10 U.S. Code § 2701 - Environmental restoration program

Status message

There are 3 Updates Pending. Select the tab below to view.
(a) Environmental Restoration Program.—
(1) In general.— The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a program of environmental restoration at facilities under the jurisdiction of the Secretary. The program shall be known as the “Defense Environmental Restoration Program”.
(2) Application of section 120 of cercla.— Activities of the program described in subsection (b)(1) shall be carried out subject to, and in a manner consistent with, section 120 (relating to Federal facilities) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9620).
(3) Consultation with epa.— The program shall be carried out in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
(4) Administrative office within osd.— The Secretary shall identify an office within the Office of the Secretary which shall have responsibility for carrying out the program.
(b) Program Goals.— Goals of the program shall include the following:
(1) The identification, investigation, research and development, and cleanup of contamination from a hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant.
(2) Correction of other environmental damage (such as detection and disposal of unexploded ordnance) which creates an imminent and substantial endangerment to the public health or welfare or to the environment.
(3) Demolition and removal of unsafe buildings and structures, including buildings and structures of the Department of Defense at sites formerly used by or under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.
(c) Responsibility for Response Actions.—
(1) Basic responsibility.— The Secretary shall carry out (in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and CERCLA) all response actions with respect to releases of hazardous substances from each of the following:
(A) Each facility or site owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the Secretary.
(B) Each facility or site which was under the jurisdiction of the Secretary and owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States at the time of actions leading to contamination by hazardous substances.
(C) Each vessel owned or operated by the Department of Defense.
(2) Other responsible parties.— Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a removal or remedial action if the Administrator has provided for response action by a potentially responsible person in accordance with section 122 (relating to settlements) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9622).
(3) State fees and charges.— The Secretary shall pay fees and charges imposed by State authorities for permit services for the disposal of hazardous substances on lands which are under the jurisdiction of the Secretary to the same extent that nongovernmental entities are required to pay fees and charges imposed by State authorities for permit services. The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to a payment that is the responsibility of a lessee, contractor, or other private person.
(d) Services of Other Entities.—
(1) In general.— Subject to paragraph (3), the Secretary may enter into agreements on a reimbursable or other basis with any other Federal agency, any State or local government agency, any Indian tribe, any owner of covenant property, or any nonprofit conservation organization to obtain the services of the agency, Indian tribe, owner, or organization to assist the Secretary in carrying out any of the Secretary’s responsibilities under this section. Services which may be obtained under this subsection include the identification, investigation, and cleanup of any off-site contamination resulting from the release of a hazardous substance or waste at a facility under the Secretary’s jurisdiction.
(2) Cross-fiscal year agreements.— An agreement with an agency under paragraph (1) may be for a period that begins in one fiscal year and ends in another fiscal year so long as the period of the agreement does not exceed two years. This two-year limitation does not apply to an agreement funded using amounts in the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 1990 or the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 2005 established under sections 2906 and 2906A of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note).
(3) Limitation on reimbursable agreements.— An agreement with an agency under paragraph (1) may not provide for reimbursement of the agency for regulatory enforcement activities. An agreement under such paragraph with respect to a site also may not change the cleanup standards selected for the site pursuant to law.
(4) Definitions.— In this subsection:
(A) The term “Indian tribe” has the meaning given such term in section 101(36) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9601 (36)).
(B) The term “nonprofit conservation organization” means any non-governmental nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is conservation of open space or natural resources.
(C) The term “owner of covenant property” means an owner of property subject to a covenant provided by the United States in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 120(h) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9620 (h)), so long as the covenant property is the site at which the services procured under paragraph (1) are to be performed.
(5) Savings clause.— Nothing in this subsection affects the applicability of section 120 of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9620) to the Department of Defense or the obligations and responsibilities of the Department of Defense under subsection (h) of such section.
(e) Response Action Contractors.— The provisions of section 119 of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9619) apply to response action contractors (as defined in that section) who carry out response actions under this section.
(f) Use of Appropriated Funds at Former DOD Sites.— Appropriations available to the Department of Defense may be used at sites formerly used by the Department of Defense for removal of unsafe buildings or debris of the Department of Defense.
(g) Removal of Unsafe Buildings and Debris Before Release From Federal Control.— In the case of property formerly used by the Department of Defense which is to be released from Federal Government control and at which there are unsafe buildings or debris of the Department of Defense, all actions necessary to comply with regulations of the General Services Administration on the transfer of property in a safe condition shall be completed before the property is released from Federal Government control, except in the case of property to be conveyed to an entity of State or local government or to a native corporation.
(h) Surety-Contractor Relationship.— Any surety which provides a bid, performance, or payment bond in connection with any direct Federal procurement for a response action contract under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program and begins activities to meet its obligations under such bond, shall, in connection with such activities or obligations, be entitled to any indemnification and the same standard of liability to which its principal was entitled under the contract or under any applicable law or regulation.
(i) Surety Bonds.—
(1) Applicability of sections 3131 and 3133 of title 40.— If under sections 3131 and 3133 of title 40 surety bonds are required for any direct Federal procurement of any response action contract under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program and are not waived pursuant to section 3134 of title 40, the surety bonds shall be issued in accordance with sections 3131 and 3133.
(2) Limitation of accrual of rights of action under bonds.— If, under applicable Federal law, surety bonds are required for any direct Federal procurement of any response action contract under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, no right of action shall accrue on the performance bond issued on such contract to or for the use of any person other than an obligee named in the bond.
(3) Liability of sureties under bonds.— If, under applicable Federal law, surety bonds are required for any direct Federal procurement of any response action contract under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program, unless otherwise provided for by the Secretary in the bond, in the event of a default, the surety’s liability on a performance bond shall be only for the cost of completion of the contract work in accordance with the plans and specifications of the contract less the balance of funds remaining to be paid under the contract, up to the penal sum of the bond. The surety shall in no event be liable on bonds to indemnify or compensate the obligee for loss or liability arising from personal injury or property damage whether or not caused by a breach of the bonded contract.
(4) Nonpreemption.— Nothing in this section shall be construed as preempting, limiting, superseding, affecting, applying to, or modifying any State laws, regulations, requirements, rules, practices, or procedures. Nothing in this section shall be construed as affecting, applying to, modifying, limiting, superseding, or preempting any rights, authorities, liabilities, demands, actions, causes of action, losses, judgment, claims, statutes of limitation, or obligations under Federal or State law, which do not arise on or under the bond.
(j) Applicability.—
(1) Subsections (h) and (i) shall not apply to bonds executed before December 5, 1991.
(2) Subsections (h) and (i) shall not apply to bonds to which section 119(g) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9619 (g)) applies.
(k) UXO Program Manager.—
(1) The Secretary of Defense shall designate a program manager who shall serve as the single point of contact in the Department of Defense for policy and budgeting issues involving the characterization, research, remediation, and management of explosive and related risks with respect to unexploded ordnance, discarded military munitions, and munitions constituents at defense sites (as such terms are defined in section 2710  [1] of this title) that pose a threat to human health or safety.
(2) The position of program manager shall be filled by—
(A) an employee in a position that is equivalent to pay grade O–6 or above; or
(B) a member of the armed forces who is serving in the grade of colonel or, in the case of the Navy, captain, or in a higher grade.
(3) The program manager shall report to the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment.
(4) The program manager may establish an independent advisory and review panel that may include representatives of the National Academy of Sciences, nongovernmental organizations with expertise regarding unexploded ordnance, discarded military munitions, or munitions constituents, the Environmental Protection Agency, States (as defined in section 2710  [1] of this title), and tribal governments. If established, the panel shall report annually to Congress on progress made by the Department of Defense to address unexploded ordnance, discarded military munitions, or munitions constituents at defense sites and make such recommendations as the panel considers appropriate.


[1]  See References in Text note below.

Source

(Added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, § 211(a)(1)(B),Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1719; amended Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, § 1481(i)(1),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1708; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, § 336(a),Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1342; Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, § 331(b), title X, § 1052(35),Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2373, 2501; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, § 201(d)(6),May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title III, §§ 322, 323,Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2711; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title III, § 321(a)(1), title XV, § 1504(a)(1), div. D, title XLIII, § 4321(b)(22),Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 251, 513, 673; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title III, § 329,Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2483; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title III, § 314,Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1053; Pub. L. 107–217, § 3(b)(17),Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title III, §§ 311, 312, 313(c)(2), div. B, title XXVIII, § 2812(c),Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2506, 2508, 2709; Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title X, § 1084(d)(24),Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2062; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title III, § 312(a),Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3190; Pub. L. 109–284, § 2,Sept. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 1211; Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title III, §§ 311, 312,Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2137; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, § 1073(a)(28),Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2474; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, § 1075(b)(46)(B),Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4371; Pub. L. 112–239, div. B, title XXVII, § 2711(c)(4)(A),Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2144.)
Amendment of Subsection (d)(2)

Pub. L. 112–239, div. B, title XXVII, § 2711(c)(4)(A), (d),Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2144, provided that, effective on the later of Oct. 1, 2013, or the date of the enactment of an Act authorizing funds for military construction for fiscal year 2014, subsection (d)(2) of this section is amended by striking “Department of Defense Base Closure Account 1990 or the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 2005 established under sections 2906 and 2906A” and inserting “Department of Defense Base Closure Account established by section 2906”. See 2013 Amendment note below.
References in Text

Section 2710 of this title, referred to in subsec. (k), was subsequently amended, and no longer defines the term “unexploded ordnance”.
Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (f) and (g) of this section were contained in Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, § 9038,Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1137, which was set out below, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–510, § 1481(i)(2).
A prior section 2701 was renumbered section 2721 of this title.
Amendments

2013—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 112–239substituted “Department of Defense Base Closure Account established by section 2906” for “Department of Defense Base Closure Account 1990 or the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 2005 established under sections 2906 and 2906A”.
2011—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–383substituted “a hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant” for “hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants”.
2009—Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 111–84substituted “9620)” for “6920)”.
2006—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–163, § 312(a)(1), inserted “any owner of covenant property,” after “any Indian tribe,” and “owner,” after “, Indian tribe,”.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–364, § 312, inserted at end “This two-year limitation does not apply to an agreement funded using amounts in the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 1990 or the Department of Defense Base Closure Account 2005 established under sections 2906 and 2906A of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note).”
Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 109–163, § 312(a)(2), inserted “An agreement under such paragraph with respect to a site also may not change the cleanup standards selected for the site pursuant to law.” at end.
Subsec. (d)(4)(C). Pub. L. 109–163, § 312(a)(3), added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 109–163, § 312(a)(4), added par. (5).
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 109–284substituted “sections 3131 and 3133 of title 40” for “miller act” in heading.
Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 109–364, § 311(1), substituted “designate” for “establish” and inserted “research,” after “characterization,”.
Subsec. (k)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 109–364, § 311(2), (3), added pars. (2) and (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (4), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “The authority to establish the program manager may be delegated to the Secretary of a military department, who may delegate the authority to the Under Secretary of that military department. The authority may not be further delegated.”.
2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, § 1084(d)(24)(A), inserted “(42 U.S.C. 9620)” before period at end.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, § 1084(d)(24)(B), substituted “(relating to settlements) of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9622)” for “of CERCLA (relating to settlements)”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–375, § 1084(d)(24)(C), inserted “(42 U.S.C. 9619)” after “CERCLA”.
Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 108–375, § 1084(d)(24)(D), substituted “CERCLA” for “the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980”.
2002—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–314, § 313(c)(2), substituted “CERCLA” for “the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (hereinafter in this chapter referred to as ‘CERCLA’) (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.)”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–314, § 2812(c)(1), substituted “Entities” for “Agencies” in heading.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–314, §§ 311(1), 2812 (c)(2), substituted “paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (2)”, “any State or local government agency, any Indian tribe, or any nonprofit conservation organization” for “with any State or local government agency, or with any Indian tribe,”, and “the agency, Indian tribe, or organization” for “the agency”.
Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 107–314, § 311(2), (3), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).
Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 107–314, § 2812(c)(3), added par. (4) and struck out heading and text of former par. (4). Text read as follows: “In this subsection, the term ‘Indian tribe’ has the meaning given such term in section 101(36) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 (36)).”
Pub. L. 107–314, § 311(2), redesignated par. (3) as (4).
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 107–217substituted “sections 3131 and 3133 of title 40” for “the Miller Act (40 U.S.C. 270a et seq.)”, “section 3134 of title 40” for “the Act of April 29, 1941 (40 U.S.C. 270e–270f)”, and “sections 3131 and 3133” for “the Miller Act”.
Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 107–314, § 312, added subsec. (k).
2001—Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 107–107struck out “, or after December 31, 1999” before period at end.
1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–201substituted “, with any State or local government agency, or with any Indian tribe,” for “, or with any State or local government agency,” in par. (1) and added par. (3).
Pub. L. 104–106, § 1504(a)(1), made technical correction to directory language of Pub. L. 103–337, § 322(1). See 1994 Amendment note below.
Pub. L. 104–106, § 321(a)(1), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Services of Other Agencies.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary may enter into agreements on a reimbursable basis with any other Federal agency, and on a reimbursable or other basis with any State or local government agency or any Indian tribe, to obtain the services of that agency to assist the Secretary in carrying out any of the Secretary’s responsibilities under this section. Services which may be obtained under this subsection include the identification, investigation, and cleanup of any off-site contamination possibly resulting from the release of a hazardous substance or waste at a facility under the Secretary’s jurisdiction.
“(2) Definition.—In this subsection, the term ‘Indian tribe’ has the meaning given such term in section 101(36) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 (36)).”
Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 104–106, § 4321(b)(22), substituted “Miller Act (40 U.S.C. 270a et seq.)” for “Act of August 24, 1935 (40 U.S.C. 270a–270d), commonly referred to as the ‘Miller Act’,” and “the Miller Act” for “such Act of August 24, 1935”.
1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337, § 322(1), as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, § 1504(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted par. (1) heading.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, § 322(2), inserted “or any Indian tribe” after “any State or local government agency”.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 103–337, § 322(3), added par. (2).
Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 103–337, § 323, substituted “December 31, 1999” for “December 31, 1995”.
1993—Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 103–35substituted “(42 U.S.C. 9619 (g)) applies” for “applies (42 U.S.C. 9619 (g))”.
1992—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–484, § 1052(35), substituted “December 5, 1991,” for “the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993” in par. (1).
Pub. L. 102–484, § 331(b), substituted “December 31, 1995” for “December 31, 1992”, designated existing provisions as par. (1), and added par. (2).
1991—Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 102–190added subsecs. (h) to (j).
1990—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 101–510added subsecs. (f) and (g).
Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. B, title XXVII, § 2711(d),Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2144, provided that: “This section and the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 2703, 2705, and 2883 of this title and enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 2687 of this title] shall take effect on the later of—
“(1) October 1, 2013; and [sic]
“(2) the date of the enactment of an Act authorizing funds for military construction for fiscal year 2014.”
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1504(a),Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 513, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Oct. 5, 1994, and as if included in Pub. L. 103–337as enacted.
For effective date and applicability of amendment by section 4321(b)(22) ofPub. L. 104–106, see section 4401 ofPub. L. 104–106, set out as a note under section 2302 of this title.
Prohibition on Disposing of Waste in Open-Air Burn Pits

Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title III, § 317,Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2249, as amended by Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, § 316,Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1358; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title III, § 314,Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 729, provided that:
“(a) Regulations.—
“(1) In general.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009], the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations prohibiting the disposal of covered waste in open-air burn pits during contingency operations except in circumstances in which the Secretary determines that no alternative disposal method is feasible. Such regulations shall apply to contingency operations that are ongoing as of the date of the enactment of this Act, including Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, and to contingency operations that begin after the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(2) Notification.—In determining that no alternative disposal method is feasible for an open-air burn pit pursuant to regulations prescribed under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—
“(A) not later than 30 days after such determination is made, submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives notice of such determination, including the circumstances, reasoning, and methodology that led to such determination; and
“(B) after notice is given under subparagraph (A), for each subsequent 180-day-period during which covered waste is disposed of in the open-air burn pit covered by such notice, submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives the justifications of the Secretary for continuing to operate such open-air burn pit.
“(b) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 2009], the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the use of open-air burn pits by the United States Armed Forces. Such report shall include—
“(1) an explanation of the situations and circumstances under which open-air burn pits are used to dispose of waste during military exercises and operations worldwide;
“(2) a detailed description of the types of waste authorized to be burned in open-air burn pits;
“(3) a plan through which the Secretary intends to develop and implement alternatives to the use of open-air burn pits;
“(4) a copy of the regulations required to be prescribed by subsection (a);
“(5) the health and environmental compliance standards the Secretary has established for military and contractor operations in Iraq and Afghanistan with regard to solid waste disposal, including an assessment of whether those standards are being met;
“(6) a description of the environmental, health, and operational impacts of open-pit burning of plastics and the feasibility of including plastics in the regulations prescribed pursuant to subsection (a); and
“(7) an assessment of the ability of existing medical surveillance programs to identify and track exposures to toxic substances that result from open-air burn pits, including recommendations for such changes to such programs as would be required to more accurately identify and track such exposures.
“(c) Health Assessment Reports.—Not later than 180 days after notice is due under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a health assessment report on each open-air burn pit at a location where at least 100 personnel have been employed for 90 consecutive days or more. Each such report shall include each of the following:
“(1) An epidemiological description of the short-term and long-term health risks posed to personnel in the area where the burn pit is located because of exposure to the open-air burn pit.
“(2) A copy of the methodology used to determine the health risks described in paragraph (1).
“(3) A copy of the assessment of the operational risks and health risks when making the determination pursuant to subsection (a) that no alternative disposal method is feasible for the open-air burn pit.
“(d) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) The term ‘contingency operation’ has the meaning given that term by section 101 (a)(13) of title 10, United States Code.
“(2) The term ‘covered waste’ includes—
“(A) hazardous waste, as defined by section 1004(5) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6903 (5));
“(B) medical waste;
“(C) tires;
“(D) treated wood;
“(E) batteries;
“(F) plastics, except insignificant amounts of plastic remaining after a good-faith effort to remove or recover plastic materials from the solid waste stream;
“(G) munitions and explosives, except when disposed of in compliance with guidance on the destruction of munitions and explosives contained in the Department of Defense Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards, DoD Manual 6055.09-M;
“(H) compressed gas cylinders, unless empty with valves removed;
“(I) fuel containers, unless completely evacuated of its contents;
“(J) aerosol cans;
“(K) polychlorinated biphenyls;
“(L) petroleum, oils, and lubricants products (other than waste fuel for initial combustion);
“(M) asbestos;
“(N) mercury;
“(O) foam tent material;
“(P) any item containing any of the materials referred to in a preceding paragraph; and
“(Q) other waste as designated by the Secretary.”
[Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title III, § 314,Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 729, which directed amendment of section 317(c)(2) ofPub. L. 111–84, set out above, was executed to section 317(d)(2) ofPub. L. 111–84, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]
Purpose of Pub. L. 109–284

Pub. L. 109–284, § 1,Sept. 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 1211, provided that: “The purpose of this Act [amending this section, sections 107 and 210 of Title 23, Highways, section 1499 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, sections 2301, 20908, 40103, 70912, 150511, 151303, 153513, 220104, 220501, 220505, 220506, 220509, 220511, 220512, and 220521 of Title 36, Patriotic and National Observances, Ceremonies, and Organizations, and sections 522, 552, 554, 581, 593, 611, 3131, 3133, 3141, 3142, 3701, 3702, 3704, 6111, 8104, 8105, 8501, 8502, 8711, 8712, 8722, 9302, 14308, and 17504 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works] is to make technical corrections to the United States Code relating to cross references, typographical errors, and stylistic matters.”
Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

Pub. L. 106–398, § 1 [div. C, title XXXI, § 3138], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A–461, provided that:
“(a) Contingent Limitation on Availability of Funds for Certain Travel Expenses.—Effective November 1, 2001, but subject to subsection (b), no funds authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made available by this or any other Act for the Department of Energy or the Department of the Army may be obligated or expended for travel by—
“(1) the Secretary of Energy or any officer or employee of the Office of the Secretary of Energy; or
“(2) the Chief of Engineers.
“(b) Effective Date.—The limitation in subsection (a) shall not take effect if before November 1, 2001, both of the following certifications are submitted to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives]:
“(1) A certification by the Secretary of Energy that the Department of Energy is in compliance with the requirements of section 3131 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000 (Public Law 106–65; 113 Stat. 925; 10 U.S.C. 2701 note).
“(2) A certification by the Chief of Engineers that the Corps of Engineers is in compliance with the requirements of that section.
“(c) Termination.—If the limitation in subsection (a) takes effect, the limitation shall cease to be in effect when both certifications referred to in subsection (b) have been submitted to the congressional defense committees.”
Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, § 3131,Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 925, provided that: “Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no funds authorized to be appropriated or otherwise made available by this Act [see Tables for classification], or by any Act authorizing appropriations for the military activities of the Department of Defense or the defense activities of the Department of Energy for a fiscal year after fiscal year 2000, may be obligated or expended to conduct treatment, storage, or disposal activities at any site designated as a site under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999].”
Pub. L. 106–60, title VI, § 611,Sept. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 502, provided that:
“(a) The Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, in carrying out the program known as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, shall undertake the following functions and activities to be performed at eligible sites where remediation has not been completed:
“(1) Sampling and assessment of contaminated areas.
“(2) Characterization of site conditions.
“(3) Determination of the nature and extent of contamination.
“(4) Selection of the necessary and appropriate response actions as the lead Federal agency.
“(5) Cleanup and closeout of sites.
“(6) Any other functions and activities determined by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, as necessary for carrying out that program, including the acquisition of real estate interests where necessary, which may be transferred upon completion of remediation to the administrative jurisdiction of the Secretary of Energy.
“(b) Any response action under that program by the Secretary of the Army, acting through the Chief of Engineers, shall be subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) (in this section referred to as ‘CERCLA’), and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300).
“(c) Any sums recovered under CERCLA or other authority from a liable party, contractor, insurer, surety, or other person for any expenditures by the Army Corps of Engineers or the Department of Energy for response actions under that program shall be credited to the amounts made available to carry out that program and shall be available until expended for costs of response actions for any eligible site.
“(d) The Secretary of Energy may exercise the authority under section 168 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2208) to make payments in lieu of taxes for federally owned property at which activities under that program are carried out, regardless of which Federal agency has administrative jurisdiction over the property and notwithstanding any reference to ‘the activities of the Commission’ in that section.
“(e) This section does not alter, curtail, or limit the authorities, functions, or responsibilities of other agencies under CERCLA or, except as stated in this section, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.).
“(f) This section shall apply to fiscal year 2000 and each succeeding fiscal year.”
Settlement of Claims of Foreign Governments for Environmental Cleanup of Overseas Sites Formerly Used by Department of Defense

Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title III, § 321,Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 1962, provided that:
“(a) Notice of Negotiations.—The President shall notify Congress before entering into any negotiations for the ex-gratia settlement of the claims of a government of another country against the United States for environmental cleanup of sites in that country that were formerly used by the Department of Defense.
“(b) Authorization Required for Use of Funds for Payment of Settlement.—No funds may be used for any payment under an ex-gratia settlement of any claims described in subsection (a) unless the use of the funds for that purpose is specifically authorized by law or international agreement, including a treaty.”
Recovery and Sharing of Costs of Environmental Restoration at Department of Defense Sites

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, § 348,Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1689, provided that:
“(a) Regulations.—Not later than March 1, 1998, the Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations containing the guidelines and requirements described in subsections (b) and (c).
“(b) Guidelines.—(1) The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall contain uniform guidelines for the military departments and defense agencies concerning the cost-recovery and cost-sharing activities of those departments and agencies.
“(2) The Secretary shall take appropriate actions to ensure the implementation of the guidelines.
“(c) Requirements.—The regulations prescribed under subsection (a) shall contain requirements for the Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of defense agencies to—
“(1) obtain all data that is relevant for purposes of cost-recovery and cost-sharing activities; and
“(2) identify any negligence or other misconduct that may preclude indemnification or reimbursement by the Department of Defense for the costs of environmental restoration at a Department site or justify the recovery or sharing of costs associated with such restoration.
“(d) Definition.—In this section, the term ‘cost-recovery and cost-sharing activities’ means activities concerning—
“(1) the recovery of the costs of environmental restoration at Department of Defense sites from contractors of the Department and other private parties that contribute to environmental contamination at such sites; and
“(2) the sharing of the costs of such restoration with such contractors and parties.”
Pilot Program for Sale of Air Pollution Emission Reduction Incentives

Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title III, § 316(b),Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1053, directed the Secretary of Defense to prepare a report concerning the operation of the pilot program for the sale of economic incentives for the reduction of emission of air pollutants attributable to military facilities, as authorized by section 351 ofPub. L. 105–85, formerly set out below, and to submit the report to the Congress not later than Mar. 1, 2003.
Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title III, § 351,Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1692, as amended by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title III, § 325,Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 563; Pub. L. 107–107, div. A, title III, § 316(a),Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1053, authorized the Secretary of Defense, until Sept. 30, 2003, to carry out a pilot program to assess the feasibility and advisability of the sale of economic incentives for the reduction of emission of air pollutants attributable to a facility of a military department.
Authority To Develop and Implement Land Use Plans for Defense Environmental Restoration Program

Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title III, § 325,Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2481, provided that:
“(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may, to the extent possible and practical, develop and implement, as part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program provided for in chapter 160 of title 10, United States Code, a land use plan for any defense site selected by the Secretary under subsection (b).
“(b) Selection of Sites.—The Secretary may select up to 10 defense sites, from among sites where the Secretary is planning or implementing environmental restoration activities, for which land use plans may be developed under this section.
“(c) Requirement To Consult With Review Committee or Advisory Board.—In developing a land use plan under this section, the Secretary shall consult with a technical review committee established pursuant to section 2705 (c) of title 10, United States Code, a restoration advisory board established pursuant to section 2705(d) of such title, a local land use redevelopment authority, or another appropriate State agency.
“(d) 50-Year Planning Period.—A land use plan developed under this section shall cover a period of at least 50 years.
“(e) Implementation.—For each defense site for which the Secretary develops a land use plan under this section, the Secretary shall take into account the land use plan in selecting and implementing, in accordance with applicable law, environmental restoration activities at the site.
“(f) Deadlines.—For each defense site for which the Secretary intends to develop a land use plan under this section, the Secretary shall develop a draft land use plan by October 1, 1997, and a final land use plan by March 15, 1998.
“(g) Definition of Defense Site.—For purposes of this section, the term ‘defense site’ means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, landfill, storage container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense, or (B) any site or area under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or otherwise come to be located; but does not include any consumer product in consumer use or any vessel.
“(h) Report.—In the annual report required under [former] section 2706 (a) of title 10, United States Code, the Secretary shall include information on the land use plans developed under this section and the effect such plans have had on environmental restoration activities at the defense sites where they have been implemented. The annual report submitted in 1999 shall include recommendations on whether such land use plans should be developed and implemented throughout the Department of Defense.
“(i) Savings Provisions.—(1) Nothing in this section, or in a land use plan developed under this section with respect to a defense site, shall be construed as requiring any modification to a land use plan that was developed before the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 23, 1996].
“(2) Nothing in this section may be construed to affect statutory requirements for an environmental restoration or waste management activity or project or to modify or otherwise affect applicable statutory or regulatory environmental restoration and waste management requirements, including substantive standards intended to protect public health and the environment, nor shall anything in this section be construed to preempt or impair any local land use planning or zoning authority or State authority.”
Fiscal Year 1996 Restrictions on Reimbursements Under Agreements for Services of Other Agencies

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title III, § 321(a)(2),Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 251, as amended by Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, § 1073(d)(1)(A),Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1905, provided that:
“(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the total amount of funds available for reimbursements under agreements entered into under section 2701 (d) of title 10, United States Code, as amended by paragraph (1), in fiscal year 1996 may not exceed $10,000,000.
“(B) The Secretary of Defense may pay in fiscal year 1996 an amount for reimbursements under agreements referred to in subparagraph (A) in excess of the amount specified in that subparagraph for that fiscal year if—
“(i) the Secretary certifies to Congress that the payment of the amount under this subparagraph is essential for the management of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program under chapter 160 of title 10, United States Code; and
“(ii) a period of 60 days has expired after the date on which the certification is received by Congress.”
Environmental Education and Training Program for Defense Personnel

Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title III, § 328,Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2714, provided that:
“(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish and conduct an education and training program for members of the Armed Forces and civilian employees of the Department of Defense whose responsibilities include planning or executing the environmental mission of the Department. The Secretary shall conduct the program to ensure that such members and employees obtain and maintain the knowledge and skill required to comply with existing environmental laws and regulations.
“(b) Identification of Military Facilities With Environmental Training Expertise.—As part of the program, the Secretary may identify military facilities that have existing expertise (or the capacity to develop such expertise) in conducting education and training activities in various environmental disciplines. In the case of a military facility identified under this subsection, the Secretary should encourage the use of the facility by members and employees referred to in subsection (a) who are not under the jurisdiction of the military department operating the facility.”
Grants to Institutions of Higher Education To Provide Education and Training in Environmental Restoration to Dislocated Defense Workers and Young Adults

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, § 1333,Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1798, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, § 1070(b)(11),Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(2)(D),Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(f) [title VIII, § 405(d)(8), (f)(7)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681–420, 2681–430; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title X, § 1056(a)(2),Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3438, provided that:
“(a) Grant Program Authorized.—(1) The Secretary of Defense may establish a program to provide demonstration grants to institutions of higher education to assist such institutions in providing education and training in environmental restoration and hazardous waste management to eligible dislocated defense workers and young adults described in subsection (d). The Secretary shall award the grants pursuant to a merit-based selection process.
“(2) A grant provided under this subsection may cover a period of not more than three fiscal years, except that the payments under the grant for the second and third fiscal year shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary and to the availability of appropriations to carry out this section in that fiscal year.
“(b) Application.—To be eligible for a grant under subsection (a), an institution of higher education shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the Secretary may require. The application shall include the following:
“(1) An assurance by the institution of higher education that it will use the grant to supplement and not supplant non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for the education and training activities funded by the grant.
“(2) A proposal by the institution of higher education to provide expertise, training, and education in hazardous materials and waste management and other environmental fields applicable to defense manufacturing sites and Department of Defense and Department of Energy defense facilities.
“(c) Use of Grant Funds.—(1) An institution of higher education receiving a grant under subsection (a) shall use the grant to establish a consortium consisting of the institution and one or more of each of the entities described in paragraph (2) for the purpose of establishing and conducting a program to provide education and training in environmental restoration and waste management to eligible individuals described in subsection (d). To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall authorize the consortium to use a military installation closed or selected to be closed under a base closure law in providing on-site basic skills training to participants in the program.
“(2) The entities referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:
“(A) Appropriate State and local agencies.
“(B) local [sic] workforce investment boards established under section 117 of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 [29 U.S.C. 2832].
“(C) Community-based organizations (as defined in section 4(5) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 1503 (5)).
“(D) Businesses.
“(E) Organized labor.
“(F) Other appropriate educational institutions.
“(d) Eligible Individuals.—A program established or conducted using funds provided under subsection (a) may provide education and training in environmental restoration and waste management to—
“(1) individuals who have been terminated or laid off from employment (or have received notice of termination or lay off) as a consequence of reductions in expenditures by the United States for defense, the cancellation, termination, or completion of a defense contract, or the closure or realignment of a military installation under a base closure law, as determined in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or
“(2) individuals who have attained the age of 16 but not the age of 25.
“(e) Elements of Education and Training Program.—In establishing or conducting an education and training program using funds provided under subsection (a), the institution of higher education shall meet the following requirements:
“(1) The institution of higher education shall establish and provide a work-based learning system consisting of education and training in environmental restoration—
“(A) which may include basic educational courses, on-site basic skills training, and mentor assistance to individuals described in subsection (d) who are participating in the program; and
“(B) which may lead to the awarding of a certificate or degree at the institution of higher education.
“(2) The institution of higher education shall undertake outreach and recruitment efforts to encourage participation by eligible individuals in the education and training program.
“(3) The institution of higher education shall select participants for the education and training program from among eligible individuals described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (d).
“(4) To the extent practicable, in the selection of young adults described in subsection (d)(2) to participate in the education and training program, the institution of higher education shall give priority to those young adults who—
“(A) have not attended and are otherwise unlikely to be able to attend an institution of higher education; or
“(B) have, or are members of families who have, received a total family income that, in relation to family size, is not in excess of the higher of—
“(i) the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 673(2) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (42 U.S.C. 9902 (2))); or
“(ii) 70 percent of the lower living standard income level.
“(5) To the extent practicable, the institution of higher education shall select instructors for the education and training program from institutions of higher education, appropriate community programs, and industry and labor.
“(6) To the extent practicable, the institution of higher education shall consult with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies carrying out environmental restoration programs for the purpose of achieving coordination between such programs and the education and training program conducted by the consortium.
“(f) Selection of Grant Recipients.—To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall provide grants to institutions of higher education under subsection (a) in a manner which will equitably distribute such grants among the various regions of the United States.
“(g) Limitation on Amount of Grant to a Single Recipient.—The amount of a grant under subsection (a) that may be made to a single institution of higher education in a fiscal year may not exceed 1/3 of the amount made available to provide grants under such subsection for that fiscal year.
“(h) Reporting Requirements.—(1) The Secretary may provide a grant to an institution of higher education under subsection (a) only if the institution agrees to submit to the Secretary, in each fiscal year in which the Secretary makes payments under the grant to the institution, a report containing—
“(A) a description and evaluation of the education and training program established by the consortium formed by the institution under subsection (c); and
“(B) such other information as the Secretary may reasonably require.
“(2) Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993], the Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress an interim report containing—
“(A) a compilation of the information contained in the reports received by the Secretary from each institution of higher education under paragraph (1); and
“(B) an evaluation of the effectiveness of the demonstration grant program authorized by this section.
“(3) Not later than January 1, 1997, the Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress a final report containing—
“(A) a compilation of the information described in the interim report; and
“(B) a final evaluation of the effectiveness of the demonstration grant program authorized by this section, including a recommendation as to the feasibility of continuing the program.
“(i) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:
“(1) Base closure law.—The term ‘base closure law’ has the meaning given such term in section 101 (a)(17) of title 10, United States Code.
“(2) Environmental restoration.—The term ‘environmental restoration’ means actions taken consistent with a permanent remedy to prevent or minimize the release of hazardous substances into the environment so that such substances do not migrate to cause substantial danger to present or future public health or welfare or the environment.
“(3) Institution of higher education.—The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001].
“(4) Secretary.—The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Defense.
“(j) Conforming Repeal.—Section 4452 of the Defense Conversion, Reinvestment, and Transition Assistance Act of 1992 (division D of Public Law 102–484; 10 U.S.C. 2701 note) is repealed.”
Environmental Education Opportunities Program

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, § 1334,Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1801, as amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(2)(E),Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617, provided that:
“(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, may establish a scholarship program in order to enable eligible individuals described in subsection (d) to undertake the educational training or activities relating to environmental engineering, environmental sciences, or environmental project management in fields related to hazardous waste management and cleanup described in subsection (b) at the institutions of higher education described in subsection (c).
“(b) Educational Training or Activities.—(1) The program established under subsection (a) shall be limited to educational training or activities related to—
“(A) site remediation;
“(B) site characterization;
“(C) hazardous waste management;
“(D) hazardous waste reduction;
“(E) recycling;
“(F) process and materials engineering;
“(G) training for positions related to environmental engineering, environmental sciences, or environmental project management (including training for management positions); and
“(H) environmental engineering with respect to the construction of facilities to address the items described in subparagraphs (A) through (G).
“(2) The program established under subsection (a) shall be limited to educational training or activities designed to enable individuals to achieve specialization in the following fields:
“(A) Earth sciences.
“(B) Chemistry.
“(C) Chemical Engineering.
“(D) Environmental engineering.
“(E) Statistics.
“(F) Toxicology.
“(G) Industrial hygiene.
“(H) Health physics.
“(I) Environmental project management.
“(c) Eligible Institutions of Higher Education.—Scholarship funds awarded under this section shall be used by individuals awarded scholarships to enable such individuals to attend institutions of higher education associated with hazardous substance research centers to enable such individuals to undertake a program of educational training or activities described in subsection (b) that leads to an undergraduate degree, a graduate degree, or a degree or certificate that is supplemental to an academic degree.
“(d) Eligible Individuals.—Individuals eligible for scholarships under the program established under subsection (a) are the following:
“(1) Any member of the Armed Forces who—
“(A) was on active duty or full-time National Guard duty on September 30, 1990;
“(B) during the 5-year period beginning on that date—
“(i) is involuntarily separated (as defined in section 1141 of title 10, United States Code) from active duty or full-time National Guard duty; or
“(ii) is separated from active duty or full-time National Guard duty pursuant to a special separation benefits program under section 1174a of title 10, United States Code, or the voluntary separation incentive program under section 1175 of that title; and
“(C) is not entitled to retired or retainer pay incident to that separation.
“(2) Any civilian employee of the Department of Energy or the Department of Defense (other than an employee referred to in paragraph (3)) who—
“(A) is terminated or laid off from such employment during the five-year period beginning on September 30, 1990, as a result of reductions in defense-related spending (as determined by the appropriate Secretary); and
“(B) is not entitled to retired or retainer pay incident to that termination or lay off.
“(3) Any civilian employee of the Department of Defense whose employment at a military installation approved for closure or realignment under a base closure law is terminated as a result of such closure or realignment.
“(e) Award of Scholarship.—(1)(A) The Secretary of Defense shall award scholarships under this section to such eligible individuals as the Secretary determines appropriate pursuant to regulations or policies promulgated by the Secretary.
“(B) In awarding a scholarship under this section, the Secretary shall—
“(i) take into consideration the extent to which the qualifications and experience of the individual applying for the scholarship prepared such individual for the educational training or activities to be undertaken; and
“(ii) award a scholarship only to an eligible individual who has been accepted for enrollment in the institution of higher education described in subsection (c) and providing the educational training or activities for which the scholarship assistance is sought.
“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall determine the amount of the scholarships awarded under this section, except that the amount of scholarship assistance awarded to any individual under this section may not exceed—
“(A) $10,000 in any 12-month period; and
“(B) a total of $20,000.
“(f) Application; Period for Submission.—(1) Each individual desiring a scholarship under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary of Defense in such manner and containing or accompanied by such information as the Secretary may reasonably require.
“(2) A member of the Armed Forces described in subsection (d)(1) who desires to apply for a scholarship under this section shall submit an application under this subsection not later than 180 days after the date of the separation of the member. In the case of members described in subsection (d)(1) who were separated before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993], the Secretary shall accept applications from these members submitted during the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(3) A civilian employee described in paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (d) who desires to apply for a scholarship under this section, but who receives no prior notice of such termination or lay off, may submit an application under this subsection at any time after such termination or lay off. A civilian employee described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (d) who receives a notice of termination or lay off shall submit an application not later than 180 days before the effective date of the termination or lay off. In the case of employees described in such paragraphs who were terminated or laid off before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1993], the Secretary shall accept applications from these employees submitted during the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(g) Repayment.—(1) Any individual receiving scholarship assistance from the Secretary of Defense under this section shall enter into an agreement with the Secretary under which the individual agrees to pay to the United States the total amount of the scholarship assistance provided to the individual by the Secretary under this section, plus interest at the rate prescribed in paragraph (4), if the individual does not complete the educational training or activities for which such assistance is provided.
“(2) If an individual fails to pay to the United States the total amount required pursuant to paragraph (1), including the interest, at the rate prescribed in paragraph (4), the unpaid amount shall be recoverable by the United States from the individual or such individual’s estate by—
“(A) in the case of an individual who is an employee of the United States, set off against accrued pay, compensation, amount of retirement credit, or other amount due the employee from the United States; and
“(B) such other method as is provided by law for the recovery of amounts owing to the United States.
“(3) The Secretary of Defense may waive in whole or in part a required repayment under this subsection if the Secretary determines that the recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States.
“(4) The total amount of scholarship assistance provided to an individual under this section, for purposes of repayment under this subsection, shall bear interest at the applicable rate of interest under section 427A(c) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1077a (c)).
“(h) Coordination of Benefits.—Any scholarship assistance provided to an individual under this section shall be taken into account in determining the eligibility of the individual for Federal student financial assistance provided under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq. [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.]).
“(i) Report to Congress.—Not later than January 1, 1995, the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall submit to the Congress a report describing the activities undertaken under the program authorized by subsection (a) and containing recommendations for future activities under the program.
“(j) Funding.—(1) To carry out the scholarship program authorized by subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense may use the unobligated balance of funds made available pursuant to section 4451(k) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993 (Public Law 102–484; 10 U.S.C. 2701 note) for fiscal year 1993 for environmental scholarship and fellowship programs for the Department of Defense.
“(2) The cost of carrying out the program authorized by subsection (a) may not exceed $8,000,000 in any fiscal year.
“(k) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:
“(1) The term ‘base closure law’ means the following:
“(A) Title II of the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act (Public Law 100–526; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note).
“(B) The Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note).
“(2) The term ‘hazardous substance research centers’ means the hazardous substance research centers described in section 311(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9660 (d)). Such term includes the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Hazardous Substance Research Center, the Northeast Hazardous Substance Research Center, the Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic Hazardous Substance Research Center, the South and Southwest Hazardous Substance Research Center, and the Western Region Hazardous Substance Research Center.
“(3) The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the same meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001].”
Training and Employment of Department of Defense Employees To Carry Out Environmental Restoration at Military Installations To Be Closed

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, § 1335,Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1804, provided that:
“(a) Training Program.—The Secretary of Defense may establish a program to provide such training to eligible civilian employees of the Department of Defense as the Secretary considers to be necessary to qualify such employees to carry out environmental assessment, remediation, and restoration activities (including asbestos abatement) at military installations closed or to be closed.
“(b) Employment of Graduates.—In the case of eligible civilian employees of the Department of Defense who successfully complete the training program established pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary may—
“(1) employ such employees to carry out environmental assessment, remediation, and restoration activities at military installations referred to in subsection (a); or
“(2) require, as a condition of a contract for the private performance of such activities at such an installation, the contractor to be engaged in carrying out such activities to employ such employees.
“(c) Eligible Employees.—Eligibility for selection to participate in the training program under subsection (a) shall be limited to those civilian employees of the Department of Defense whose employment would be terminated by reason of the closure of a military installation if not for the selection of the employees to participate in the training program.
“(d) Priority in Training and Employment.—The Secretary shall give priority in providing training and employment under this section to eligible civilian employees employed at a military installation the closure of which will directly result in the termination of the employment of at least 1,000 civilian employees of the Department of Defense.
“(e) Effect on Other Environmental Requirements.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to revise or modify any requirement established under Federal or State law relating to environmental assessment, remediation, or restoration activities at military installations closed or to be closed.”
Cooperative Agreements and Grants To Implement Legacy Resource Management Program

Pub. L. 103–139, title II, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1422, provided in part: “That notwithstanding the provisions of the Federal Cooperative Grant and Agreement Act of 1977 (31 U.S.C. 6303–6308), the Department of Defense may hereafter negotiate and enter into cooperative agreements and grants with public and private agencies, organizations, institutions, individuals or other entities to implement the purposes of the Legacy Resource Management Program”.
Pilot Program for Expedited Environmental Response Actions

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, § 323,Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2365, provided that:
“(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a pilot program to expedite the performance of on-site environmental restoration at—
“(1) military installations scheduled for closure under title II of the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act (Public Law 100–526; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note);
“(2) military installations scheduled for closure under the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (part A of title XXIX of Public Law 101–510; 10 U.S.C. 2687 note); and
“(3) facilities for which the Secretary is responsible under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program established under section 2701 of title 10, United States Code.
“(b) Selection of Installations and Facilities.—(1) For participation in the pilot program, the Secretary shall select—
“(A) 2 military installations referred to in subsection (a)(1);
“(B) 4 military installations referred to in subsection (a)(2), consisting of—
“(i) 2 military installations scheduled for closure as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 23, 1992]; and
“(ii) 2 military installations included in the list transmitted by the Secretary no later than April 15, 1993, pursuant to section 2903(c)(1) of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–510] (10 U.S.C. 2687 note) and recommended in a report transmitted by the President in that year pursuant to section 2903(e) of such Act and for which a joint resolution disapproving such recommendations is not enacted by the deadline set forth in section 2904(b) of such Act [10 U.S.C. 2687 note]; and
“(C) not less than 4 facilities referred to in subsection (a)(3) with respect to each military department.
“(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the selections under paragraph (1) shall be made not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.
“(B) The selections under paragraph (1) of military installations described in subparagraph (B)(ii) of such paragraph shall be made not later than 60 days after the date on which the deadline (set forth in section 2904(b) of such Act) for enacting a joint resolution of disapproval with respect to the report transmitted by the President has passed.
“(3) The installations and facilities selected under paragraph (1) shall be representative of—
“(A) a variety of the environmental restoration activities required for facilities under the Defense Environmental Restoration Program and for military installations scheduled for closure under the Defense Authorization Amendments and Base Closure and Realignment Act (10 U.S.C. 2687 note) [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note under 10 U.S.C. 2687] and the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (10 U.S.C. 2687 note); and
“(B) the different sizes of such environmental restoration activities to provide, to the maximum extent practicable, opportunities for the full range of business sizes to enter into environmental restoration contracts with the Department of Defense and with prime contractors to perform activities under the pilot program.
“(c) Execution of Program.—Subject to subsection (d), and to the maximum extent possible, the Secretary shall, in order to eliminate redundant tasks and to accelerate environmental restoration at military installations, use the authorities granted in existing law to carry out the pilot program, including—
“(1) the development and use of innovative contracting techniques;
“(2) the use of all reasonable and appropriate methods to expedite necessary Federal and State administrative decisions, agreements, and concurrences; and
“(3) the use (including any necessary request for the use) of existing authorities to ensure that environmental restoration activities under the pilot program are conducted expeditiously, with particular emphasis on activities that may be conducted in advance of any final plan for environmental restoration.
“(d) Program Principles.—The Secretary shall carry out the pilot program consistent with the following principles:
“(1) Activities of the pilot program shall be carried out subject to and in accordance with all applicable Federal and State laws and regulations.
“(2) Competitive procedures shall be used to select the contractors.
“(3) The experience and ability of the contractors shall be considered, in addition to cost, as a factor to be evaluated in the selection of the contractors.
“(e) Program Restrictions.—The pilot program established in this section shall not result in the delay of environmental restoration activities at other military installations and former sites of the Department of Defense.”
Overseas Environmental Restoration

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, § 324,Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2367, as amended by Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title X, § 1031(d)(1),Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1604, provided that:
“It is the sense of the Congress that in carrying out environmental restoration activities at military installations outside the United States, the President should seek to obtain an equitable division of the costs of environmental restoration with the nation in which the installation is located.”
Environmental Scholarship and Fellowship Programs for Department of Defense

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, § 4451,Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2735, as amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title I, § 102(a)(2)(F),Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1617, provided that:
“(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Defense (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Secretary’) may conduct scholarship and fellowship programs for the purpose of enabling individuals to qualify for employment in the field of environmental restoration or other environmental programs in the Department of Defense.
“(b) Eligibility.—To be eligible to participate in the scholarship or fellowship program, an individual must—
“(1) be accepted for enrollment or be currently enrolled as a full-time student at an institution of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001]);
“(2) be pursuing a program of education that leads to an appropriate higher education degree in engineering, biology, chemistry, or another qualifying field related to environmental activities, as determined by the Secretary;
“(3) sign an agreement described in subsection (c);
“(4) be a citizen or national of the United States or be an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; and
“(5) meet any other requirements prescribed by the Secretary.
“(c) Agreement.—An agreement between the Secretary and an individual participating in a scholarship or fellowship established in subsection (a) shall be in writing, shall be signed by the individual, and shall include the following provisions:
“(1) The agreement of the Secretary to provide the individual with educational assistance for a specified number of school years (not to exceed 5 years) during which the individual is pursuing a course of education in a qualifying field. The assistance may include payment of tuition, fees, books, laboratory expenses, and (in the case of a fellowship) a stipend.
“(2) The agreement of the individual to perform the following:
“(A) Accept such educational assistance.
“(B) Maintain enrollment and attendance in the educational program until completed.
“(C) Maintain, while enrolled in the educational program, satisfactory academic progress as prescribed by the institution of higher education in which the individual is enrolled.
“(D) Serve, upon completion of the educational program and selection by the Secretary under subsection (e), as a full-time employee in an environmental restoration or other environmental position in the Department of Defense for the applicable period of service specified in subsection (d).
“(d) Period of Service.—The period of service required under subsection (c)(2)(D) is as follows:
“(1) For an individual who completes a bachelor’s degree under a scholarship program established under subsection (a), a period of 12 months for each school year or part thereof for which the individual is provided a scholarship under the program.
“(2) For an individual who completes a master’s degree or other post-graduate degree under a fellowship program established under subsection (a), a period of 24 months for each school year or part thereof for which the individual is provided a fellowship under the program.
“(e) Selection for Service.—The Secretary shall annually review the number and performance under the agreement of individuals who complete educational programs during the preceding year under any scholarship and fellowship programs conducted pursuant to subsection (a). From among such individuals, the Secretary shall select individuals for environmental positions in the Department of Defense, based on the type and availability of such positions.
“(f) Repayment.—(1) Any individual participating in a scholarship or fellowship program under this section shall agree to pay to the United States the total amount of educational assistance provided to the individual under the program, plus interest at the rate prescribed in paragraph (4), if—
“(A) the individual does not complete the educational program as agreed to pursuant to subsection (c)(2)(B), or is selected by the Secretary under subsection (e) but declines to serve, or fails to complete the service, in a position in the Department of Defense as agreed to pursuant to subsection (c)(2)(D); or
“(B) the individual is involuntarily separated for cause from the Department of Defense before the end of the period for which the individual has agreed to continue in the service of the Department of Defense.
“(2) If an individual fails to fulfill the agreement of the individual to pay to the United States the total amount of educational assistance provided under a program established under subsection (a), plus interest at the rate prescribed in paragraph (4), a sum equal to the amount of the educational assistance (plus such interest, if applicable) shall be recoverable by the United States from the individual or his estate by—
“(A) in the case of an individual who is an employee of the Department of Defense or other Federal agency, set off against accrued pay, compensation, amount of retirement credit, or other amount due the employee from the United States; and
“(B) such other method provided by law for the recovery of amounts owing to the United States.
“(3) The Secretary may waive in whole or in part a required repayment under this subsection if the Secretary determines the recovery would be against equity and good conscience or would be contrary to the best interests of the United States.
“(4) The total amount of educational assistance provided to an individual under a program established under subsection (a) shall, for purposes of repayment under this section, bear interest at the applicable rate of interest under section 427A(c) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1077a (c)).
“(g) Preference.—In evaluating applicants for the award of a scholarship or fellowship under a program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall give a preference to—
“(1) individuals who are, or have been, employed by the Department of Defense or its contractors and subcontractors who have been engaged in defense-related activities; and
“(2) individuals who are or have been members of the Armed Forces.
“(h) Coordination of Benefits.—A scholarship or fellowship awarded under this section shall be taken into account in determining the eligibility of the individual for Federal student financial assistance provided under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1070 et seq.) [and 42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.].
“(i) Award of Scholarships and Fellowships.—The Secretary may award to qualified applicants not more than 100 scholarships (for undergraduate students) and not more than 30 fellowships (for graduate students) in fiscal year 1993.
“(j) Report to Congress.—Not later than January 1, 1994, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report on activities undertaken under the programs established under subsection (a) and recommendations for future activities under the programs.
“(k) Funding for Fiscal Year 1993.—Of the amount authorized to be appropriated in section 301(5) [106 Stat. 2360]—
“(1) $7,000,000 shall be available to carry out the scholarship and fellowship programs established in subsection (a); and
“(2) $3,000,000 shall be available to provide training to Department of Defense personnel to obtain the skills required to comply with existing environmental statutory and regulatory requirements.”
Grants to Institutions of Higher Education To Provide Training in Environmental Restoration and Hazardous Waste Management

Pub. L. 102–484, div. D, title XLIV, § 4452,Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2738, authorized the Secretary of Defense to establish a program to assist institutions of higher education, as defined in former section 1141 (a) of Title 20, Education, to provide education and training in environmental restoration and hazardous waste management and to award grants to such institutions, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XIII, § 1333(j),Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1800. See section 1333 ofPub. L. 103–160, set out above.
Policies and Report on Overseas Environmental Compliance

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, § 342(b),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1537, provided that:
“(1) The Secretary of Defense shall develop a policy for determining applicable environmental requirements for military installations located outside the United States. In developing the policy, the Secretary shall ensure that the policy gives consideration to adequately protecting the health and safety of military and civilian personnel assigned to such installations.
“(2) The Secretary of Defense shall develop a policy for determining the responsibilities of the Department of Defense with respect to cleaning up environmental contamination that may be present at military installations located outside the United States. In developing the policy, the Secretary shall take into account applicable international agreements (such as Status of Forces agreements), multinational or joint use and operation of such installations, relative share of the collective defense burden, and negotiated accommodations.
“(3) The Secretary of Defense shall develop a policy and strategy to ensure adequate oversight of compliance with applicable environmental requirements and responsibilities of the Department of Defense determined under the policies developed under paragraphs (1) and (2). In developing the policy, the Secretary shall consider using the Inspector General of the Department of Defense to ensure active and forceful oversight.
“(4) At the same time the President submits to Congress his budget for fiscal year 1993 pursuant to section 1105 of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report describing the policies developed under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3). The report also shall include a discussion of the role of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense in overseeing environmental compliance at military installations outside the United States.
“(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term ‘military installation’ means a base, camp, post, station, yard, center, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a military department which is located outside the United States and outside any territory, commonwealth, or possession of the United States.”
Environmental Education Program for Department of Defense Personnel

Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, § 344,Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1538, directed Secretary of Defense to establish a program for the purpose of educating Department of Defense personnel in environmental management and, not later than date on which President submits budget for FY 1992 to Congress pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 1105 (a), to submit to Congress recommendations regarding whether program should be continued after Sept. 30, 1991.
Use of Ozone Depleting Substances Within Department of Defense

Pub. L. 102–484, div. A, title III, § 325,Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2367, required the Director of the Defense Logistics Agency to evaluate the use of class I and class II substances, listed under 42 U.S.C. 7671a, by the military departments and Defense Agencies for the years 1992 to 1995 and to submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the status of the evaluation in 1993.
Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, § 345,Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1538, provided that:
“(a) DOD Requirements for Ozone Depleting Chemicals Other Than CFCs.—(1) In addition to the functions of the advisory committee established pursuant to section 356(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 [Pub. L. 101–189] (10 U.S.C. 2701 note), it shall be the function of the Committee to study (A) the use of methyl chloroform, hydrochlorofluorcarbons (HCFCs), and carbon tetrachloride by the Department of Defense and by contractors in the performance of contracts for the Department of Defense, and (B) the costs and feasibility of using alternative compounds or technologies for methyl chloroform, HCFCs, and carbon tetrachloride.
“(2) Within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 5, 1990], the Secretary shall provide the Committee with a list of all military specifications, standards, and other requirements that specify the use of methyl chloroform, HCFCs, or carbon tetrachloride.
“(3) Within 150 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall provide the Committee with a list of all military specifications, standards, and other requirements that do not specify use of methyl chloroform, HCFCs, or carbon tetrachloride but cannot be met without the use of one or more of such substances.
“(b) Requirement.—In preparing the report required by section 356(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 [Pub. L. 101–189, set out below] and the report required by subsection (d) of this section, the Committee shall work closely with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Council and shall provide to such Council such reports.
“(c) Extension of Reporting Deadline for CFCs.—The deadline for submitting to Congress the report required by section 356(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 concerning the uses of CFCs is hereby extended to June 30, 1991.
“(d) Reporting Deadline for Methyl Chloroform, HCFCs, and Carbon Tetrachloride.—Not later than September 30, 1991, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing the results of the study by the Committee required by subsection (a)(1) of this section.”
Requirement for Development of Environmental Data Base

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, § 352,Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1423, provided that:
“(a) Environmental Data Base.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and maintain a comprehensive data base on environmental activities carried out by the Department of Defense pursuant to, and environmental compliance obligations to which the Department is subject under, chapter 160 of title 10, United States Code, and all other applicable Federal and State environmental laws. At a minimum, the information in the data base shall include all the fines and penalties assessed against the Department of Defense pursuant to environmental laws and paid by the Department, all notices of violations of environmental laws received by the Department, and all obligations of the Department for compliance with environmental laws. The Secretary may include any other information he considers appropriate.
“(b) Report.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report on the progress in development of the data base required under subsection (a). The report shall include a summary of the information collected for the data base with respect to environmental activities during 1989.”
Funding for Waste Minimization Programs for Certain Industrial-Type Activities of Department of Defense

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, § 354,Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1424, as amended by Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title III, § 332,Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1340, directed the Secretary of Defense to require the Secretary of each military department to establish a program for fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 to reduce the volume of solid and hazardous wastes disposed of, and hazardous materials used by, each industrial-type activity within the department that was a depot maintenance installation and for which a working-capital fund had been established under section 2208 of this title, and to submit to Congress, not later than 90 days after Nov. 29, 1989, the name of each industrial-type or commercial-type activity of each military department which was not covered by the waste minimization program because the activity did not carry out depot maintenance installation functions.
Use of Chlorofluorocarbons and Halons in Department of Defense

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, § 356,Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1425, as amended by Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title IX, § 904(f),Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1729; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title IX, § 911(a)(1),Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 717, provided that:
“(a) Chlorofluorocarbons Emission Reduction.—The Secretary of Defense shall formulate and carry out, through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics a program to reduce the unnecessary release of chlorofluorocarbons (hereinafter in this section referred to as ‘CFCs’) and halons into the atmosphere in connection with maintenance operations and training and testing practices of the Department of Defense.
“(b) Report.—(1) Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives a report describing the program the Secretary proposes to carry out pursuant to subsection (a). The Secretary shall specify in the report the reduction goals that are attainable on the basis of known technology, including the use of refrigerant recovery systems currently available. The Secretary shall include in the report a schedule for meeting those goals. The Secretary shall also include in such report reduction goals that can be achieved only with the use of new technology and assess the technologies and investment that will be required to attain those goals within a five-year period.
“(2) Before the report required under paragraph (1) is submitted to the committees named in such paragraph, the Secretary shall transmit a copy of the report to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for comment.
“(c) DOD Requirements for CFCs.—(1) Not later than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1989], the Secretary shall establish an advisory committee to be known as the ‘CFC Advisory Committee’ (hereinafter in this section referred to as the ‘Committee’). The Committee shall be composed of not more than 15 members, with an equal number of representatives from the Department of Defense, the Environmental Protection Agency, and defense contractors. Members representing defense contractors shall be contractors that supply the Department of Defense with products or equipment that require the use of CFCs.
“(2) It shall be the function of the Committee to study (A) the use of CFCs by the Department of Defense and by contractors in the performance of contracts for the Department of Defense, and (B) the cost and feasibility of using alternative compounds for CFCs or using alternative technologies that do not require the use of CFCs.
“(3) Within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall provide the Committee with a list of all military specifications, standards, and other requirements that specify the use of CFCs.
“(4) Within 150 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall provide the Committee with a list of all military specifications, standards, and other requirements that do not specify use of CFCs but cannot be met without the use of CFCs.
“(d) Report.—Not later than September 30, 1990, the Secretary shall submit to the committees named in subsection (b) a report containing the results of the study by the Committee. The report shall—
“(1) identify cases in which the Committee found that substitutes for CFCs could be made most expeditiously;
“(2) identify the feasibility and cost of substituting compounds or technologies for CFC uses referred to in subsection (c)(3) and estimate the time necessary for completing the substitution;
“(3) identify CFC uses referred to in subsection (c)(4) for which substitutes are not currently available and indicate the reasons substitutes are not available;
“(4) describe the types of research programs that should be undertaken to identify substitute compounds or technologies for CFC uses referred to in paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (c) and estimate the cost of the program;
“(5) recommend procedures to expedite the use of substitute compounds and technologies offered by contractors to replace CFC uses;
“(6) estimate the earliest date on which CFCs will no longer be required for military applications; and
“(7) estimate the cost of revising military specifications for the use of substitutes for CFCs, the additional costs resulting from modification of Department of Defense contracts to provide for the use of substitutes for CFCs, and the cost of purchasing new equipment and reverification necessitated by the use of substitutes for CFCs.”
Report on Environmental Requirements and Priorities

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, § 358,Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1427, directed Secretary of Defense, not later than two years after Nov. 29, 1989, to submit to Congress a comprehensive report on the long-range environmental challenges and goals of the Department of Defense.
Study of Waste Recycling

Pub. L. 101–189, div. A, title III, § 361,Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1429, as amended by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title III, § 343,Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1538, required the Secretary of Defense to conduct a study of current practices and future plans for managing postconsumer waste at facilities of the Department of Defense at which such waste was generated and the feasibility of such Department of Defense facilities participating in programs at military installations or in local communities to recycle the postconsumer waste generated at the facilities, and to submit to Congress a report describing the findings and conclusions of the Secretary resulting from the study not later than Mar. 1, 1991.
Use of Department of Defense Appropriations for Removal of Unsafe Buildings or Debris

Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, § 9038,Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1137, which authorized appropriations available to the Department of Defense to be used at sites formerly used by the Department for removal of unsafe buildings or debris of the Department and required that removal be completed before the property is released from Federal Government control, was repealed and restated in subsecs. (f) and (g) of this section by Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XIV, § 1481(i),Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1708.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

10 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large
§ 2701nt2013113-66 [Sec.] 314127 Stat. 729
§ 27012012112-239 [Sec.] 2711(c)(4)(A)126 Stat. 2144
§ 2701nt new2012112-239 [Sec.] 2711(d)126 Stat. 2144

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.