10 U.S. Code § 825 - Art. 25. Who may serve on courts-martial

(a) Any commissioned officer on active duty is eligible to serve on all courts-martial for the trial of any person who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial.
(b) Any warrant officer on active duty is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any person, other than a commissioned officer, who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial.
(c)
(1) Any enlisted member of an armed force on active duty who is not a member of the same unit as the accused is eligible to serve on general and special courts-martial for the trial of any enlisted member of an armed force who may lawfully be brought before such courts for trial, but he shall serve as a member of a court only if, before the conclusion of a session called by the military judge under section 839 (a) of this title (article 39(a)) prior to trial or, in the absence of such a session, before the court is assembled for the trial of the accused, the accused personally has requested orally on the record or in writing that enlisted members serve on it. After such a request, the accused may not be tried by a general or special court-martial the membership of which does not include enlisted members in a number comprising at least, one-third of the total membership of the court, unless eligible enlisted members cannot be obtained on account of physical conditions or military exigencies. If such members cannot be obtained, the court may be assembled and the trial held without them, but the convening authority shall make a detailed written statement, to be appended to the record, stating why they could not be obtained.
(2) In this article, “unit” means any regularly organized body as defined by the Secretary concerned, but in no case may it be a body larger than a company, squadron, ship’s crew, or body corresponding to one of them.
(d)
(1) When it can be avoided, no member of an armed force may be tried by a court-martial any member of which is junior to him in rank or grade.
(2) When convening a court-martial, the convening authority shall detail as members thereof such members of the armed forces as, in his opinion, are best qualified for the duty by reason of age, education, training, experience, length of service, and judicial temperament. No member of an armed force is eligible to serve as a member of a general or special court-martial when he is the accuser or a witness for the prosecution or has acted as investigating officer or as counsel in the same case.
(e) Before a court-martial is assembled for the trial of a case, the convening authority may excuse a member of the court from participating in the case. Under such regulations as the Secretary concerned may prescribe, the convening authority may delegate his authority under this subsection to his staff judge advocate or legal officer or to any other principal assistant.

Source

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 45; Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(7),Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1336; Pub. L. 98–209, §§ 3(b), 13(c),Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1394, 1408; Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VIII, § 803(a),Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3906.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
825(a)
825(b) 50:589(a).
50:589(b). May 5, 1950, ch. 169, § 1 (Art. 25), 64 Stat. 116.
825(c) 50:589(c).
825(d) 50:589(d).

In subsection (a), the word “commissioned” is inserted before the word “officer” for clarity. The word “is” is substituted for the words “shall be”.
In subsections (a), (b), and (c)(1), the words “with the armed forces” are omitted as surplusage.
In subsection (b), the word “is” is substituted for the words “shall be”. The words “a commissioned” are substituted for the word “an” for clarity.
In subsection (c), the words “member” and “members”, respectively are substituted for the words “person” and “persons”. The words “of an armed force” are inserted for clarity.
In subsection (c)(1), the word “is” is substituted for the words “shall be”. The word “before” is substituted for the words “prior to”. The words “the accused may not” are substituted for the words “no enlisted person shall”, for clarity. The word “If” is substituted for the word “Where”.
In subsection (c)(2), the word “means” is substituted for the words “shall mean”. The words “Secretary concerned” are substituted for the words “Secretary of the Department”. The word “may” is substituted for the word “shall”. The word “than”, before the words “a body”, is omitted as surplusage.
In subsection (d)(1), the word “may” is substituted for the word “shall”. The word “member” is substituted for the word “person”.
In subsection (d)(2), the word “is” is substituted for the words “shall be”. The word “detail” is substituted for the word “appoint”, since the filling of the position involved is not appointment to an office in the constitutional sense. The words “member of an armed force” and “members of the armed forces”, respectively, are substituted for the words “person” and “persons”.
Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–661substituted “has requested orally on the record or in writing” for “has requested in writing”.
1983—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–209, § 13(c), struck out “the word” before “ ‘unit’ ”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–209, § 3(b), added subsec. (e).
1968—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 90–632inserted requirement that an accused’s request for inclusion of enlisted members on his court-martial be made before conclusion of a pre-trial session called by the military judge under section 839 (a) or before the court is assembled for his trial and substituted “assembled” for “convened” to describe the calling together of the court for the trial in provision allowing such calling together without requested enlisted members if such members cannot be obtained.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–661, div. A, title VIII, § 803(b),Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3906, provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only to a case in which arraignment is completed on or after the effective date of this title.”
Title VIII of Pub. L. 99–661effective the earlier of (1) the last day of the 120-day period beginning on Nov. 14, 1986; or (2) the date specified in an Executive order for such amendment to take effect, see section 808 ofPub. L. 99–661, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.
Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by section 13(c) ofPub. L. 98–209effective Dec. 6, 1983, and amendment by section 3(b) ofPub. L. 98–209effective first day of eighth calendar month beginning after Dec. 6, 1983, see section 12(a)(1) ofPub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.
Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632effective first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 ofPub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

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32 CFR - National Defense

32 CFR Part 143 - DOD POLICY ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT SEEK TO REPRESENT OR ORGANIZE MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES IN NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

 

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