10 U.S. Code § 838 - Art. 38. Duties of trial counsel and defense counsel

(a) The trial counsel of a general or special court-martial shall prosecute in the name of the United States, and shall, under the direction of the court, prepare the record of the proceedings.
(b)
(1) The accused has the right to be represented in his defense before a general or special court-martial or at an investigation under section 832 of this title (article 32) as provided in this subsection.
(2) The accused may be represented by civilian counsel if provided by him.
(3) The accused may be represented—
(A) by military counsel detailed under section 827 of this title (article 27); or
(B) by military counsel of his own selection if that counsel is reasonably available (as determined under regulations prescribed under paragraph (7)).
(4) If the accused is represented by civilian counsel, military counsel detailed or selected under paragraph (3) shall act as associate counsel unless excused at the request of the accused.
(5) Except as provided under paragraph (6), if the accused is represented by military counsel of his own selection under paragraph (3)(B), any military counsel detailed under paragraph (3)(A) shall be excused.
(6) The accused is not entitled to be represented by more than one military counsel. However, the person authorized under regulations prescribed under section 827 of this title (article 27) to detail counsel, in his sole discretion—
(A) may detail additional military counsel as assistant defense counsel; and
(B) if the accused is represented by military counsel of his own selection under paragraph (3)(B), may approve a request from the accused that military counsel detailed under paragraph (3)(A) act as associate defense counsel.
(7) The Secretary concerned shall, by regulation, define “reasonably available” for the purpose of paragraph (3)(B) and establish procedures for determining whether the military counsel selected by an accused under that paragraph is reasonably available. Such regulations may not prescribe any limitation based on the reasonable availability of counsel solely on the grounds that the counsel selected by the accused is from an armed force other than the armed force of which the accused is a member. To the maximum extent practicable, such regulations shall establish uniform policies among the armed forces while recognizing the differences in the circumstances and needs of the various armed forces. The Secretary concerned shall submit copies of regulations prescribed under this paragraph to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.
(c) In any court-martial proceeding resulting in a conviction, the defense counsel—
(1) may forward for attachment to the record of proceedings a brief of such matters as he determines should be considered in behalf of the accused on review (including any objection to the contents of the record which he considers appropriate);
(2) may assist the accused in the submission of any matter under section 860 of this title (article 60); and
(3) may take other action authorized by this chapter.
(d) An assistant trial counsel of a general court-martial may, under the direction of the trial counsel or when he is qualified to be a trial counsel as required by section 827 of this title (article 27), perform any duty imposed by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon the trial counsel of the court. An assistant trial counsel of a special court-martial may perform any duty of the trial counsel.
(e) An assistant defense counsel of a general or special court-martial may, under the direction of the defense counsel or when he is qualified to be the defense counsel as required by section 827 of this title (article 27), perform any duty imposed by law, regulation, or the custom of the service upon counsel for the accused.

Source

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 50; Pub. L. 90–632, § 2(14),Oct. 24, 1968, 82 Stat. 1338; Pub. L. 97–81, § 4(b),Nov. 20, 1981, 95 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 98–209, § 3(e),Dec. 6, 1983, 97 Stat. 1394; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, § 1502(a)(1),Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, § 1067(1),Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, § 1702(c)(3)(C),Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 957.)
Amendment of Subsection (b)(1)

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XVII, § 1702(c)(3)(C), (d)(1),Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 957, 958, provided that, effective one year after Dec. 26, 2013, and applicable with respect to offenses committed under this chapter on or after that effective date, subsection (b)(1) of this section is amended by striking “an investigation under section 832” and inserting “a preliminary hearing under section 832”. See 2013 Amendment notes below.

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised section Source (U.S. Code) Source (Statutes at Large)
838(a)
838(b)
838(c) 50:613(a).
50:613(b).
50:613(c). May 5, 1950, ch. 169, § 1 (Art. 38), 64 Stat. 120.
838(d) 50:613(d).
838(e) 50:613(e).

In subsection (b), the word “has” is substituted for the words “shall have”. The word “under” is substituted for the words “pursuant to”. The word “duly” is omitted as surplusage. The words “detailed” and “who were detailed” are substituted for the word “appointed”, since the filling of the position involved is not appointment to an office in the constitutional sense.
In subsection (c), the word “considers” is substituted for the words “may deem”.
Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–66substituted “a preliminary hearing under section 832” for “an investigation under section 832”.
1999—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 106–65substituted “and the Committee on Armed Services” for “and the Committee on National Security”.
1996—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–106substituted “Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives” for “Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives”.
1983—Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 98–209, § 3(e)(1), substituted “the person authorized under regulations prescribed under section 827 of this title (article 27) to detail counsel” for “a convening authority”.
Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98–209, § 3(e)(2), inserted provision that such regulations may not prescribe any limitation based on the reasonable availability of counsel solely on the grounds that the counsel selected by the accused is from an armed force other than the armed force of which the accused is a member.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–209, § 3(e)(3), designated existing provisions as par. (1), made minor changes in phraseology and punctuation, and added pars. (2) and (3).
1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–81revised subsec. (b) by dividing its provisions into seven numbered paragraphs and inserted provisions relating to the right to counsel at an investigation under section 832 of this title (article 32), authorizing the promulgation of regulations relating to the “reasonable availability” of military counsel, and authorizing the detailing of additional military counsel for the accused under specified circumstances.
1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–632substituted “military judge or by the president of a court-martial without a military judge” for “president of the court”.
Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–66effective one year after Dec. 26, 2013, and applicable with respect to offenses committed under this chapter on or after that effective date, see section 1702(d)(1) ofPub. L. 113–66, set out as a note under section 802 of this title.
Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–209effective first day of eighth calendar month after Dec. 6, 1983, but not to affect the designation or detail of a military judge or military counsel to a court-martial before that date, see section 12(a)(1), (2) ofPub. L. 98–209, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.
Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–81to take effect at end of 60-day period beginning on Nov. 20, 1981, and to apply to trials by courts-martial in which all charges are referred to trial on or after that date, see section 7(a) and (b)(4) ofPub. L. 97–81, set out as an Effective Date note under section 706 of this title.
Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–632effective on first day of tenth month following October 1968, see section 4 ofPub. L. 90–632, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

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32 CFR - National Defense

32 CFR Part 143 - DOD POLICY ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT SEEK TO REPRESENT OR ORGANIZE MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES IN NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

 

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