearly identify which amounts are declared. Any subcomponents declared shall be listed parenthetically after principal components (e.g., 1/2 cup skim milk contributes an additional 40 calories, 65 mg sodium, 6 g total carbohydrate (6 g sugars), and 4 g protein).
(ii) Total fat and its quantitative amount by weight shall be followed by an asterisk (or other symbol) (e.g., “Total fat (2 g)*”) referring to another asterisk (or symbol) at the bottom of the nutrition label identifying the form(s) of the product for which quantitative information is presented.
(4) Information required in paragraphs (d)(7)(ii) and (d)(8) of this section shall be presented under the subheading “% DAILY VALUE” and in columns directly under the column headings set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
(5) The following sample label illustrates the provisions of paragraph (e) of this section:
(f)
(1) Nutrition information may be presented in a simplified format as set forth herein when any required nutrients, other than the core nutrients (i.e., calories, total fat, sodium, total carbohydrate, and protein), are present in insignificant amounts. An insignificant amount shall be defined as that amount that may be rounded to zero in nutrition labeling, except that for total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars and protein, it shall be an amount less than 1 gram.
(2) The simplified format shall include information on the following nutrients:
(i) Total calories, total fat, total carbohydrate, sodium, and protein;
(ii) Any of the following that are present in more than insignificant amounts: Calories from fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, sugars, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron; and
(iii) Any vitamins and minerals listed in paragraph (c)(8)(iv) of this section when they are added in fortified or fabricated foods.
(3) Other nutrients that are naturally present in the product in more than insignificant amounts may be voluntarily declared as part of the simplified format.
(4) Any required nutrient, other than a core nutrient, that is present in an insignificant amount may be omitted from the tabular listing, provided that the following statement is included at the bottom of the nutrition label, “Not a significant source of ____.” The blank shall be filled in with the appropriate nutrient or food component. Alternatively, amounts of vitamins and minerals present in insignificant amounts may be declared by the use of an asterisk (or symbol) that is placed at the bottom of the table of nutrient values and that is followed by the statement “Contains less than 2 percent of the Daily Value of this (these) nutrient (nutrients).”
(5) Except as provided for in paragraph (g) of this section and in § 381.500(c) and (d), nutrient information declared in the simplified format shall be presented in the same manner as specified in paragraphs (d) or (e) of this section, except that the footnote required in paragraph (d)(9) of this section is not required. When the footnote is omitted, an asterisk shall be placed at the bottom of the label followed by the statement “Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet” and, if the term “Daily Value” is not spelled out in the heading, a statement that “DV” represents “Daily Value.”
(g) Foods in packages that have a total surface area available to bear labeling of 40 or less square inches may modify the requirements of paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section and § 381.402(a) by one or more of the following means:
(1)
(i) Presenting the required nutrition information in a tabular or linear (i.e., string) fashion, rather than in vertical columns if the product has a total surface area available to bear labeling of less than 12 square inches, or if the product has a total surface area available to bear labeling of 40 or less square inches and the package shape or size cannot accommodate a standard vertical column or tabular display on any label panel. Nutrition information may be given in a linear fashion only if the package shape or size will not accommodate a tabular display.
(ii) When nutrition information is given in a linear display, the nutrition information shall be set off in a box by the use of a hairline. The percent Daily Value is separated from the quantitative amount declaration by the use of parenthesis, and all nutrients, both principal components and subcomponents, are treated similarly. Bolding is required only on the title “Nutrition Facts” and is allowed for nutrient names for “Calories,” “Total fat,” “Cholesterol,” “Sodium,” “Total carbohydrate,” and “Protein.”
(2) Using any of the following abbreviations:
Serving size—Serv size
Servings per container—Servings
Calories from fat—Fat cal
Calories from saturated fat—Sat fat cal
Saturated fat—Sat fat
Monounsaturated fat—Monounsat fat
Polyunsaturated fat—Polyunsat fat
Cholesterol—Cholest
Total carbohydrate—Total carb
Dietary fiber—Fiber
Soluble fiber—Sol fiber
Insoluble fiber—Insol fiber
Sugar alcohol—Sugar alc
Other carbohydrate—Other carb
(3) Omitting the footnote required in paragraph (d)(9) of this section and placing another asterisk at the bottom of the label followed by the statement “Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet” and, if the term “Daily Value” is not spelled out in the heading, a statement that “DV” represents “Daily Value.”
(4) Presenting the required information on any other label panel.
(h) Compliance with this section shall be determined as follows:
(1) A production lot is a set of food production consumer units that are from one production shift. Alternatively, a collection of consumer units of the same size, type, and style produced under conditions as nearly uniform as possible, designated by a common container code or marking, constitutes a production lot.
(2) The sample for nutrient analysis shall consist of a composite of a minimum of six consumer units, each from a production lot. Alternatively, the sample for nutrient analysis shall consist of a composite of a minimum of six consumer units, each randomly chosen to be representative of a production lot. In each case, the units may be individually analyzed and the results of the analyses averaged, or the units would be composited and the composite analyzed. In both cases, the results, whether an average or a single result from a composite, will be considered by the Agency to be the nutrient content of a composite. All analyses shall be performed by appropriate methods and procedures used by the Department for each nutrient in accordance with the “Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook,” or, if no USDA method is available and appropriate for the nutrient, by appropriate methods for the nutrient in accordance with the 1990 edition of the “Official Methods of Analysis” of the AOAC International, formerly Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed., which is incorporated by reference, unless a particular method of analysis is specified in § 381.409(c), or, if no USDA, AOAC, or specified method is available and appropriate, by other reliable and appropriate analytical procedures as so determined by the Agency. The “Official Methods of Analysis” is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval. This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be purchased from the AOAC International, 2200 Wilson Blvd., Suite 400, Arlington, VA 22201. It is also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(3) Two classes of nutrients are defined for purposes of compliance:
(i) Class I. Added nutrients in fortified or fabricated foods; and
(ii) Class II. Naturally occurring (indigenous) nutrients. If any ingredient which contains a naturally occurring (indigenous) nutrient is added to a food, the total amount of such nutrient in the final food product is subject to Class II requirements unless the same nutrient is also added, which would make the total amount of such nutrient subject to Class I requirements.
(4) A product with a label declaration of a vitamin, mineral, protein, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, other carbohydrate, polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat, or potassium shall be deemed to be misbranded under section 4(h) of the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 453(h)(4)) unless it meets the following requirements:
(i) Class I vitamin, mineral, protein, dietary fiber, or potassium. The nutrient content of the composite is at least equal to the value for that nutrient declared on the label.
(ii) Class II vitamin, mineral, protein, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, other carbohydrate, polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat, or potassium. The nutrient content of the composite is at least equal to 80 percent of the value for that nutrient declared on the label; Provided, That no regulatory action will be based on a determination of a nutrient value which falls below this level by an amount less than the variability generally recognized for the analytical method used in that product at the level involved, and inherent nutrient variation in a product.
(5) A product with a label declaration of calories, sugars, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium shall be deemed to be misbranded under section 4(h) of the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 453(h)(4)) if the nutrient content of the composite is greater than 20 percent in excess of the value for that nutrient declared on the label; Provided, That no regulatory action will be based on a determination of a nutrient value which falls above this level by an amount less than the variability generally recognized for the analytical method used in that product at the level involved, and inherent nutrient variation in a product.
(6) The amount of a vitamin, mineral, protein, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, other carbohydrate, polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat, or potassium may vary over labeled amounts within good manufacturing practice. The amount of calories, sugars, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium may vary under labeled amounts within good manufacturing practice.
(7) Compliance will be based on the metric measure specified in the label statement of serving size.
(8) The management of the establishment must maintain records to support the validity of nutrient declarations contained on product labels. Such records shall be made available to the inspector or any duly authorized representative of the Agency upon request.
(9) The compliance provisions set forth in paragraph (h)(1) through (8) of this section shall not apply to single-ingredient, raw poultry products that are not ground or chopped poultry products described in § 381.401, including those that have been previously frozen, when nutrition labeling is based on the most current representative data base values contained in USDA's National Nutrient Data Bank or its released form, the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, as provided in § 381.445(e) and (f).
(Paperwork requirements were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0583-0088.)
[58 FR 675, Jan. 6, 1993; 58 FR 43788, Aug. 18, 1993, as amended at 58 FR 47628, Sept. 10, 1993; 59 FR 45196, Sept. 1, 1994; 60 FR 197, Jan. 3, 1995; 60 FR 10304, Feb. 24, 1995; 69 FR 58802, Oct. 1, 2004; 75 FR 82166, Dec. 29, 2010]

Title 9 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 9.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-12-01; vol. 79 # 230 - Monday, December 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 71007 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Food Safety and Inspection Service
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective December 1, 2014. Comments on this final rule must be received on or before December 31, 2014.
      9 CFR Parts 317 and 381

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 7 - AGRICULTURE
U.S. Code: Title 21 - FOOD AND DRUGS

§ 451 - Congressional statement of findings

§ 452 - Congressional declaration of policy

§ 453 - Definitions

§ 454 - Federal and State cooperation in development and administration of State poultry product inspection programs

§ 455 - Inspection in official establishments

§ 456 - Operation of premises, facilities and equipment

§ 457 - Labeling and container standards

§ 458 - Prohibited acts

§ 459 - Compliance by all establishments

§ 460 - Miscellaneous activities subject to regulation

§ 461 - Offenses and punishment

§ 462 - Reporting of violations; notice; opportunity to present views

§ 463 - Rules and regulations

§ 464 - Exemptions

§ 465 - Limitations upon entry of poultry products and other materials into official establishments

§ 466 - Imports

§ 467 - Inspection services

§ 467a - Administrative detention; duration; pending judicial proceedings; notification of government authorities; release; removal of official marks

§ 467b - Seizure and condemnation

§ 467c - Federal court jurisdiction of enforcement and injunction proceedings and other kinds of cases; limitations; United States as plaintiff; subpenas

§ 467d - Administration and enforcement; applicability of penalty provisions; conduct of inquiries; power and jurisdiction of courts

§ 467e - Non-Federal jurisdiction of federally regulated matters; prohibition of additional or different requirements for establishments...purposes of adulterated or misbranded and imported articles; other matters

§ 467f - Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act applications

§ 468 - Cost of inspection; overtime

§ 469 - Authorization of appropriations

§ 470 - Omitted

Title 9 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 9 CFR 381 after this date.

  • 2014-12-01; vol. 79 # 230 - Monday, December 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 71007 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Food Safety and Inspection Service
      Final rule.
      This rule is effective December 1, 2014. Comments on this final rule must be received on or before December 31, 2014.
      9 CFR Parts 317 and 381