(As amended Mar. 30, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 30, 1991, eff. Aug. 1, 1991; Apr. 22, 1993, eff. Aug. 1, 1993; Apr. 26, 1999, eff. Dec. 1, 1999; Apr. 17, 2000, eff. Dec. 1, 2000; Apr. 23, 2008, eff. Dec. 1, 2008.)
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1983
Subdivision (a) of this rule is derived from former Bankruptcy Rule
120(a). While the rule applies to voluntary and involuntary cases, the “consent of the parties” referred to is that of petitioning creditors and the debtor in an involuntary case. The last sentence recognizes that the court should not be confined to petitioning creditors in its choice of parties on whom to call for assistance in preparing the list of creditors when the debtor fails to do so. This subdivision implements §§ 303(j), 707, 1112 and 1307 of the Code by specifying the manner of and persons to whom notice shall be given and requiring the court to hold a hearing on the issue of dismissal.
Subdivision (b) is derived from former Bankruptcy Rule
120(b). A dismissal under this subdivision can occur only when the petition has been permitted to be filed pursuant to Rule
. The provision for notice in paragraph (3) is correlated with the provision in Rule
when there is a waiver, denial, or revocation of a discharge. As pointed out in the Note accompanying Rule
, the purpose of notifying creditors of a debtor that no discharge has been granted is to correct their assumption to the contrary so that they can take appropriate steps to protect their claims.
Subdivision (c) is new and specifies the notice required for a hearing on dismissal or suspension pursuant to § 305 of the Code. The suspension to which this subdivision refers is that of the case; it does not concern abstention of the court in hearing an adversary proceeding pursuant to 28
U.S.C. § 1478(b).
Subdivision (d). Any proceeding, whether by a debtor or other party, to dismiss or convert a case under §§ 706,
1307 is commenced by a motion pursuant to Rule
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1987 Amendment
Subdivision (d) is amended to provide that dismissal or conversion pursuant to §§ 706(a),
1307(b) is not automatically a contested matter under Rule
. Conversion or dismissal under these sections is initiated by the filing and serving of a motion as required by Rule
. No hearing is required on these motions unless the court directs.
Conversion of a chapter 13 case to a chapter 7 case as authorized by § 1307(a) is accomplished by the filing of a notice of conversion. The notice of conversion procedure is modeled on the voluntary dismissal provision of Rule
41(a)(1) F.R.Civ.P. Conversion occurs on the filing of the notice. No court order is required.
Subdivision (e) is new and provides the procedure to be followed when a court on its own motion has made a preliminary determination that an individual debtor’s chapter 7 case may be dismissed pursuant to § 707(b) of the Code, which was added by the 1984 amendments. A debtor’s failure to attend the hearing is not a ground for dismissal pursuant to § 707(b).
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1991 Amendment
Subdivision (a) is amended to clarify that all entities required to receive notice under Rule
, including but not limited to creditors, are entitled to the 20 day notice of the hearing to dismiss the case. The United States trustee receives the notice pursuant to Rule
The word “petition” is changed to “case” in subdivisions (a), (b), and (c) to conform to §§ 707,
Subdivision (d) is amended to conform to § 348(c) of the Code which refers to the “conversion order.”
Subdivisions (a) and (d) are amended to provide procedures for dismissal or conversion of a chapter 12 case. Procedures for dismissal or conversion under § 1208(a) and (b) are the same as the procedures for dismissal or conversion of a chapter 13 case under § 1307(a) and (b).
Subdivision (e) is amended to conform to the 1986 amendment to § 707(b) of the Code which permits the United States trustee to make a motion to dismiss a case for substantial abuse. The time limit for such a motion is added by this subdivision. In general, the facts that are the basis for a motion to dismiss under § 707(b) exist at the time the case is commenced and usually can be discovered early in the case by reviewing the debtor’s schedules and examining the debtor at the meeting of creditors. Since dismissal for substantial abuse has the effect of denying the debtor a discharge in the chapter 7 case based on matters which may be discovered early, a motion to dismiss under § 707(b) is analogous to an objection to discharge pursuant to Rule
and, therefore, should be required to be made within a specified time period. If matters relating to substantial abuse are not discovered within the time period specified in subdivision (e) because of the debtor’s false testimony, refusal to obey a court order, fraudulent schedules or other fraud, and the debtor receives a discharge, the debtor’s conduct may constitute the basis for revocation of the discharge under § 727(d) and (e) of the Code.
Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1993 Amendment
Subdivision (d) is amended to clarify that the date of the filing of a notice of conversion in a chapter 12 or chapter 13 case is treated as the date of the conversion order for the purpose of applying Rule
. Other amendments are stylistic and make no substantive change.
Committee Notes on Rules—1999 Amendment
Subdivision (b)(3), which provides that notice of dismissal for failure to pay the filing fee shall be sent to all creditors within 30 days after the dismissal, is deleted as unnecessary. Rule
provides for notice to creditors of the dismissal of a case.
and this rule currently require notice to all creditors of a hearing on dismissal of a voluntary chapter 7 case for the debtor’s failure to file a list of creditors, schedules, and statement of financial affairs within the time provided in § 707(a)(3) of the Code. A new subdivision (c) is added to provide that the United States trustee, who is the only entity with standing to file a motion to dismiss under § 707(a)(3) or§ 1307(c)(9), is required to serve the motion on only the debtor, the trustee, and any other entities as the court directs. This amendment, and the amendment to Rule
, will have the effect of avoiding the expense of sending notices of the motion to all creditors in a chapter 7 case.
New subdivision (f) is the same as current subdivision (d), except that it provides that a motion to suspend all proceedings in a case or to dismiss a case for substantial abuse of chapter 7 under § 707(b) is governed by Rule
Other amendments to this rule are stylistic or for clarification.
GAP Report on Rule
. No changes since publication, except for stylistic changes in Rule
Committee Notes on Rules—2000 Amendment
This rule is amended to permit the court to grant a timely request filed by the United States trustee for an extension of time to file a motion to dismiss a chapter 7 case under § 707(b), whether the court rules on the request before or after the expiration of the 60-day period.
Reporter’s Note on Text of Rule
. The above text of Rule
is not based on the text of the rule in effect on this date. The above text embodies amendments that have been promulgated by the Supreme Court in April 1999 and, unless Congress acts with respect to the amendments, will become effective on December 1, 1999.
GAP Report on Rule
. No changes since publication.
Committee Notes on Rules—2008 Amendment
Subdivision (e) is amended to implement the 2005 amendments to § 707 of the Code. These statutory amendments permit conversion of a chapter 7 case to a case under chapter 11 or 13, change the basis for dismissal or conversion from “substantial abuse” to “abuse,” authorize parties other than the United States trustee to bring motions under § 707(b) under certain circumstances, and add § 707(c) to create an explicit ground for dismissal based on the request of a victim of a crime of violence or drug trafficking. The conforming amendments to subdivision (e) preserve the time limits already in place for § 707(b) motions, except to the extent that § 704(b)(2) sets the deadline for the United States trustee to act. In contrast to the grounds for a motion to dismiss under § 707(b)(2), which are quite specific, the grounds under § 707(b)(1) and (3) are very general. Therefore, to enable the debtor to respond, subdivision (e) requires that motions to dismiss under § 707(b)(1) and (3) state with particularity the circumstances alleged to constitute abuse.
Changes Made After Publication. No changes were made after publication.