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DEFINITION OF EMPLOYMENT

SEC. 210. [42 U.S.C. 410] For the purposes of this title—

Employment

(a) The term “employment” means any service performed after 1936 and prior to 1951 which was employment for the purposes of this title under the law applicable to the period in which such service was performed, and any service, of whatever nature, performed after 1950 (A) by an employee for the person employing him, irrespective of the citizenship or residence of either, (i) within the United States, or (ii) on or in connection with an American vessel or American aircraft under a contract of service which is entered into within the United States or during the performance of which and while the employee is employed on the vessel or aircraft it touches at a port in the United States, if the employee is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States, or (B) outside the United States by a citizen or resident of the United States as an employee (i) of an American employer (as defined in subsection (e) of this section), or (ii) of a foreign affiliate (as defined in section 3121(l)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[146] of an American employer during any period for which there is in effect an agreement, entered into pursuant to section 3121(l) of such Code, with respect to such affiliate, or (C) if it is service, regardless of where or by whom performed, which is designated as employment or recognized as equivalent to employment under an agreement entered into under section 233; except that, in the case of service performed after 1950, such term shall not include—

(1) Service performed by foreign agricultural workers lawfully admitted to the United States from the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the other British West Indies, or from any other foreign country or possession thereof, on a temporary basis to perform agricultural labor;
(2) Domestic service performed in a local college club, or local chapter of a college fraternity or sorority, by a student who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes at a school, college, or university;
(3)(A) Service performed by a child under the age of 18 in the employ of his father or mother;
(B) Service not in the course of the employer's trade or business, or domestic service in a private home of the employer, performed by an individual under the age of 21 in the employ of his father or mother, or performed by an individual in the employ of his spouse or son or daughter; except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to such domestic service performed by an individual in the employ of his son or daughter if—
(i) the employer is a surviving spouse or a divorced individual and has not remarried, or has a spouse living in the home who has a mental or physical condition which results in such spouse's being incapable of caring for a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered, and
(ii) a son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter of such employer is living in the home, and
(iii) the son, daughter, stepson, or stepdaughter (referred to in clause (ii)) has not attained age 18 or has a mental or physical condition which requires the personal care and supervision of an adult for at least 4 continuous weeks in the calendar quarter in which the service is rendered;
(4) Service performed by an individual on or in connection with a vessel not an American vessel, or on or in connection with an aircraft not an American aircraft, if (A) the individual is employed on and in connection with such vessel or aircraft when outside the United States and (B)(i) such individual is not a citizen of the United States or (ii) the employer is not an American employer;
(5) Service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States, if such service—
(A) would be excluded from the term “employment” for purposes of this title if the provisions of paragraphs (5) and (6) of this subsection as in effect in January 1983 had remained in effect, and
(B) is performed by an individual who—
(i) has been continuously performing service described in subparagraph (A) since December 31, 1983, and for purposes of this clause—
(I) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being separated therefrom for a period of less than 366 consecutive days, regardless of whether the period began before, on, or after December 31, 1983, then such service shall be considered continuous,
(II) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after being detailed or transferred to an international organization as described under section 3343 of subchapter III of chapter 33 of title 5, United States Code, or under section 3581 of chapter 35 of such title, then the service performed for that organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),
(III) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) is reemployed or reinstated after being separated from such service for the purpose of accepting employment with the American Institute of Taiwan as provided under section 3310 of chapter 48 of title 22, United States Code[147], then the service performed for that Institute shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A),
(IV) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after performing service as a member of a uniformed service (including, for purposes of this clause, service in the National Guard and temporary service in the Coast Guard Reserve) and after exercising restoration or reemployment rights as provided under chapter 43 of title 38, United States Code[148], then the service so performed as a member of a uniformed service shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A), and
(V) if an individual performing service described in subparagraph (A) returns to the performance of such service after employment (by a tribal organization) to which section 104(e)(2) of the Indian Self-Determination Act[149] applies, then the service performed for that tribal organization shall be considered service described in subparagraph (A); or
(ii) is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services);
except that this paragraph shall not apply with respect to any such service performed on or after any date on which such individual performs—
(C) service performed as the President or Vice President of the United States,
(D) service performed—
(i) in a position placed in the Executive Schedule under sections 5312 through 5317 of title 5, United States Code,
(ii) as a noncareer appointee in the Senior Executive Service or a noncareer member of the Senior Foreign Service, or
(iii) in a position to which the individual is appointed by the President (or his designee) or the Vice President under section 105(a)(1), 106(a)(1), or 107(a)(1) or (b)(1) of title 3, United States Code[150], if the maximum rate of basic pay for such position is at or above the rate for level V of the Executive Schedule,
(E) service performed as the Chief Justice of the United States, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a judge of a United States court of appeals, a judge of a United States district court (including the district court of a territory), a judge of the United States Claims Court, a judge of the United States Court of International Trade, a judge of the United States Tax Court, a United States magistrate, or a referee in bankruptcy or United States bankruptcy judge,
(F) service performed as a Member, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner of or to the Congress,
(G)[151] any other service in the legislative branch of the Federal Government if such service—
(i) is performed by an individual who was not subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code, or to another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), on December 31, 1983, or
(ii) is performed by an individual who has, at any time after December 31, 1983, received a lump-sum payment under section 8342(a) of title 5, United States Code, or under the corresponding provision of the law establishing the other retirement system described in clause (i), or
(iii) is performed by an individual after such individual has otherwise ceased to be subject to subchapter III of chapter 83 of title 5, United States Code (without having an application pending for coverage under such subchapter), while performing service in the legislative branch (determined without regard to the provisions of subparagraph (B) relating to continuity of employment), for any period of time after December 31, 1983,
and for purposes of this subparagraph (G) an individual is subject to such subchapter III or to any such other retirement system at any time only if (a) such individual's pay is subject to deductions, contributions, or similar payments (concurrent with the service being performed at that time) under section 8334(a) of such title 5 or the corresponding provision of the law establishing such other system, or (in a case to which section 8332(k)(1) of such title applies) such individual is making payments of amounts equivalent to such deductions, contributions, or similar payments while on leave without pay, or (b) such individual is receiving an annuity from the Civil Service Retirement and Disability Fund, or is receiving benefits (for service as an employee) under another retirement system established by a law of the United States for employees of the Federal Government (other than for members of the uniformed services), or
(H) service performed by an individual—
(i) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under section 301 of the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986[152], section 307 of the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement Act (50 U.S.C. 2157)[153], or the Federal Employees' Retirement System Open Enrollment Act of 1997 to become subject to the Federal Employees' Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code, or
(ii) on or after the effective date of an election by such individual, under regulations issued under section 860 of the Foreign Service Act of 1980[154], to become subject to the Foreign Service Pension System provided in subchapter II of chapter 8 of title I of such Act;
(6) Service performed in the employ of the United States or any instrumentality of the United States if such service is performed—
(A) in a penal institution of the United States by an inmate thereof;
(B) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5, United States Code (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the Federal Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training; or
(C) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(7) Service performed in the employ of a State, or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, except that this paragraph shall not apply in the case of—
(A) service included under an agreement under section 218,
(B) service which, under subsection (k), constitutes covered transportation service,
(C) service in the employ of the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, performed by an officer or employee thereof (including a member of the legislature of any such Government or political subdivision), and, for purposes of this title—
(i) any person whose service as such an officer or employee is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States shall not, with respect to such service, be regarded as an officer or employee of the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof, and
(ii) the remuneration for service described in clause (i) (including fees paid to a public official) shall be deemed to have been paid by the Government of Guam or the Government of American Samoa or by a political subdivision thereof or an instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, whichever is appropriate,
(D) service performed in the employ of the District of Columbia or any instrumentality which is wholly owned thereby, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of the United States (other than the Federal Employees Retirement System provided in chapter 84 of title 5, United States Code); except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed—
(i) in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(ii) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5, United States Code (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or as a medical or dental resident in training;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency; or
(iv) by a member of a board, committee, or council of the District of Columbia, paid on a per diem, meeting, or other fee basis,
(E) service performed in the employ of the Government of Guam (or any instrumentality which is wholly owned by such Government) by an employee properly classified as a temporary or intermittent employee, if such service is not covered by a retirement system established by a law of Guam; except that (i) the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to services performed by an elected official or a member of the legislature or in a hospital or penal institution by a patient or inmate thereof, and (ii) for purposes of this subparagraph, clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (C) shall apply, or
(F) service in the employ of a State (other than the District of Columbia, Guam, or American Samoa), of any political subdivision thereof, or of any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing which is wholly owned thereby, by an individual who is not a member of a retirement system of such State, political subdivision, or instrumentality, except that the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be applicable to service performed—
(i) by an individual who is employed to relieve such individual from unemployment;
(ii) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof;
(iii) by any individual as an employee serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood, or other similar emergency;
(iv) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 218(c)(8)(B) for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year; or
(v) by an employee in a position compensated solely on a fee basis which is treated pursuant to section 211(c)(2)(E) as a trade or business for purposes of inclusion of such fees in net earnings from self employment;
for purposes of this subparagraph, except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, the term “retirement system” has the meaning given such term by section 218(b)(4).
(8)(A) Service performed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to service performed by a member of such an order in the exercise of such duties, if an election of coverage under section 3121(r) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[155] is in effect with respect to such order, or with respect to the autonomous subdivision thereof to which such member belongs;
(B) Service performed in the employ of a church or qualified church-controlled organization if such church or organization has in effect an election under section 3121(w) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[156], other than service in an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513(a) of such Code);
(9) Service performed by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 3231 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[157];
(10) Service performed in the employ of—
(A) a school, college, or university, or
(B) an organization described in section 509(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[158] if the organization is organized, and at all times thereafter is operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of a school, college, or university and is operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with such school, college, or university, unless it is a school, college, or university of a State or a political subdivision thereof and the services in its employ performed by a student referred to in section 218(c)(5) are covered under the agreement between the Commissioner of Social Security and such State entered into pursuant to section 218;
if such service is performed by a student who is enrolled and regularly attending classes at such school, college, or university;
(11) Service performed in the employ of a foreign government (including service as a consular or other officer or employee or a nondiplomatic representative);
(12) Service performed in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government—
(A) If the service is of a character similar to that performed in foreign countries by employees of the United States Government or of an instrumentality thereof; and
(B) If the Secretary of State shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury that the foreign government, with respect to whose instrumentality and employees thereof exemption is claimed, grants an equivalent exemption with respect to similar service performed in the foreign country by employees of the United States Government and of instrumentalities thereof;
(13) Service performed as a student nurse in the employ of a hospital or a nurses' training school by an individual who is enrolled and is regularly attending classes in a nurses' training school chartered or approved pursuant to State law;
(14)(A) Service performed by an individual under the age of eighteen in the delivery or distribution of newspapers or shopping news, not including delivery or distribution to any point for subsequent delivery or distribution;
(B) Service performed by an individual in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back;
(15) Service performed in the employ of an international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act[159] (59 Stat. 669), except service which constitutes “employment” under subsection (r);
(16) Service performed by an individual under an arrangement with the owner or tenant of land pursuant to which—
(A) such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land,
(B) the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such owner or tenant, and
(C) the amount of such individual's share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced;
(17) Service in the employ of any organization which is performed (A) in any year during any part of which such organization is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Subversive Activities Control Board requiring such organization to register, under the Internal Security Act of 1950[160], as amended, as a Communist-action organization, a Communist-front organization, or a Communist-infiltrated organization, and (B) after June 30, 1956;
(18) Service performed in Guam by a resident of the Republic of the Philippines while in Guam on a temporary basis as a nonimmigrant alien admitted to Guam pursuant to section 101(a)(15)(H)(ii) of the Immigration and Nationality Act[161] (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(ii));
(19) Service which is performed by a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, and which is performed to carry out the purpose specified in subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) as the case may be;
(20) Service (other than service described in paragraph (3)(A)) performed by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life under an arrangement with the owner or operator of such boat pursuant to which—
(A) such individual does not receive any additional compensation other than as provided in subparagraph (B) and other than case remuneration—
(i) which does not exceed $100 per trip;
(ii) which is contingent on a minimum catch; and
(iii) which is paid solely for additional duties (such as mate, engineer, or cook) for which additional cash remuneration is traditional in the industry,
(B) such individual receives a share of the boat's (or the boats' in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life or a share of the proceeds from the sale of such catch, and
(C) the amount of such individual's share depends on the amount of the boat's (or boats' in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) catch of fish or other forms of aquatic animal life,
but only if the operating crew of such boat (or each boat from which the individual receives a share in the case of a fishing operation involving more than one boat) is normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals; or
(21) Domestic service in a private home of the employer which—
(A) is performed in any year by an individual under the age of 18 during any portion of such year; and
(B) is not the principal occupation of such employee.
For purposes of paragraph (20), the operating crew of a boat shall be treated as normally made up of fewer than 10 individuals if the average size of the operating crew on trips made during the preceding 4 calendar quarters consisted of fewer than 10 individuals.

Included and Excluded Service

(b) If the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term “pay period” means a period (of not more than thirty-one consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by paragraph (9) of subsection (a).

American Vessel

(c) The term “American vessel” means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

American Aircraft

(d) The term “American aircraft” means an aircraft registered under the laws of the United States.

American Employer

(e) The term “American employer” means an employer which is (1) the United States or any instrumentality thereof, (2) a State or any political subdivision thereof, or any instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing, (3) an individual who is a resident of the United States, (4) a partnership, if two-thirds or more of the partners are residents of the United States, (5) a trust, if all of the trustees are residents of the United States, or (6) a corporation organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

Agricultural Labor

(f) The term “agricultural labor” includes all service performed—

(1) On a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife.
(2) In the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation, management, conservation, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm.
(3) In connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act[162], as amended, or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes.
(4)(A) In the employ of the operator of a farm in handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity; but only if such operator produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed.
(B) In the employ of a group of operators of farms (other than a cooperative organization) in the performance of service described in subparagraph (A), but only if such operators produced all of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed. For the purposes of this subparagraph, any unincorporated group of operators shall be deemed a cooperative organization if the number of operators comprising such group is more than twenty at any time during the calendar year in which such service is performed.
(5) On a farm operated for profit if such service is not in the course of the employer's trade or business[163].

The provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (4) shall not be deemed to be applicable with respect to service performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption.

Farm

(g) The term “farm” includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards.

State

(h) The term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

United States

(i) The term “United States” when used in a geographical sense means the States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

Employee

(j) The term “employee” means—

(1) any officer of a corporation; or
(2) any individual who, under the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship, has the status of an employee; or
(3) any individual (other than an individual who is an employee under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection) who performs services for remuneration for any person—
(A) as an agent-driver or commission-driver engaged in distributing meat products, vegetable products, fruit products, bakery products, beverages (other than milk), or laundry or dry-cleaning services, for his principal;
(B) as a full-time life insurance salesman;
(C) as a home worker performing work, according to specifications furnished by the person for whom the services are performed, on materials or goods furnished by such person which are required to be returned to such person or a person designated by him; or
(D) as a traveling or city salesman, other than as an agent-driver or commission-driver, engaged upon a full-time basis in the solicitation on behalf of, and the transmission to, his principal (except for side-line sales activities on behalf of some other person) of orders from wholesalers, retailers, contractors, or operators of hotels, restaurants, or other similar establishments for merchandise for resale or supplies for use in their business operations;
if the contract of service contemplates that substantially all of such services are to be performed personally by such individual; except that an individual shall not be included in the term “employee” under the provisions of this paragraph if such individual has a substantial investment in facilities used in connection with the performance of such services (other than in facilities for transportation), or if the services are in the nature of a single transaction not part of a continuing relationship with the person for whom the services are performed.

Covered Transportation Service

(k)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), all service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951.

(2) Service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision in connection with the operation of its public transportation system shall not constitute covered transportation service if—

(A) any part of the transportation system was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951, and substantially all service in connection with the operation of the transportation system is, on December 31, 1950, covered under a general retirement system providing benefits which, by reason of a provision of the State constitution dealing specifically with retirement systems of the State or political subdivisions thereof, cannot be diminished or impaired; or
(B) no part of the transportation system operated by the State or political subdivision on December 31, 1950, was acquired from private ownership after 1936 and prior to 1951;

except that if such State or political subdivision makes an acquisition after 1950 from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, then, in the case of any employee who—

(C) became an employee of such State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of its acquisition after 1950 of such part, and
(D) prior to such acquisition rendered service in employment in connection with the operation of such part of the transportation system acquired by the State or political subdivision,

the service of such employee in connection with the operation of the transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service, commencing with the first day of the third calendar quarter following the calendar quarter in which the acquisition of such part took place, unless on such first day such service of such employee is covered by a general retirement system which does not, with respect to such employee, contain special provisions applicable only to employees described in subparagraph (C).

(3) All service performed in the employ of a State or political subdivision thereof in connection with its operation of a public transportation system shall constitute covered transportation service if the transportation system was not operated by the State or political subdivision prior to 1951 and, at the time of its first acquisition (after 1950) from private ownership of any part of its transportation system, the State or political subdivision did not have a general retirement system covering substantially all service performed in connection with the operation of the transportation system.

(4) For the purposes of this subsection—

(A) The term “general retirement system” means any pension, annuity, retirement, or similar fund or system established by a State or by a political subdivision thereof for employees of the State, political subdivision, or both; but such term shall not include such a fund or system which covers only service performed in positions connected with the operation of its public transportation system.
(B) A transportation system or a part thereof shall be considered to have been acquired by a State or political subdivision from private ownership if prior to the acquisition service performed by employees in connection with the operation of the system or part thereof acquired constituted employment under this title, and some of such employees became employees of the State or political subdivision in connection with and at the time of such acquisition.
(C) The term “political subdivision” includes an instrumentality of (i) a State, (ii) one or more political subdivisions of a State, or (iii) a State and one or more of its political subdivisions.

Service in the Uniformed Services

(l)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (4), the term “employment” shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, include—

(A) service performed after December 1956 by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on active duty, but such term shall not include any such service which is performed while on leave without pay, and
(B) service performed after December 1987 by an individual as a member of a uniformed service on inactive duty training.

(2) The term “active duty” means “active duty” as described in paragraph (21) of section 101 of title 38, United States Code[164], except that it shall also include “active duty for training” as described in paragraph (22) of such section.

(3) The term “inactive duty training” means “inactive duty training” as described in paragraph (23) of such section 101.

(4)(A) Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply in the case of any service, performed by an individual as a member of a uniformed service, which is creditable under section 3(i) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974[165]. The Railroad Retirement Board shall notify the Commissioner of Social Security, with respect to all such service which is so creditable.

(B) In any case where benefits under this title are already payable on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income at the time such notification (with respect to such individual) is received by the Commissioner of Social Security, the Commissioner of Social Security shall certify no further benefits for payment under this title on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income, or shall recompute the amount of any further benefits payable on the basis of such wages and self-employment income, as may be required as a consequence of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. No payment of a benefit to any person on the basis of such individual's wages and self-employment income, certified by the Commissioner of Social Security prior to the end of the month in which the Commissioner receives such notification from the Railroad Retirement Board, shall be deemed by reason of this subparagraph to have been an erroneous payment or a payment to which such person was not entitled. The Commissioner of Social Security shall, as soon as possible after the receipt of such notification from the Railroad Retirement Board, advise such Board whether or not any such benefit will be reduced or terminated by reason of subparagraph (A), and if any such benefit will be so reduced or terminated, specify the first month with respect to which such reduction or termination will be effective.

Member of a Uniformed Service

(m) The term “member of a uniformed service” means any person appointed, enlisted, or inducted in a component of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard (including a reserve component as defined in section 101(27) of title 38, United States Code[166]), or in one of those services without specification of component, or as a commissioned officer of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Corps, or the Regular or Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service, and any person serving in the Army or Air Force under call or conscription. The term includes—

(1) a retired member of any of those services;
(2) a member of the Fleet Reserve or Fleet Marine Corps Reserve;
(3) a cadet at the United States Military Academy, a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, and a cadet at the United States Coast Guard Academy or United States Air Force Academy;
(4) a member of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps, or the Air Force Reserve Officers' Training Corps, when ordered to annual training duty for fourteen days or more, and while performing authorized travel to and from that duty; and
(5) any person while en route to or from, or at, a place for final acceptance or for entry upon active duty in the military, naval, or air service—
(A) who has been provisionally accepted for such duty; or
(B) who, under the Military Selective Service Act[167], has been selected for active military, naval, or air service;
and has been ordered or directed to proceed to such place.

The term does not include a temporary member of the Coast Guard Reserve.

Crew Leader

(n) The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person, if such individual pays (either on his own behalf or on behalf of such person) the individuals so furnished by him for the agricultural labor performed by them and if such individual has not entered into a written agreement with such person whereby such individual has been designated as an employee of such person; and such individuals furnished by the crew leader to perform agricultural labor for another person shall be deemed to be the employees of such crew leader. A crew leader shall, with respect to services performed in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person and service performed as a member of the crew, be deemed not to be an employee of such other person.

Peace Corps Volunteer Service

(o) The term “employment” shall, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), include service performed by an individual as a volunteer or volunteer leader within the meaning of the Peace Corps Act[168].

Medicare Qualified Government Employment

(p)(1) For purposes of sections 226 and 226A, the term “medicare qualified government employment” means any service which would constitute “employment” as defined in subsection (a) of this section but for the application of the provisions of—

(A) subsection (a)(5), or
(B) subsection (a)(7), except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3).

(2) Service shall not be treated as employment by reason of paragraph (1)(B) if the service is performed—

(A) by an individual who is employed by a State or political subdivision thereof to relieve him from unemployment,
(B) in a hospital, home, or other institution by a patient or inmate thereof as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia,
(C) by an individual, as an employee of a State or political subdivision thereof or of the District of Columbia, serving on a temporary basis in case of fire, storm, snow, earthquake, flood or other similar emergency,
(D) by any individual as an employee included under section 5351(2) of title 5, United States Code[169] (relating to certain interns, student nurses, and other student employees of hospitals of the District of Columbia Government), other than as a medical or dental intern or a medical or dental resident in training, or
(E) by an election official or election worker if the remuneration paid in a calendar year for such service is less than $1,000 with respect to service performed during any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 1995, ending on or before December 31, 1999, and the adjusted amount determined under section 218(c)(8)(B) for any calendar year commencing on or after January 1, 2000, with respect to service performed during such calendar year.

As used in this paragraph, the terms “State” and “political subdivision” have the meanings given those terms in section 218(b).

(3) Service performed for an employer shall not be treated as employment by reason of paragraph (1)(B) if—

(A) such service would be excluded from the term “employment” for purposes of this section if paragraph (1)(B) did not apply;
(B) such service is performed by an individual—
(i) who was performing substantial and regular service for remuneration for that employer before April 1, 1986,
(ii) who is a bona fide employee of that employer on March 31, 1986, and
(iii) whose employment relationship with that employer was not entered into for purposes of meeting the requirements of this subparagraph; and
(C) the employment relationship with that employer has not been terminated after March 31, 1986.

(4) For purposes of paragraph (3), under regulations (consistent with regulations established under section 3121(u)(2)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954[170])—

(A) all agencies and instrumentalities of a State (as defined in section 218(b)) or of the District of Columbia shall be treated as a single employer, and
(B) all agencies and instrumentalities of a political subdivision of a State (as so defined) shall be treated as a single employer and shall not be treated as described in subparagraph (A).

Treatment of Real Estate Agents and Direct Sellers

(q) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, the rules of section 3508 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986[171] shall apply for purposes of this title.

Service in the Employ of International Organizations by Certain Transferred Federal Employees

(r)(1) For purposes of this title, service performed in the employ of an international organization by an individual pursuant to a transfer of such individual to such international organization pursuant to section 3582 of title 5, United States Code, shall constitute “employment” if—

(A) immediately before such transfer, such individual performed service with a Federal agency which constituted “employment” as defined in subsection (a), and
(B) such individual would be entitled, upon separation from such international organization and proper application, to reemployment with such Federal agency under such section 3582.

(2) For purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term “Federal agency” means an agency, as defined in section 3581(1) of title 5, United States Code.
(B) The term “international organization” has the meaning provided such term by section 3581(3) of title 5, United States Code.[172]

[146] See P.L. 83-591, §3121 (this volume).

[147] See Vol. II, Title 22.

[148] See Vol. II, Title 38.

[149] See Vol. II, P.L. 93-638, §104(e)(2).

[150] See Vol. II, Title 3.

[151] See Vol. II, P.L 98-369, §2601(c), with respect to the applicability of subchapter III, chapter 83, of Title 5, United States Code, to service performed after December 31, 1983; and §2601(e)(1), with respect to employees of certain nonprofit organizations who are considered to be performing services in the employ of an instrumentality of the United States.

[152] See Vol. II, P.L. 99-335.

[153] See Vol. II, Title 50.

[154] See Vol. II, P.L. 96-465.

[155] See P.L. 83-591, §3121(r) (this volume).

[156] See P.L. 83-591, §3121(w) (this volume).

[157] See P.L. 83-591, §3231 (this volume).

[158] See Vol. II, P.L. 83-591, §509(a)(3).

[159] See Vol. II, P.L. 79-291.

[160] See P.L. 81-831.

[161] See Vol. II, P.L. 82-414.

[162] See Vol. II, P.L. 71-10.

[163] P.L. 108-203, §423(c), struck out “or is domestic service in a private home of the employer”, effective March 2, 2004.

[164] See Vol. II, title 38 and see P.L. 95-202, §401, with respect to the Women's Air Forces Service Pilots.

[165] See Vol. II, P.L. 75-162 [as amended by P.L. 93-445].

[166] See Vol. II, Title 38.

[167] P.L. 80-759.

[168] See Vol. II, P.L. 87-293.

[169] See Vol. II, Title 5.

[170] See P.L. 83-591, §3121 (this volume).

[171] P.L. 83-591, §3508 (this volume).

[172] See Vol. II, Title 5, §§3581 and 3582.