(1) Request for hearing.— Within the time specified by the military judge for the filing of a motion under this section, either party may request the military judge to conduct a hearing to make all determinations concerning the use, relevance, or admissibility of classified information that would otherwise be made during the trial or pretrial proceeding.
(2) Conduct of hearing.— Upon a request by either party under paragraph (1), the military judge shall conduct such a hearing and shall rule prior to conducting any further proceedings.
(3) In camera hearing upon declaration to court by appropriate official of risk of disclosure of classified information.— Any hearing held pursuant to this subsection (or any portion of such hearing specified in the request of a knowledgeable United States official) shall be held in camera if a knowledgeable United States official possessing authority to classify information submits to the military judge a declaration that a public proceeding may result in the disclosure of classified information. Classified information is not subject to disclosure under this section unless the information is relevant and necessary to an element of the offense or a legally cognizable defense and is otherwise admissible in evidence.
(4) Military judge to make determinations in writing.— As to each item of classified information, the military judge shall set forth in writing the basis for the determination.
(b) Notice and Use of Classified Information by the Government.—
(1) Notice to accused.— Before any hearing is conducted pursuant to a request by the trial counsel under subsection (a), trial counsel shall provide the accused with notice of the classified information that is at issue. Such notice shall identify the specific classified information at issue whenever that information previously has been made available to the accused by the United States. When the United States has not previously made the information available to the accused in connection with the case the information may be described by generic category, in such forms as the military judge may approve, rather than by identification of the specific information of concern to the United States.
(2) Order by military judge upon request of accused.— Whenever the trial counsel requests a hearing under subsection (a), the military judge, upon request of the accused, may order the trial counsel to provide the accused, prior to trial, such details as to the portion of the charge or specification at issue in the hearing as are needed to give the accused fair notice to prepare for the hearing.
(1) In camera pretrial hearing.— Upon request of the trial counsel pursuant to the Military Commission Rules of Evidence, and in accordance with the security procedures established by the military judge, the military judge shall conduct a classified in camera pretrial hearing concerning the admissibility of classified information.
(2) Protection of sources, methods, and activities by which evidence acquired.— When trial counsel seeks to introduce evidence before a military commission under this chapter and the Executive branch has classified the sources, methods, or activities by which the United States acquired the evidence, the military judge shall permit trial counsel to introduce the evidence, including a substituted evidentiary foundation pursuant to the procedures described in subsection (d), while protecting from disclosure information identifying those sources, methods, or activities, if—
(A)the evidence is otherwise admissible; and
(B)the military judge finds that—
(i)the evidence is reliable; and
(ii)the redaction is consistent with affording the accused a fair trial.
(d) Alternative Procedure for Disclosure of Classified Information.—
(1) Motion by the united states.— Upon any determination by the military judge authorizing the disclosure of specific classified information under the procedures established by this section, the trial counsel may move that, in lieu of the disclosure of such specific classified information, the military judge order—
(A)the substitution for such classified information of a statement admitting relevant facts that the specific classified information would tend to prove;
(B)the substitution for such classified information of a summary of the specific classified information; or
(C)any other procedure or redaction limiting the disclosure of specific classified information.
(2) Action on motion.— The military judge shall grant such a motion of the trial counsel if the military judge finds that the statement, summary, or other procedure or redaction will provide the defendant with substantially the same ability to make his defense as would disclosure of the specific classified information.
(3) Hearing on motion.— The military judge shall hold a hearing on any motion under this subsection. Any such hearing shall be held in camera at the request of a knowledgeable United States official possessing authority to classify information.
(4) Submission of statement of damage to national security if disclosure ordered.— The trial counsel may, in connection with a motion under paragraph (1), submit to the military judge a declaration signed by a knowledgeable United States official possessing authority to classify information certifying that disclosure of classified information would cause identifiable damage to the national security of the United States and explaining the basis for the classification of such information. If so requested by the trial counsel, the military judge shall examine such declaration during an ex parte presentation.
(e) Sealing of Records of in Camera Hearings.— If at the close of an in camera hearing under this section (or any portion of a hearing under this section that is held in camera), the military judge determines that the classified information at issue may not be disclosed or elicited at the trial or pretrial proceeding, the record of such in camera hearing shall be sealed and preserved for use in the event of an appeal. The accused may seek reconsideration of the military judge’s determination prior to or during trial.
(f) Prohibition on Disclosure of Classified Information by the Accused; Relief for Accused When the United States Opposes Disclosure.—
(1) Order to prevent disclosure by accused.— Whenever the military judge denies a motion by the trial counsel that the judge issue an order under subsection (a), (c), or (d) and the trial counsel files with the military judge a declaration signed by a knowledgeable United States official possessing authority to classify information objecting to disclosure of the classified information at issue, the military judge shall order that the accused not disclose or cause the disclosure of such information.
(2)Result of order under paragraph (1).—Whenever an accused is prevented by an order under paragraph (1) from disclosing or causing the disclosure of classified information, the military judge shall dismiss the case, except that, when the military judge determines that the interests of justice would not be served by dismissal of the case, the military judge shall order such other action, in lieu of dismissing the charge or specification, as the military judge determines is appropriate. Such action may include, but need not be limited to, the following:
(A)Dismissing specified charges or specifications.
(B)Finding against the United States on any issue as to which the excluded classified information relates.
(C)Striking or precluding all or part of the testimony of a witness.
(3) Time for the united states to seek interlocutory appeal.— An order under paragraph (2) shall not take effect until the military judge has afforded the United States—
(A)an opportunity to appeal such order under section
950d of this title; and
(B)an opportunity thereafter to withdraw its objection to the disclosure of the classified information at issue.
(1) Disclosure of rebuttal information.— Whenever the military judge determines that classified information may be disclosed in connection with a trial or pretrial proceeding, the military judge shall, unless the interests of fairness do not so require, order the United States to provide the accused with the information it expects to use to rebut the classified information. The military judge may place the United States under a continuing duty to disclose such rebuttal information.
(2) Sanction for failure to comply.— If the United States fails to comply with its obligation under this subsection, the military judge—
(A)may exclude any evidence not made the subject of a required disclosure; and
(B)may prohibit the examination by the United States of any witness with respect to such information.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.
Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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