14 U.S. Code § 81 - Aids to navigation authorized
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In order to aid navigation and to prevent disasters, collisions, and wrecks of vessels and aircraft, the Coast Guard may establish, maintain, and operate:
(1) aids to maritime navigation required to serve the needs of the armed forces or of the commerce of the United States;
(2) aids to air navigation required to serve the needs of the armed forces of the United States peculiar to warfare and primarily of military concern as determined by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of any department within the Department of Defense and as required by any of those officials; and
(3) electronic aids to navigation systems (a) required to serve the needs of the armed forces of the United States peculiar to warfare and primarily of military concern as determined by the Secretary of Defense or any department within the Department of Defense; or (b) required to serve the needs of the maritime commerce of the United States; or (c) required to serve the needs of the air commerce of the United States as requested by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.
These aids to navigation other than electronic aids to navigation systems shall be established and operated only within the United States, the waters above the Continental Shelf, the territories and possessions of the United States, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the United States at places where naval or military bases of the United States are or may be located. The Coast Guard may establish, maintain, and operate aids to maritime navigation under paragraph (1) of this section by contract with any person, public body, or instrumentality.
Source(Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, 63 Stat. 500; June 22, 1951, ch. 150, 65 Stat. 89; Sept. 3, 1954, ch. 1263, § 30,68 Stat. 1237; Pub. L. 85–726, title XIV, § 1404,Aug. 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 808; Pub. L. 89–662, § 1,Oct. 14, 1966, 80 Stat. 912; Pub. L. 94–546, § 1(3),Oct. 18, 1976, 90 Stat. 2519; Pub. L. 97–322, title I, § 105(a),Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582.)
Historical and Revision Notes
Based on title 14, U.S.C., 1946 ed.; §§ 50m, 50o, and on title 33, U.S.C., 1946 ed., §§ 720, 720a, 739, 740, 740a, 740b, 769 (R.S. 4668; June 23, 1874, ch. 455, § 1,18 Stat. 220; June 17, 1910, ch. 301, § 7,36 Stat. 538; Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 81, § 5,38 Stat. 927; Aug. 28, 1916, ch. 414, § 3,39 Stat. 538; May 22, 1926, ch. 371, § 6,44 Stat. 626; Feb. 25, 1925, ch. 313, § 3,45 Stat. 1262; Aug. 16, 1937, ch. 665, § 3,50 Stat. 667; June 26, 1948, ch. 672, §§ 1, 3,62 Stat. 1050).
Changes were made in phraseology. 81st Congress, House Report No. 557.
1982—Pub. L. 97–322authorized the Coast Guard to contractually establish, maintain, and operate aids to maritime navigation.
1976—Pub. L. 94–546substituted “Federal Aviation Administration” for “Federal Aviation Agency” in cl. (3)(c).
1966—Pub. L. 89–662expanded authorization for establishment, maintenance, and operation of aids to air navigation and electronic aids to navigation systems required to serve the needs of the armed forces to include needs peculiar to warfare and primarily of military concern as determined by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of any department within the Department of Defense, substituted “electronic aids to navigation systems” for “Loran stations”, and altered the list of locations where aids to navigation other than electronic aids to navigation could be located by adding the waters above the Continental Shelf and by striking out places where such aids to navigation had been established prior to June 26, 1948.
1958—Pub. L. 85–726substituted “Administrator of the Federal Aviation Agency” for “Administrator of Civil Aeronautics”.
1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “Department of Defense” for “National Military Establishment”.
1951—Act June 22, 1951, extended Coast Guard’s authority to include the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
Effective Date of 1958 Amendment
Pub. L. 85–726, title XV, § 1505(2),Aug. 23, 1958, 72 Stat. 810, provided that the amendment made by Pub. L. 85–726is effective on 60th day following date on which Administrator of Federal Aviation Agency [Federal Aviation Administration] first appointed under Pub. L. 85–726qualifies and takes office. Administrator appointed, qualified, and took office on Oct. 31, 1958.
Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Aids to Navigation Report
Pub. L. 105–383, title II, § 208,Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3416, provided that: “Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 13, 1998], the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall submit to Congress a report on the use of the Coast Guard’s aids to navigation system. The report shall include an analysis of the respective use of the aids to navigation system by commercial interests, members of the general public for personal recreation, Federal and State government for public safety, defense, and other similar purposes. To the extent practicable within the time allowed, the report shall include information regarding degree of use of the various portions of the system.”
Report to Congress; Contractual Authority; Increase in Ratio of Civilian to Military Employees
Pub. L. 97–322, title I, § 105(b),Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582, provided that: “Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this title [Oct. 15, 1982], the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall submit a report to the Congress evaluating—
“(1) the exercise by contract of the authority of the Coast Guard under section 81 of title 14, United States Code, to establish, maintain, and operate aids to navigation, including a discussion of any problems involved in exercising such authority by contract, the reasons for exercising or failing to exercise such authority by contract in particular areas, and the feasibility of expanding the exercise of such authority by contract; and
“(2) the advantages and disadvantages of increasing the ratio of civilian to military employees assigned to the establishment, maintenance, and operation of aids to navigation on the inland waterways of the United States.”
Contractual Authority Dependent Upon Availability of Appropriated Funds
Pub. L. 97–322, title I, § 105(c),Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1582, provided that: “Any authority to enter into contracts provided in this section [amending this section and enacting provision set out as Report to Congress note under this section] shall be available only to the extent that appropriated funds are available for that purpose.”
Ex. Ord. No. 7521. Use of Vessels for Ice-Breaking Operations in Channels and Harbors
1. The Coast Guard, operating under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, is hereby directed to assist in keeping open to navigation by means of ice-breaking operations, in so far as practicable and as the exigencies may require, channels and harbors in accordance with the reasonable demands of commerce; and to use for that purpose such vessels subject to its control and jurisdiction or which may be made available to it under paragraph 2 hereof as are necessary and are reasonably suitable for such operations.
2. The Secretary of War [Army], the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of Commerce are hereby directed to cooperate with the Coast Guard in such ice-breaking operations, and to furnish the Coast Guard, upon the request of the Commandant thereof, for this service such vessels under their jurisdiction and control as in the opinion of the Commandant, with the concurrence of the head of the Department concerned, are available and are, or may readily be made, suitable for this service.