11 U.S. Code § 553 - Setoff

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section and in sections 362 and 363 of this title, this title does not affect any right of a creditor to offset a mutual debt owing by such creditor to the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case under this title against a claim of such creditor against the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case, except to the extent that—
(1) the claim of such creditor against the debtor is disallowed;
(2) such claim was transferred, by an entity other than the debtor, to such creditor—
(A) after the commencement of the case; or
(B)
(i) after 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition; and
(ii) while the debtor was insolvent (except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362 (b)(6), 362 (b)(7), 362 (b)(17), 362 (b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561); or
(3) the debt owed to the debtor by such creditor was incurred by such creditor—
(A) after 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition;
(B) while the debtor was insolvent; and
(C) for the purpose of obtaining a right of setoff against the debtor (except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362 (b)(6), 362 (b)(7), 362 (b)(17), 362 (b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561).
(b)
(1) Except with respect to a setoff of a kind described in section 362 (b)(6), 362 (b)(7), 362 (b)(17), 362 (b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, 561, 365 (h), 546 (h), or 365 (i)(2) of this title, if a creditor offsets a mutual debt owing to the debtor against a claim against the debtor on or within 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition, then the trustee may recover from such creditor the amount so offset to the extent that any insufficiency on the date of such setoff is less than the insufficiency on the later of—
(A) 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition; and
(B) the first date during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of the filing of the petition on which there is an insufficiency.
(2) In this subsection, “insufficiency” means amount, if any, by which a claim against the debtor exceeds a mutual debt owing to the debtor by the holder of such claim.
(c) For the purposes of this section, the debtor is presumed to have been insolvent on and during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of the filing of the petition.

Source

(Pub. L. 95–598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2602; Pub. L. 98–353, title III, §§ 395, 467,July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 365, 380; Pub. L. 101–311, title I, § 105,June 25, 1990, 104 Stat. 268; Pub. L. 103–394, title II, §§ 205(b), 222(b), title V, § 501(d)(19),Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4123, 4129, 4146; Pub. L. 109–8, title IX, § 907(n),Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 181.)
Historical and Revision Notes

legislative statements

Section 553 of the House amendment is derived from a similar provision contained in the Senate amendment, but is modified to clarify application of a two-point test with respect to setoffs.
senate report no. 95–989

This section preserves, with some changes, the right of setoff in bankruptcy cases now found in section 68 of the Bankruptcy Act [section 108 of former title 11]. One exception to the right is the automatic stay, discussed in connection with proposed 11 U.S.C. 362. Another is the right of the trustee to use property under section 363 that is subject to a right of setoff.
The section states that the right of setoff is unaffected by the bankruptcy code except to the extent that the creditor’s claim is disallowed, the creditor acquired (other than from the debtor) the claim during the 90 days preceding the case while the debtor was insolvent, the debt being offset was incurred for the purpose of obtaining a right of setoff, while the debtor was insolvent and during the 90-day prebankruptcy period, or the creditor improved his position in the 90-day period (similar to the improvement in position test found in the preference section 547 (c)(5)). Only the last exception is an addition to current law.
As under section 547 (f), the debtor is presumed to have been insolvent during the 90 days before the case.
Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–8, § 907(n)(1), inserted “(except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362 (b)(6), 362 (b)(7), 362 (b)(17), 362 (b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561)” before semicolon.
Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109–8, § 907(n)(2), inserted “(except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362 (b)(6), 362 (b)(7), 362 (b)(17), 362 (b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561)” before period.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–8, § 907(n)(3), substituted “362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, 561,” for “362(b)(14),” in introductory provisions.
1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–394, § 501(d)(19)(A), struck out before semicolon at end “other than under section 502 (b)(3) of this title”.
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–394, § 501(d)(19)(B), substituted “section 362 (b)(14),” for “section 362 (b)(14),,”.
Pub. L. 103–394, § 222(b), which directed the amendment of section 553 (b)(1) by inserting “546(h),” after “365(h),” was executed by making the insertion in section 553 (b)(1) of this title to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Pub. L. 103–394, § 205(b), substituted “365(h)” for “365(h)(2)”.
1990—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–311substituted “362(b)(7), 362(b)(14),” for “362(b)(7),”.
1984—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–353inserted “, 362(b)(7),” after “362(b)(6)”, and substituted “, 365(h)(2), or 365(i)(2)” for “or 365(h)(1)”.
Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–8effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 ofPub. L. 109–8, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–394effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 ofPub. L. 103–394, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–353effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) ofPub. L. 98–353, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.