12 U.S. Code § 1831j - Depository institution employee protection remedy

(a) In general
(1) Employees of depository institutions
No insured depository institution may discharge or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to the request of the employee) provided information to any Federal banking agency or to the Attorney General regarding—
(A) a possible violation of any law or regulation; or
(B) gross mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety;
by the depository institution or any director, officer, or employee of the institution.
(2) Employees of banking agencies
No Federal banking agency, Federal home loan bank, Federal reserve bank, or any person who is performing, directly or indirectly, any function or service on behalf of the Corporation may discharge or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to the request of the employee) provided information to any such agency or bank or to the Attorney General regarding any possible violation of any law or regulation, gross mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety by—
(A) any depository institution or any such bank or agency;
(B) any director, officer, or employee of any depository institution or any such bank;
(C) any officer or employee of the agency which employs such employee; or
(D) the person, or any officer or employee of the person, who employs such employee.
(b) Enforcement
Any employee or former employee who believes he has been discharged or discriminated against in violation of subsection (a) of this section may file a civil action in the appropriate United States district court before the close of the 2-year period beginning on the date of such discharge or discrimination. The complainant shall also file a copy of the complaint initiating such action with the appropriate Federal banking agency.
(c) Remedies
If the district court determines that a violation of subsection (a) of this section has occurred, it may order the depository institution, Federal home loan bank, Federal Reserve bank, or Federal banking agency which committed the violation—
(1) to reinstate the employee to his former position;
(2) to pay compensatory damages; or
(3) take other appropriate actions to remedy any past discrimination.
(d) Limitation
The protections of this section shall not apply to any employee who—
(1) deliberately causes or participates in the alleged violation of law or regulation; or
(2) knowingly or recklessly provides substantially false information to such an agency or the Attorney General.
(e) “Federal banking agency” defined
For purposes of subsections (a) and (c) of this section, the term “Federal banking agency” means the Corporation, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Housing Finance Agency and the Comptroller of the Currency.
(f) Burdens of proof
The legal burdens of proof that prevail under subchapter III of chapter 12 of title 5 shall govern adjudication of protected activities under this section.

Source

(Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, § 2[33], as added Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, § 932(a),Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 494; amended Pub. L. 102–242, title II, § 251(a)(1)–(3), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2331, 2332; Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a),Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2406; Pub. L. 103–325, title VI, § 602(a)(61), (c),Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2291; Pub. L. 111–203, title III, § 363(10),July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1555.)
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–203substituted “Federal Housing Finance Agency and the Comptroller of the Currency” for “Federal Housing Finance Board, the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision”.
1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a). See 1993 Amendment note below.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(a)(61), substituted semicolon for comma at end.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c)(1)–(3), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a)(1)(B). See 1993 Amendment note below.
1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a)(1)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c)(1)–(3), substituted “regarding—
“(A) a possible violation of any law or regulation; or
“(B) gross mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety;
by the depository institution or any director, officer, or employee of the institution.” for “regarding any possible violation of any law or regulation by the depository institution or any director, officer, or employee of the institution.”
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a)(2)(A), (B), as amended by Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c)(1), (2), (4), in introductory provisions, substituted “Federal reserve bank, or any person who is performing, directly or indirectly, any function or service on behalf of the Corporation” for “or Federal Reserve bank” and “any possible violation of any law or regulation, gross mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety by” for “any possible violation of any law or regulation by”.
Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a)(2)(C)–(E), as amended by Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c)(1), (2), (4), added subpar. (D).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–204, § 21(a)(1)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 103–325, § 602(c)(1)–(3), added subsec. (f).
1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–242, § 251(a)(1), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “No federally insured depository institution may discharge or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to the request of the employee) provided information to any Federal banking agency or to the Attorney General regarding a possible violation of any law or regulation by the depository institution or any of its officers, directors, or employees.”
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–242, § 251(a)(2), inserted “, Federal home loan bank, Federal Reserve bank, or Federal banking agency”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–242, § 251(a)(3), added subsec. (e).
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203effective on the transfer date, see section 351 ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 906 of Title 2, The Congress.
Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–242, title II, § 251(a)(4),Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2332, provided that: “Paragraph (2) of section 33(a) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act [12 U.S.C. 1831j (a)(2)] (as added under the amendment made by paragraph (1)) shall be treated as having taken effect on January 1, 1987, and for purposes of any cause of action arising under such paragraph (as so effective) before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 1991], the 2-year period referred to in section 33(b) of such Act shall be deemed to begin on such date of enactment.”

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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12 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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