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End-of-life notice: American Legal Ethics Library

As of March 1, 2013, the Legal Information Institute is no longer maintaining the information in the American Legal Ethics Library. It is no longer possible for us to maintain it at a level of completeness and accuracy given its staffing needs. It is very possible that we will revive it at a future time. At this point, it is in need of a complete technological renovation and reworking of the "correspondent firm" model which successfully sustained it for many years.

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Ohio Rules of Professional Conduct

Comment - 1.10

Definition of “Firm”

[1] For purposes of the Ohio Rules of Professional Conduct, the term “firm” denotes lawyers associated in a law partnership, professional corporation, sole proprietorship, or other association authorized to practice law; or lawyers employed in a legal services organization or the legal department of a corporation or other organization. See Rule 1.0(c). Whether two or more lawyers constitute a firm within this definition can depend on the specific facts. See Rule 1.0, Comments [2] - [4A].

Principles of Imputed Disqualification

[2] The rule of imputed disqualification stated in division (a) gives effect to the principle of loyalty to the client as it applies to lawyers who practice in a law firm. Such situations can be considered from the premise that a firm of lawyers is essentially one lawyer for purposes of the rules governing loyalty to the client, or from the premise that each lawyer is vicariously bound by the obligation of loyalty owed by each lawyer with whom the lawyer is associated. Division (a) operates only among the lawyers currently associated in a firm. When a lawyer moves from one firm to another, imputation of that lawyer’s conflict to the lawyers remaining in the firm is governed by Rules 1.9(b) and 1.10(b).

[3] The rule in division (a) does not prohibit representation where neither questions of client loyalty nor protection of confidential information are presented. Where the usual concerns justifying imputation are not present, the rule eliminates imputation in the case of conflicts between the interests of a client and a lawyer’s own personal interest. Note that the specific personal conflicts governed by Rule 1.8 are imputed to the firm by Rule 1.8(k). Where one lawyer in a firm could not effectively represent a given client because of strong political beliefs, for example, but that lawyer will do no work on the case and the personal beliefs of the lawyer will not materially limit the representation by others in the firm, the firm should not be disqualified. On the other hand, if an opposing party in a case were owned by a lawyer in the law firm, and others in the firm would be materially limited in pursuing the matter because of loyalty to that lawyer, the personal disqualification of the lawyer would be imputed to all others in the firm.

[4] The rule in division (a) also does not prohibit representation by others in the law firm where the person prohibited from involvement in a matter is a nonlawyer, such as a paralegal or legal secretary. Nor does division (a) prohibit representation if the lawyer is prohibited from acting because of events before the person became a lawyer, for example, work that the person did while a law student. Such persons, however, ordinarily must be screened from any personal participation in the matter to avoid communication to others in the firm of confidential information that both the nonlawyers and the firm have a legal duty to protect. See Rules 1.0(l) and 5.3.

[5] Rule 1.10(b) prohibits lawyers in a law firm from representing a person with interests directly adverse to those of a client represented by a lawyer who formerly was associated with the firm where the matter is the same or substantially related to that in which the formerly associated lawyer represented the client or any other lawyer currently in the firm has material information protected by Rule 1.6 or 1.9(c). “Substantially related matter” is defined in Rule 1.0(n), and examples are given in Rule 1.9, Comment [3].

Removing Imputation

[5A] Divisions (c) and (d) address imputation to lawyers in a new firm when a personally disqualified lawyer moves from one law firm to another. Division (c) imputes the conflict of a lawyer who has had substantial responsibility in a matter to all lawyers in a law firm to which the lawyer moves and prohibits the new law firm from assuming or continuing the representation of a client in the same matter if the client’s interests are materially adverse to those of the former client. Division (d) provides for removal of imputation of a former client conflict of one lawyer to a new firm in all other instances in which a personally disqualified lawyer moves from one firm to another, provided that the personally disqualified lawyer is properly screened from participation in the matter and the former client or client’s counsel is given notice.

[5B] Screening is not effective to avoid imputed disqualification of other lawyers in the firm if the personally disqualified lawyer had substantial responsibility for representing the former client in the same matter in which the lawyer’s new firm represents an adversary of the former client. A lawyer who was sole or lead counsel for a former client in a matter had substantial responsibility for the matter. Determining whether a lawyer’s role in representing the former client was substantial in other circumstances involves consideration of such factors as the lawyer’s level of responsibility in the matter, the duration of the lawyer’s participation, the extent to which the lawyer advised or had personal contact with the former client and the former client’s personnel, and the extent to which the lawyer was exposed to confidential information of the former client likely to be material in the matter.

[5C] Requirements for effective screening procedures are stated in Rule 1.0(l). Division (d) does not prohibit the screened lawyer from receiving compensation established by prior independent agreement, but that lawyer may not receive compensation directly related to the matter in which the lawyer is disqualified.

[5D] Notice of the screened lawyer’s prior representation and that screening procedures have been employed, generally should be given as soon as practicable after the need for screening becomes apparent. When disclosure is likely to significantly injure the current client, a reasonable delay may be justified.

[5E] Screening will not remove imputation where screening is not timely undertaken, or where the circumstances provide insufficient assurance that confidential information known by the personally disqualified lawyer will remain protected. Factors to be considered in deciding whether an effective screen has been created are the size and structure of the firm, the likelihood of contact between the disqualified lawyer and lawyers involved in the current representation, and the existence of safeguards or procedures that prevent the disqualified lawyer from access to information relevant to the current representation.

[6] Rule 1.10(e) removes imputation with the informed consent of the affected client or former client under the conditions stated in Rule 1.7. The conditions stated in Rule 1.7 require the lawyer to determine that the lawyer can represent all affected clients competently, diligently, and loyally, that the representation is not prohibited by Rule 1.7(c), and that each affected client or former client has given informed consent to the representation, confirmed in writing. In some cases, the risk may be so severe that the conflict may not be cured by client consent. For a discussion of the effectiveness of client waivers of conflicts that might arise in the future, see Rule 1.7, Comment [33]. For a definition of informed consent, see Rule 1.0(f).

[7] Where a lawyer has joined a private firm after having represented the government, imputation is governed by Rule 1.11(b) and (c), not this rule. Under Rule 1.11(d), where a lawyer represents the government after having served clients in private practice, nongovernmental employment or in another government agency, former-client conflicts are not imputed to government lawyers associated with the individually disqualified lawyer.

[8] Where a lawyer is prohibited from engaging in certain transactions under Rule 1.8, division (k) of that rule, and not this rule, determines whether that prohibition also applies to other lawyers associated in a firm with the personally prohibited lawyer.

Comparison to former Ohio Code of Professional Responsibility

Rule 1.10 governs imputed conflicts of interest and replaces Ohio DR 5-105(D), which imputes the conflict of any lawyer in the firm to all others in the firm. Rule 1.10(a) embodies this rule. The text of DR 5-105(D) lacks clarity about whether its provisions extended to all conflicts, including personal conflicts. Rule 1.10(a) imputes all conflicts, except personal conflicts that are not likely to affect adversely the representation of a client by other lawyers in the firm. Rule 1.10(b) clarifies that imputation generally ends when the personally disqualified lawyer leaves the firm, unless the firm proposes to represent a client in the same or substantially related case or another lawyer in the firm has confidential information about the former client.

Divisions (c) and (d) are added to codify the rule in Kala v. Aluminum Smelting & Refining Co., Inc. (1998), 81 Ohio St.3d 1, where the Supreme Court allowed law firm screens in some cases when personally disqualified lawyers change law firms. Rule 1.10(c) is consistent with the holding in Kala that imputes to a new firm the disqualification of a lawyer who had substantial responsibility for a matter and prevents any lawyer in that firm from representing, in that matter, a client whose interests are materially adverse to the former client. Consistent with the syllabus in Kala, Rule 1.10(d) allows the presumption of shared confidences within the new firm to be rebutted by effective screening when a personally disqualified lawyer did not have substantial responsibility in the matter or the new firm is asked to represent a client in a different matter.

Comparison to ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct

Rule 1.10 corresponds to the Model Rule, with the addition of divisions (c) and (d), which separately address the issue of imputation and removing imputation to lawyers in a new firm when a lawyer changes law firms and no longer represents a former client. Rule 1.10(b) is stated in the form of a disciplinary rule. Rule 1.10 (d) permits the use of law firm screens to remove imputation, consistent with Kala, except in the circumstances stated in Rule 1.10(c)—that is where a lawyer who is changing firms had a substantial role in the same matter in which the lawyer’s new firm represents or proposes to represent a client with adverse interests. Comments [5A] to [5E] explain Rules 1.10(c) and (d), including a cross-reference to Rule 1.0(l), which defines the requirements for proper screening procedures. Comments [5A] and [5B] are added to explain the Kala rule. Comments [5C] and [5D] are based on the original ABA Ethics 2000 proposal. Comment [5E] is based on Kala.