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NOTES:


Source

(July 2, 1948, ch. 814, § 1, 62 Stat. 1231; July 9, 1956, ch. 531, 70 Stat. 513.)

References in Text

Section 67 of the Act of April 30, 1900 (48 U.S.C. 532), referred to in subsec. (a), was omitted from the Code.

Amendments

1956—Subsec. (a). The former first sentence of section was designated subsec. (a) by act July 9, 1956, which permitted the Attorney General to compromise and settle and make an award in an amount not to exceed $100,000.
Subsec. (b). The former second sentence of section was designated subsec. (b) by act July 9, 1956, which defined “claims by a person of Japanese ancestry” and “claim by a person of Japanese ancestry”.

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–451, § 1, Nov. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 1947, provided that: “This Act [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the ‘Wartime Violation of Italian American Civil Liberties Act’.”

Violation of Civil Liberties of Italian Americans During World War II

Pub. L. 106–451, § 3, Nov. 7, 2000, 114 Stat. 1947, provided that: “The Attorney General shall conduct a comprehensive review of the treatment by the United States Government of Italian Americans during World War II, and not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 7, 2000] shall submit to the Congress a report that documents the findings of such review. The report shall cover the period between September 1, 1939, and December 31, 1945, and shall include the following:
“(1) The names of all Italian Americans who were taken into custody in the initial roundup following the attack on Pearl Harbor, and prior to the United States declaration of war against Italy.
“(2) The names of all Italian Americans who were taken into custody.
“(3) The names of all Italian Americans who were interned and the location where they were interned.
“(4) The names of all Italian Americans who were ordered to move out of designated areas under the United States Army’s ‘Individual Exclusion Program’.
“(5) The names of all Italian Americans who were arrested for curfew, contraband, or other violations under the authority of Executive Order No. 9066 [not classified to the Code].
“(6) Documentation of Federal Bureau of Investigation raids on the homes of Italian Americans.
“(7) A list of ports from which Italian American fishermen were restricted.
“(8) The names of Italian American fishermen who were prevented from fishing in prohibited zones and therefore unable to pursue their livelihoods.
“(9) The names of Italian Americans whose boats were confiscated.
“(10) The names of Italian American railroad workers who were prevented from working in prohibited zones.
“(11) A list of all civil liberties infringements suffered by Italian Americans during World War II, as a result of Executive Order No. 9066, including internment, hearings without benefit of counsel, illegal searches and seizures, travel restrictions, enemy alien registration requirements, employment restrictions, confiscation of property, and forced evacuation from homes.
“(12) An explanation of whether Italian Americans were subjected to civil liberties infringements, as a result of Executive Order No. 9066, and if so, why other Italian Americans were not.
“(13) A review of the wartime restrictions on Italian Americans to determine how civil liberties can be better protected during national emergencies.”

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians

Pub. L. 96–317, July 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 964, as amended by Pub. L. 97–3, Feb. 10, 1981, 95 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 97–152, Mar. 16, 1982, 96 Stat. 11; Pub. L. 97–377, title I, § 111A, Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1911, provided for establishment of Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians which was to, not later than June 30, 1983, submit to Congress a final report and study concerning facts and circumstances surrounding Ex. Ord. No. 9066, issued Feb. 19, 1942, pursuant to which thousands of American citizens and permanent resident aliens were relocated and detained in internment camps, and which was to further review U.S. military directives requiring relocation and detention of American citizens, including Aleut civilians, and permanent resident aliens of Aleutian and Pribilof Islands, as well as recommend appropriate remedies for such actions, and further provided for establishment of Commission as well as powers, administrative procedures, appropriations, and termination of Commission 90 days after submission of final report to Congress.

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