(As amended Mar. 30, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 30, 1991, eff. Aug. 1, 1991; Apr. 11, 1997, eff. Dec. 1, 1997.)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1983
Subdivision (a). Excepted from the papers which an attorney for a debtor must sign are lists, schedules, statements of financial affairs, statements of executory contracts, Chapter 13 Statements and amendments thereto. Rule
requires that these documents be verified by the debtor. Although the petition must also be verified, counsel for the debtor must sign the petition. See Official Form No. 1. An unrepresented party must sign all papers.
The last sentence of this subdivision authorizes a broad range of sanctions.
The word “document” is used in this subdivision to refer to all papers which the attorney or party is required to sign.
Subdivision (b) extends to all papers filed in cases under the Code the policy of minimizing reliance on the formalities of verification which is reflected in the third sentence of Rule
11 F.R.Civ.P. The second sentence of subdivision (b) permits the substitution of an unsworn declaration for the verification. See 28
U.S.C. § 1746
. Rules requiring verification or an affidavit are as follows: Rule
, petitions, schedules, statements of financial affairs, Chapter 13 Statements and amendments; Rule
, list of multiple proxies and statement of facts and circumstances regarding their acquisition; Rule
, motion for ex parte relief from stay; Rule
, incorporating Rule
(b) F.R.Civ.P. governing issuance of temporary restraining order; Rule
, affidavit in support of emergency motion on appeal.
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1987 Amendment
The statement of intention of the debtor under § 521(2) of the Code is added to the documents which counsel is not required to sign.
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1991 Amendment
Subdivision (a) is amended to conform to Rule
11 F.R.Civ.P. where appropriate, but also to clarify that it applies to the unnecessary delay or needless increase in the cost of the administration of the case. Deletion of the references to specific statements that are excluded from the scope of this subdivision is stylistic. As used in subdivision (a) of this rule, “statement” is limited to the statement of financial affairs and the statement of intention required to be filed under Rule
. Deletion of the reference to the Chapter 13 Statement is consistent with the amendment to Rule
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1997 Amendment
This rule is amended to conform to the 1993 changes to F.R.Civ.P. 11. For an explanation of these amendments, see the advisory committee note to the 1993 amendments to F.R.Civ.P. 11.
The “safe harbor” provision contained in subdivision (c)(1)(A), which prohibits the filing of a motion for sanctions unless the challenged paper is not withdrawn or corrected within a prescribed time after service of the motion, does not apply if the challenged paper is a petition. The filing of a petition has immediate serious consequences, including the imposition of the automatic stay under § 362 of the Code, which may not be avoided by the subsequent withdrawal of the petition. In addition, a petition for relief under chapter 7 or chapter 11 may not be withdrawn unless the court orders dismissal of the case for cause after notice and a hearing.
GAP Report on Rule
. The proposed amendments to subdivision (a) were revised to clarify that a party not represented by an attorney must sign lists, schedules, and statements, as well as other papers that are filed.