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End-of-life notice: American Legal Ethics Library

As of March 1, 2013, the Legal Information Institute is no longer maintaining the information in the American Legal Ethics Library. It is no longer possible for us to maintain it at a level of completeness and accuracy given its staffing needs. It is very possible that we will revive it at a future time. At this point, it is in need of a complete technological renovation and reworking of the "correspondent firm" model which successfully sustained it for many years.

Many people have contributed time and effort to the project over the years, and we would like to thank them. In particular, Roger Cramton and Peter Martin not only conceived ALEL but gave much of their own labor to it. We are also grateful to Brad Wendel for his editorial contributions, to Brian Toohey and all at Jones Day for their efforts, and to all of our correspondents and contributors. Thank you.

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Some portions of the collection may already be severely out of date, so please be cautious in your use of this material.


Ohio Rules of Professional Conduct

Comment - 1.3

[1] A lawyer should pursue a matter on behalf of a client despite opposition, obstruction, or personal inconvenience to the lawyer. A lawyer also must act with commitment and dedication to the interests of the client.

[2] A lawyer must control the lawyer’s work load so that each matter can be handled competently.

[3] Delay and neglect are inconsistent with a lawyer’s duty of diligence, undermine public confidence, and may prejudice a client’s cause. Reasonable diligence and promptness are expected of a lawyer in handling all client matters and will be evaluated in light of all relevant circumstances. The lawyer disciplinary process is particularly concerned with lawyers who consistently fail to carry out obligations to clients or consciously disregard a duty owed to a client.

[4] A lawyer should carry through to conclusion all matters undertaken for a client, unless the client-lawyer relationship is terminated as provided in Rule 1.16. Doubt about whether a client-lawyer relationship still exists should be clarified by the lawyer, preferably in writing, so that the client will not mistakenly suppose the lawyer is looking after the client’s affairs when the lawyer has ceased to do so. For example, if a lawyer has handled a judicial or administrative proceeding that produced a result adverse to the client and the lawyer and the client have not agreed that the lawyer will handle the matter on appeal, the lawyer must consult with the client about post-trial alternatives including the possibility of appeal before relinquishing responsibility for the matter. See Rule 1.4(a)(2). Whether the lawyer is obligated to pursue those alternatives or prosecute the appeal for the client depends on the scope of the representation the lawyer has agreed to provide to the client. See Rules 1.2(c) and 1.5(b).

[5] To prevent neglect of client matters in the event of a sole practitioner’s death or disability, the duty of diligence may require that each sole practitioner prepare a plan, in conformity with applicable rules, that designates another competent lawyer to review client files, notify each client of the lawyer’s death or disability, and determine whether there is a need for immediate protective action. Cf. Rule V, Section 8(F) of the Supreme Court Rules for the Government of the Bar of Ohio.

Comparison to former Ohio Code of Professional Responsibility

Rule 1.3 replaces both DR 6-101(A)(3) (a lawyer shall not neglect a legal matter entrusted to him) and DR 7-101(A)(1) (with limited exceptions, a lawyer shall not fail to seek the lawful objectives of his client through reasonably available means permitted by law and the disciplinary rules).

Neither Model Rule 1.3 nor any of the Model Rules on advocacy states a duty of “zealous representation.” The reference to acting “with zeal in advocacy” is deleted from Comment [1] because “zeal” is often invoked as an excuse for unprofessional behavior. Despite the title of Canon 7 of the Ohio Code of Professional Responsibility and the content of EC 7-1, no disciplinary rule requires “zealous” advocacy. Moreover, the disciplinary rules recognize that courtesy and punctuality are not inconsistent with diligent representation [DR 6-101(A)(3)], that a lawyer, where permissible, may exercise discretion to waive or fail to assert a right or position [DR 7-101(B)(1)], and that a lawyer may refuse to aid or participate in conduct the lawyer believes to be unlawful, even though there is some support for an argument that it is lawful [DR 7-101(B)(2)].

Comparison to ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct

There is no change to the text of Model Rule 1.3.

The reference in Comment [1] to a lawyer’s use of “whatever lawful and ethical measures are required to vindicate a client’s cause or endeavor” and the last three sentences of the comment have been stricken. The choice of means to accomplish the objectives of the representation are governed by the lawyer’s professional discretion, and the lawyer’s duty to communicate with the client, as specified in Rules 1.2(a) and 1.4(a)(2).

The reference to a lawyer’s duty to act “with zeal in advocacy upon the client’s behalf” also is deleted. Zealous advocacy is often invoked as an excuse for unprofessional behavior.

Comment [3] is revised to state more concisely the consequences of lawyer delay and neglect in handling a client matter and explain when charges of neglect are likely to be the subject of professional discipline.

The first sentence of Comment [4] is reworded and the balance of that sentence and the second sentence are deleted. The content of the deleted language is addressed in Rule 1.2.

Comment [5] is revised to refer to Gov. Bar R. V, Section 8(F). That rule authorizes Disciplinary Counsel or the chair of a certified grievance committee to appoint a lawyer to inventory client files and protect the interests of clients when a lawyer does not or cannot (because of suspension or death) attend to clients and no partner, executor, or other responsible party capable of conducting the lawyer's practice is available and willing to assume responsibility.