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§ 6-500. Short Form Citations [BB|ALWD]

Principle: Once a full citation to a case, statute, regulation, book or journal article has been provided, subsequent references within the same discussion can be less complete. The less complete or "short form" citation must clearly identify the referenced work. Short form citations should only be used where the reader will find it easy to return to the full citation.

Short form examples:

Cases Constitutions and Statutes Regulations Books Journal Articles

§ 6-520. Short Form Citations - Cases

Full Citation

Brown v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 193, 203 (1934).

Short Form Citations

Brown, 291 U.S. at 203.

291 U.S. at 203.

Id. at 203.

The short form should include an identifiable portion of the case name unless it appears in the passage supported by the citation.


Full Citation

Opticians Ass'n of Am. v. Ind. Opticians of Am., 920 F.2d 187 (3d Cir. 1990).

Short Form Citation

Opticians Ass'n, 920 F.2d at 187.


Full Citation

United States v. Wilson, 503 U.S. 329 (1992).

Short Form Citation

Wilson, 503 U.S. at 334-36.

not:

United States, 503 U.S. at 334-36

Do NOT use the name of a governmental or other common litigant as the short form name.


Full Citation

Hansen v. Ohio Cas. Ins. Co., 239 Conn. 549, 687 A.2d 1262 (1995).

Short Form Citation

Hansen, 239 Conn. at 551, 687 A.2d at 1269.

239 Conn. at 551, 687 A.2d at 1269.

Id. at 551, 687 A.2d at 1269.

In cases of parallel citation include both in the short form.

§ 6-530. Short Form Citations - Constitutions and Statutes

Full Citation

U.S. Const. art. III, § 2, cl. 2.

Short Form Citation

Id.


Full Citation

Narcotics Penalties and Enforcement Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-570, § 1002, 100 Stat. 3207-2 (1986).

Short Form Citations

§ 1002.

Narcotics Penalties and Enforcement Act § 1002.

§ 1002, 100 Stat. 3207-2.


Full Citation

42 U.S.C. § 405(c)(2)(C) (2013).

Short Form Citations

42 U.S.C. § 405(c)(2)(C).

§ 405(c)(2)(C).


Full Citation

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 9A, § 1-101 (2012).

Short Form Citations

Title 9A, § 1-101.

§ 1-101.


Full Citation

H.R. 3957, 101st Cong., 2d Sess. 2 (1990).

Short Form Citation

H.R. 3957.

§ 6-540. Short Form Citations - Regulations

Full Citation

46 C.F.R. § 292 (2012).

Short Form Citations

46 C.F.R. § 292.

§ 292.


Full Citation

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection, 57 Fed. Reg. 26,609 (1992).

Short Form Citation

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, 57 Fed. Reg. 26,609.

§ 6-550. Short Form Citations - Books

Full Citation

E. Allen Farnsworth, Contracts § 9.3 (1982).

Short Form Citations

Id.

Id. § 9.4.

Use supra if not referring to the immediately preceding authority.


Full Citation

Henry Julian Abraham, Justices, Presidents and Senators 390-95 (5th ed. 2008).

Short Form Citations

Abraham, supra.

Abraham, supra at 390.

Use id. if the authority is the same as the immediately preceding authority. Use supra if not referring to the immediately preceding authority.

§ 6-560. Short Form Citations - Journal Articles

Full Citation

Stephen J. Legatzke, Note, The Equitable Recoupment Doctrine in United States v. Dalm: Where's the Equity, 10 Va. Tax Rev. 861 (1991).

Short Form Citations

Id.

Id. at 862.

Legatzke, supra.

Legatzke, supra at 862.

Use id. if the authority is the same as the immediately preceding authority. Use supra if not referring to the immediately preceding authority.

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