12 U.S. Code § 5365 - Enhanced supervision and prudential standards for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and certain bank holding companies

(a) In general
(1) Purpose
In order to prevent or mitigate risks to the financial stability of the United States that could arise from the material financial distress or failure, or ongoing activities, of large, interconnected financial institutions, the Board of Governors shall, on its own or pursuant to recommendations by the Council under section 5325 of this title, establish prudential standards for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies with total consolidated assets equal to or greater than $50,000,000,000 that—
(A) are more stringent than the standards and requirements applicable to nonbank financial companies and bank holding companies that do not present similar risks to the financial stability of the United States; and
(B) increase in stringency, based on the considerations identified in subsection (b)(3).
(2) Tailored application
(A) In general
In prescribing more stringent prudential standards under this section, the Board of Governors may, on its own or pursuant to a recommendation by the Council in accordance with section 5325 of this title, differentiate among companies on an individual basis or by category, taking into consideration their capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including the financial activities of their subsidiaries), size, and any other risk-related factors that the Board of Governors deems appropriate.
(B) Adjustment of threshold for application of certain standards
The Board of Governors may, pursuant to a recommendation by the Council in accordance with section 5325 of this title, establish an asset threshold above $50,000,000,000 for the application of any standard established under subsections (c) through (g).
(b) Development of prudential standards
(1) In general
(A) Required standards
The Board of Governors shall establish prudential standards for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a), that shall include—
(i) risk-based capital requirements and leverage limits, unless the Board of Governors, in consultation with the Council, determines that such requirements are not appropriate for a company subject to more stringent prudential standards because of the activities of such company (such as investment company activities or assets under management) or structure, in which case, the Board of Governors shall apply other standards that result in similarly stringent risk controls;
(ii) liquidity requirements;
(iii) overall risk management requirements;
(iv) resolution plan and credit exposure report requirements; and
(v) concentration limits.
(B) Additional standards authorized
The Board of Governors may establish additional prudential standards for nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a), that include—
(i) a contingent capital requirement;
(ii) enhanced public disclosures;
(iii) short-term debt limits; and
(iv) such other prudential standards as the Board or Governors, on its own or pursuant to a recommendation made by the Council in accordance with section 5325 of this title, determines are appropriate.
(2) Standards for foreign financial companies
In applying the standards set forth in paragraph (1) to any foreign nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or foreign-based bank holding company, the Board of Governors shall—
(A) give due regard to the principle of national treatment and equality of competitive opportunity; and
(B) take into account the extent to which the foreign financial company is subject on a consolidated basis to home country standards that are comparable to those applied to financial companies in the United States.
(3) Considerations
In prescribing prudential standards under paragraph (1), the Board of Governors shall—
(A) take into account differences among nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a), based on—
(i) the factors described in subsections (a) and (b) ofsection 5323 of this title;
(ii) whether the company owns an insured depository institution;
(iii) nonfinancial activities and affiliations of the company; and
(iv) any other risk-related factors that the Board of Governors determines appropriate;
(B) to the extent possible, ensure that small changes in the factors listed in subsections (a) and (b) ofsection 5323 of this title would not result in sharp, discontinuous changes in the prudential standards established under paragraph (1) of this subsection;
(C) take into account any recommendations of the Council under section 5325 of this title; and
(D) adapt the required standards as appropriate in light of any predominant line of business of such company, including assets under management or other activities for which particular standards may not be appropriate.
(4) Consultation
Before imposing prudential standards or any other requirements pursuant to this section, including notices of deficiencies in resolution plans and more stringent requirements or divestiture orders resulting from such notices, that are likely to have a significant impact on a functionally regulated subsidiary or depository institution subsidiary of a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), the Board of Governors shall consult with each Council member that primarily supervises any such subsidiary with respect to any such standard or requirement.
(5) Report
The Board of Governors shall submit an annual report to Congress regarding the implementation of the prudential standards required pursuant to paragraph (1), including the use of such standards to mitigate risks to the financial stability of the United States.
(c) Contingent capital
(1) In general
Subsequent to submission by the Council of a report to Congress under section 5325 (c) of this title, the Board of Governors may issue regulations that require each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a) to maintain a minimum amount of contingent capital that is convertible to equity in times of financial stress.
(2) Factors to consider
In issuing regulations under this subsection, the Board of Governors shall consider—
(A) the results of the study undertaken by the Council, and any recommendations of the Council, under section 5325 (c) of this title;
(B) an appropriate transition period for implementation of contingent capital under this subsection;
(C) the factors described in subsection (b)(3)(A);
(D) capital requirements applicable to the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), and subsidiaries thereof; and
(E) any other factor that the Board of Governors deems appropriate.
(d) Resolution plan and credit exposure reports
(1) Resolution plan
The Board of Governors shall require each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a) to report periodically to the Board of Governors, the Council, and the Corporation the plan of such company for rapid and orderly resolution in the event of material financial distress or failure, which shall include—
(A) information regarding the manner and extent to which any insured depository institution affiliated with the company is adequately protected from risks arising from the activities of any nonbank subsidiaries of the company;
(B) full descriptions of the ownership structure, assets, liabilities, and contractual obligations of the company;
(C) identification of the cross-guarantees tied to different securities, identification of major counterparties, and a process for determining to whom the collateral of the company is pledged; and
(D) any other information that the Board of Governors and the Corporation jointly require by rule or order.
(2) Credit exposure report
The Board of Governors shall require each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a) to report periodically to the Board of Governors, the Council, and the Corporation on—
(A) the nature and extent to which the company has credit exposure to other significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies; and
(B) the nature and extent to which other significant nonbank financial companies and significant bank holding companies have credit exposure to that company.
(3) Review
The Board of Governors and the Corporation shall review the information provided in accordance with this subsection by each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding company described in subsection (a).
(4) Notice of deficiencies
If the Board of Governors and the Corporation jointly determine, based on their review under paragraph (3), that the resolution plan of a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a) is not credible or would not facilitate an orderly resolution of the company under title 11—
(A) the Board of Governors and the Corporation shall notify the company of the deficiencies in the resolution plan; and
(B) the company shall resubmit the resolution plan within a timeframe determined by the Board of Governors and the Corporation, with revisions demonstrating that the plan is credible and would result in an orderly resolution under title 11, including any proposed changes in business operations and corporate structure to facilitate implementation of the plan.
(5) Failure to resubmit credible plan
(A) In general
If a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a) fails to timely resubmit the resolution plan as required under paragraph (4), with such revisions as are required under subparagraph (B), the Board of Governors and the Corporation may jointly impose more stringent capital, leverage, or liquidity requirements, or restrictions on the growth, activities, or operations of the company, or any subsidiary thereof, until such time as the company resubmits a plan that remedies the deficiencies.
(B) Divestiture
The Board of Governors and the Corporation, in consultation with the Council, may jointly direct a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), by order, to divest certain assets or operations identified by the Board of Governors and the Corporation, to facilitate an orderly resolution of such company under title 11, in the event of the failure of such company, in any case in which—
(i) the Board of Governors and the Corporation have jointly imposed more stringent requirements on the company pursuant to subparagraph (A); and
(ii) the company has failed, within the 2-year period beginning on the date of the imposition of such requirements under subparagraph (A), to resubmit the resolution plan with such revisions as were required under paragraph (4)(B).
(6) No limiting effect
A resolution plan submitted in accordance with this subsection shall not be binding on a bankruptcy court, a receiver appointed under subchapter II, or any other authority that is authorized or required to resolve the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board, any bank holding company, or any subsidiary or affiliate of the foregoing.
(7) No private right of action
No private right of action may be based on any resolution plan submitted in accordance with this subsection.
(8) Rules
Not later than 18 months after July 21, 2010, the Board of Governors and the Corporation shall jointly issue final rules implementing this subsection.
(e) Concentration limits
(1) Standards
In order to limit the risks that the failure of any individual company could pose to a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), the Board of Governors, by regulation, shall prescribe standards that limit such risks.
(2) Limitation on credit exposure
The regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors under paragraph (1) shall prohibit each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding company described in subsection (a) from having credit exposure to any unaffiliated company that exceeds 25 percent of the capital stock and surplus (or such lower amount as the Board of Governors may determine by regulation to be necessary to mitigate risks to the financial stability of the United States) of the company.
(3) Credit exposure
For purposes of paragraph (2), “credit exposure” to a company means—
(A) all extensions of credit to the company, including loans, deposits, and lines of credit;
(B) all repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements with the company, and all securities borrowing and lending transactions with the company, to the extent that such transactions create credit exposure for the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a);
(C) all guarantees, acceptances, or letters of credit (including endorsement or standby letters of credit) issued on behalf of the company;
(D) all purchases of or investment in securities issued by the company;
(E) counterparty credit exposure to the company in connection with a derivative transaction between the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a) and the company; and
(F) any other similar transactions that the Board of Governors, by regulation, determines to be a credit exposure for purposes of this section.
(4) Attribution rule
For purposes of this subsection, any transaction by a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a) with any person is a transaction with a company, to the extent that the proceeds of the transaction are used for the benefit of, or transferred to, that company.
(5) Rulemaking
The Board of Governors may issue such regulations and orders, including definitions consistent with this section, as may be necessary to administer and carry out this subsection.
(6) Exemptions
This subsection shall not apply to any Federal home loan bank. The Board of Governors may, by regulation or order, exempt transactions, in whole or in part, from the definition of the term “credit exposure” for purposes of this subsection, if the Board of Governors finds that the exemption is in the public interest and is consistent with the purpose of this subsection.
(7) Transition period
(A) In general
This subsection and any regulations and orders of the Board of Governors under this subsection shall not be effective until 3 years after July 21, 2010.
(B) Extension authorized
The Board of Governors may extend the period specified in subparagraph (A) for not longer than an additional 2 years.
(f) Enhanced public disclosures
The Board of Governors may prescribe, by regulation, periodic public disclosures by nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a) in order to support market evaluation of the risk profile, capital adequacy, and risk management capabilities thereof.
(g) Short-term debt limits
(1) In general
In order to mitigate the risks that an over-accumulation of short-term debt could pose to financial companies and to the stability of the United States financial system, the Board of Governors may, by regulation, prescribe a limit on the amount of short-term debt, including off-balance sheet exposures, that may be accumulated by any bank holding company described in subsection (a) and any nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors.
(2) Basis of limit
Any limit prescribed under paragraph (1) shall be based on the short-term debt of the company described in paragraph (1) as a percentage of capital stock and surplus of the company or on such other measure as the Board of Governors considers appropriate.
(3) Short-term debt defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “short-term debt” means such liabilities with short-dated maturity that the Board of Governors identifies, by regulation, except that such term does not include insured deposits.
(4) Rulemaking authority
In addition to prescribing regulations under paragraphs (1) and (3), the Board of Governors may prescribe such regulations, including definitions consistent with this subsection, and issue such orders, as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.
(5) Authority to issue exemptions and adjustments
Notwithstanding the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C. 1841 et seq.), the Board of Governors may, if it determines such action is necessary to ensure appropriate heightened prudential supervision, with respect to a company described in paragraph (1) that does not control an insured depository institution, issue to such company an exemption from or adjustment to the limit prescribed under paragraph (1).
(h) Risk committee
(1) Nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors
The Board of Governors shall require each nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors that is a publicly traded company to establish a risk committee, as set forth in paragraph (3), not later than 1 year after the date of receipt of a notice of final determination under section 5323 (e)(3) of this title with respect to such nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors.
(2) Certain bank holding companies
(A) Mandatory regulations
The Board of Governors shall issue regulations requiring each bank holding company that is a publicly traded company and that has total consolidated assets of not less than $10,000,000,000 to establish a risk committee, as set forth in paragraph (3).
(B) Permissive regulations
The Board of Governors may require each bank holding company that is a publicly traded company and that has total consolidated assets of less than $10,000,000,000 to establish a risk committee, as set forth in paragraph (3), as determined necessary or appropriate by the Board of Governors to promote sound risk management practices.
(3) Risk committee
A risk committee required by this subsection shall—
(A) be responsible for the oversight of the enterprise-wide risk management practices of the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or bank holding company described in subsection (a), as applicable;
(B) include such number of independent directors as the Board of Governors may determine appropriate, based on the nature of operations, size of assets, and other appropriate criteria related to the nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors or a bank holding company described in subsection (a), as applicable; and
(C) include at least 1 risk management expert having experience in identifying, assessing, and managing risk exposures of large, complex firms.
(4) Rulemaking
The Board of Governors shall issue final rules to carry out this subsection, not later than 1 year after the transfer date, to take effect not later than 15 months after the transfer date.
(i) Stress tests
(1) By the Board of Governors
(A) Annual tests required
The Board of Governors, in coordination with the appropriate primary financial regulatory agencies and the Federal Insurance Office, shall conduct annual analyses in which nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board of Governors and bank holding companies described in subsection (a) are subject to evaluation of whether such companies have the capital, on a total consolidated basis, necessary to absorb losses as a result of adverse economic conditions.
(B) Test parameters and consequences
The Board of Governors—
(i) shall provide for at least 3 different sets of conditions under which the evaluation required by this subsection shall be conducted, including baseline, adverse, and severely adverse;
(ii) may require the tests described in subparagraph (A) at bank holding companies and nonbank financial companies, in addition to those for which annual tests are required under subparagraph (A);
(iii) may develop and apply such other analytic techniques as are necessary to identify, measure, and monitor risks to the financial stability of the United States;
(iv) shall require the companies described in subparagraph (A) to update their resolution plans required under subsection (d)(1), as the Board of Governors determines appropriate, based on the results of the analyses; and
(v) shall publish a summary of the results of the tests required under subparagraph (A) or clause (ii) of this subparagraph.
(2) By the company
(A) Requirement
A nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors and a bank holding company described in subsection (a) shall conduct semiannual stress tests. All other financial companies that have total consolidated assets of more than $10,000,000,000 and are regulated by a primary Federal financial regulatory agency shall conduct annual stress tests. The tests required under this subparagraph shall be conducted in accordance with the regulations prescribed under subparagraph (C).
(B) Report
A company required to conduct stress tests under subparagraph (A) shall submit a report to the Board of Governors and to its primary financial regulatory agency at such time, in such form, and containing such information as the primary financial regulatory agency shall require.
(C) Regulations
Each Federal primary financial regulatory agency, in coordination with the Board of Governors and the Federal Insurance Office, shall issue consistent and comparable regulations to implement this paragraph that shall—
(i) define the term “stress test” for purposes of this paragraph;
(ii) establish methodologies for the conduct of stress tests required by this paragraph that shall provide for at least 3 different sets of conditions, including baseline, adverse, and severely adverse;
(iii) establish the form and content of the report required by subparagraph (B); and
(iv) require companies subject to this paragraph to publish a summary of the results of the required stress tests.
(j) Leverage limitation
(1) Requirement
The Board of Governors shall require a bank holding company with total consolidated assets equal to or greater than $50,000,000,000 or a nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors to maintain a debt to equity ratio of no more than 15 to 1, upon a determination by the Council that such company poses a grave threat to the financial stability of the United States and that the imposition of such requirement is necessary to mitigate the risk that such company poses to the financial stability of the United States. Nothing in this paragraph shall apply to a Federal home loan bank.
(2) Considerations
In making a determination under this subsection, the Council shall consider the factors described in subsections (a) and (b) ofsection 5323 of this title and any other risk-related factors that the Council deems appropriate.
(3) Regulations
The Board of Governors shall promulgate regulations to establish procedures and timelines for complying with the requirements of this subsection.
(k) Inclusion of off-balance-sheet activities in computing capital requirements
(1) In general
In the case of any bank holding company described in subsection (a) or nonbank financial company supervised by the Board of Governors, the computation of capital for purposes of meeting capital requirements shall take into account any off-balance-sheet activities of the company.
(2) Exemptions
If the Board of Governors determines that an exemption from the requirement under paragraph (1) is appropriate, the Board of Governors may exempt a company, or any transaction or transactions engaged in by such company, from the requirements of paragraph (1).
(3) Off-balance-sheet activities defined
For purposes of this subsection, the term “off-balance-sheet activities” means an existing liability of a company that is not currently a balance sheet liability, but may become one upon the happening of some future event, including the following transactions, to the extent that they may create a liability:
(A) Direct credit substitutes in which a bank substitutes its own credit for a third party, including standby letters of credit.
(B) Irrevocable letters of credit that guarantee repayment of commercial paper or tax-exempt securities.
(C) Risk participations in bankers’ acceptances.
(D) Sale and repurchase agreements.
(E) Asset sales with recourse against the seller.
(F) Interest rate swaps.
(G) Credit swaps.
(H) Commodities contracts.
(I) Forward contracts.
(J) Securities contracts.
(K) Such other activities or transactions as the Board of Governors may, by rule, define.

Source

(Pub. L. 111–203, title I, § 165,July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1423.)
References in Text

Subchapter II, referred to in subsec. (d)(6), was in the original “title II”, meaning title II of Pub. L. 111–203, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1442, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 5381 et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.
The Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (g)(5), is act May 9, 1956, ch. 240, 70 Stat. 133, which is classified principally to chapter 17 (§ 1841 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1841 of this title and Tables.

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12 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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12 CFR - Banks and Banking

12 CFR Part 46 - ANNUAL STRESS TEST

12 CFR Part 243 - RESOLUTION PLANS

12 CFR Part 252 - ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY)

12 CFR Part 325 - CAPITAL MAINTENANCE

12 CFR Part 381 - RESOLUTION PLANS

 

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