(a)Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) and subject to section
112, a paper filed in a case under this title and the dockets of a bankruptcy court are public records and open to examination by an entity at reasonable times without charge.
(b)On request of a party in interest, the bankruptcy court shall, and on the bankruptcy court’s own motion, the bankruptcy court may—
(1)protect an entity with respect to a trade secret or confidential research, development, or commercial information; or
(2)protect a person with respect to scandalous or defamatory matter contained in a paper filed in a case under this title.
(1)The bankruptcy court, for cause, may protect an individual, with respect to the following types of information to the extent the court finds that disclosure of such information would create undue risk of identity theft or other unlawful injury to the individual or the individual’s property:
(A)Any means of identification (as defined in section
1028(d) of title
18) contained in a paper filed, or to be filed, in a case under this title.
(B)Other information contained in a paper described in subparagraph (A).
(2)Upon ex parte application demonstrating cause, the court shall provide access to information protected pursuant to paragraph (1) to an entity acting pursuant to the police or regulatory power of a domestic governmental unit.
(3)The United States trustee, bankruptcy administrator, trustee, and any auditor serving under section
586(f) of title
(A)shall have full access to all information contained in any paper filed or submitted in a case under this title; and
(B)shall not disclose information specifically protected by the court under this title.
Subsection (a) of this section makes all papers filed in a bankruptcy case and the dockets of the bankruptcy court public and open to examination at reasonable times without charge. “Docket” includes the claims docket, the proceedings docket, and all papers filed in a case.
Subsection (b) permits the court, on its own motion, and requires the court, on the request of a party in interest, to protect trade secrets, confidential research, development, or commercial information, and to protect persons against scandalous or defamatory matter.
2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–327substituted “subsections (b) and (c)” for “subsection (b) of this section”.
2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–8, § 234(c), which directed the substitution of “subsections (b) and (c),” for “subsection (b),”, could not be executed because “subsection (b),” did not appear in text.
Amendment by Pub. L. 109–8effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 ofPub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section
101 of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.
Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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