15 U.S. Code § 1278a - Children’s products containing lead; lead paint rule

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(a) General lead ban
(1) Treatment as a banned hazardous substance
Except as expressly provided in subsection (b) beginning on the dates provided in paragraph (2), any children’s product (as defined in section 3(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052 (a))) that contains more lead than the limit established by paragraph (2) shall be treated as a banned hazardous substance under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261 et seq.).
(2) Lead limit
(A) 600 parts per million
Except as provided in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E), beginning 180 days after August 14, 2008, the lead limit referred to in paragraph (1) is 600 parts per million total lead content by weight for any part of the product.
(B) 300 parts per million
Except as provided by subparagraphs (C), (D), and (E), beginning on the date that is 1 year after August 14, 2008, the lead limit referred to in paragraph (1) is 300 parts per million total lead content by weight for any part of the product.
(C) 100 parts per million
Except as provided in subparagraphs (D) and (E), beginning on the date that is 3 years after August 14, 2008, subparagraph (B) shall be applied by substituting “100 parts per million” for “300 parts per million” unless the Commission determines that a limit of 100 parts per million is not technologically feasible for a product or product category. The Commission may make such a determination only after notice and a hearing and after analyzing the public health protections associated with substantially reducing lead in children’s products.
(D) Alternate reduction of limit
If the Commission determines under subparagraph (C) that the 100 parts per million limit is not technologically feasible for a product or product category, the Commission shall, by regulation, establish an amount that is the lowest amount of lead, lower than 300 parts per million, the Commission determines to be technologically feasible to achieve for that product or product category. The amount of lead established by the Commission under the preceding sentence shall be substituted for the 300 parts per million limit under subparagraph (B) beginning on the date that is 3 years after August 14, 2008.
(E) Periodic review and further reductions
The Commission shall, based on the best available scientific and technical information, periodically review and revise downward the limit set forth in this subsection, no less frequently than every 5 years after promulgation of the limit under subparagraph (C) or (D) to require the lowest amount of lead that the Commission determines is technologically feasible to achieve. The amount of lead established by the Commission under the preceding sentence shall be substituted for the lead limit in effect immediately before such revision.
(3) Application
Each limit set forth in paragraph (2) (except for the limit set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B)) shall apply only to a children’s product (as defined in section 3(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052 (a))) that is manufactured after the effective date of such respective limit.
(b) Exclusion of certain materials or products and inaccessible component parts
(1) Functional purpose exception
(A) In general
The Commission, on its own initiative or upon petition by an interested party, shall grant an exception to the limit in subsection (a) for a specific product, class of product, material, or component part if the Commission, after notice and a hearing, determines that—
(i) the product, class of product, material, or component part requires the inclusion of lead because it is not practicable or not technologically feasible to manufacture such product, class of product, material, or component part, as the case may be, in accordance with subsection (a) by removing the excessive lead or by making the lead inaccessible;
(ii) the product, class of product, material, or component part is not likely to be placed in the mouth or ingested, taking into account normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of such product, class of product, material, or component part by a child; and
(iii) an exception for the product, class of product, material, or component part will have no measurable adverse effect on public health or safety, taking into account normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse.
(B) Measurement
For purposes of subparagraph (A)(iii), there is no measurable adverse effect on public health or safety if the exception described in subparagraph (A) will result in no measurable increase in blood lead levels of a child. The Commission may adopt an alternative method of measurement other than blood lead levels if it determines, after notice and a hearing, that such alternative method is a better scientific method for measuring adverse effect on public health and safety.
(C) Procedures for granting exception
(i) Burden of proof A party seeking an exception under subparagraph (A) has the burden of demonstrating that it meets the requirements of such subparagraph.
(ii) Grounds for decision In the case where a party has petitioned for an exception, in determining whether to grant the exception, the Commission may base its decision solely on the materials presented by the party seeking the exception and any materials received through notice and a hearing.
(iii) Admissible evidence In demonstrating that it meets the requirements of subparagraph (A), a party seeking an exception under such subparagraph may rely on any nonproprietary information submitted by any other party seeking such an exception and such information shall be considered part of the record presented by the party that relies on that information.
(iv) Scope of exception If an exception is sought for an entire product, the burden is on the petitioning party to demonstrate that the criteria in subparagraph (A) are met with respect to every accessible component or accessible material of the product.
(D) Limitation on exception
If the Commission grants an exception for a product, class of product, material, or component part under subparagraph (A), the Commission may, as necessary to protect public health or safety—
(i) establish a lead limit that such product, class of product, material, or component part may not exceed; or
(ii) place a manufacturing expiration date on such exception or establish a schedule after which the manufacturer of such product, class of product, material, or component part shall be in full compliance with the limit established under clause (i) or the limit set forth in subsection (a).
(E) Application of exception
An exception under subparagraph (A) for a product, class of product, material, or component part shall apply regardless of the date of manufacture unless the Commission expressly provides otherwise.
(F) Previously submitted petitions
A party seeking an exception under this paragraph may rely on materials previously submitted in connection with a petition for exclusion under this section. In such cases, petitioners must notify the Commission of their intent to rely on materials previously submitted. Such reliance does not affect petitioners’ obligation to demonstrate that they meet all requirements of this paragraph as required by subparagraph (C)(i).
(2) Exception for inaccessible component parts
(A) In general
The limits established under subsection (a) shall not apply to any component part of a children’s product that is not accessible to a child through normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of such product, as determined by the Commission. A component part is not accessible under this subparagraph if such component part is not physically exposed by reason of a sealed covering or casing and does not become physically exposed through reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of the product. Reasonably foreseeable use and abuse shall include swallowing, mouthing, breaking, or other children’s activities, and the aging of the product.
(B) Inaccessibility proceeding
Within 1 year after August 14, 2008, the Commission shall promulgate a rule providing guidance with respect to what product components, or classes of components, will be considered to be inaccessible for purposes of subparagraph (A).
(C) Application pending CPSC guidance
Until the Commission promulgates a rule pursuant to subparagraph (B), the determination of whether a product component is inaccessible to a child shall be made in accordance with the requirements laid out in subparagraph (A) for considering a component to be inaccessible to a child.
(3) Certain barriers disqualified
For purposes of this subsection, paint, coatings, or electroplating may not be considered to be a barrier that would render lead in the substrate inaccessible to a child, or to prevent absorption of any lead into the human body, through normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of the product.
(4) Certain electronic devices
If the Commission determines that it is not technologically feasible for certain electronic devices, including devices containing batteries, to comply with subsection (a), the Commission, by regulation, shall—
(A) issue requirements to eliminate or minimize the potential for exposure to and accessibility of lead in such electronic devices, which may include requirements that such electronic devices be equipped with a child-resistant cover or casing that prevents exposure to and accessibility of the parts of the product containing lead; and
(B) establish a schedule by which such electronic devices shall be in full compliance with the limits in subsection (a), unless the Commission determines that full compliance will not be technologically feasible for such devices within a schedule set by the Commission.
(5) Exception for off-highway vehicles
(A) In general
Subsection (a) shall not apply to an off-highway vehicle.
(B) Off-highway vehicle defined
For purposes of this section, the term “off-highway vehicle”—
(i) means any motorized vehicle—
(I) that is manufactured primarily for use off public streets, roads, and highways;
(II) designed to travel on 2, 3, or 4 wheels; and
(III) that has either—
(aa) a seat designed to be straddled by the operator and handlebars for steering control; or
(bb) a nonstraddle seat, steering wheel, seat belts, and roll-over protective structure; and
(ii) includes a snowmobile.
(6) Bicycles and related products
In lieu of the lead limits established in subsection (a)(2), the limits set forth for each respective material in the notice of the Commission entitled “Notice of Stay of Enforcement Pertaining to Bicycles and Related Products”, published June 30, 2009 (74 Fed. Reg. 31254), shall apply to any metal component part of the products to which the stay of enforcement described in such notice applies, except that after December 31, 2011, the limits set forth in such notice shall not be more than 300 parts per million total lead content by weight for any metal component part of the products to which such stay pertains.
(7) Exclusion of certain used children’s products
(A) General exclusion
The lead limits established under subsection (a) shall not apply to a used children’s product.
(B) Definition
In this paragraph, the term “used children’s product” means a children’s product (as defined in section 3(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052 (a) [1] that was obtained by the seller for use and not for the purpose of resale or was obtained by the seller, either directly or indirectly, from a person who obtained such children’s product for use and not for the purpose of resale. Such term also includes a children’s product that was donated to the seller for charitable distribution or resale to support charitable purposes. Such term shall not include—
(i) children’s metal jewelry;
(ii) any children’s product for which the donating party or the seller has actual knowledge that the product is in violation of the lead limits in this section; or
(iii) any other children’s product or product category that the Commission determines, after notice and a hearing.
For purposes of this definition, the term “seller” includes a person who lends or donates a used children’s product.
(8) Periodic review
The Commission shall, based on the best available scientific and technical information, periodically review and revise the regulations promulgated pursuant to this subsection no less frequently than every 5 years after the first promulgation of a regulation under this subsection to make them more stringent and to require the lowest amount of lead the Commission determines is technologically feasible to achieve.
(c) Application with ASTM F963
To the extent that any regulation promulgated by the Commission under this section (or any section of the Consumer Product Safety Act [15 U.S.C. 2051 et seq.] or any other Act enforced by the Commission, as such Acts are affected by this section) is inconsistent with the ASTM F963 standard, such promulgated regulation shall supersede the ASTM F963 standard to the extent of the inconsistency.
(d) Technological feasibility defined
For purposes of this section, a limit shall be deemed technologically feasible with regard to a product or product category if—
(1) a product that complies with the limit is commercially available in the product category;
(2) technology to comply with the limit is commercially available to manufacturers or is otherwise available within the common meaning of the term;
(3) industrial strategies or devices have been developed that are capable or will be capable of achieving such a limit by the effective date of the limit and that companies, acting in good faith, are generally capable of adopting; or
(4) alternative practices, best practices, or other operational changes would allow the manufacturer to comply with the limit.
(e) Pending rulemaking proceedings to have no effect
The pendency of a rulemaking proceeding to consider—
(1) a delay in the effective date of a limit or an alternate limit under this section related to technological feasibility,
(2) an exception for certain products or materials or inaccessibility guidance under subsection (b) of this section, or
(3) any other request for modification of or exemption from any regulation, rule, standard, or ban under this Act or any other Act enforced by the Commission,
shall not delay the effect of any provision or limit under this section nor shall it stay general enforcement of the requirements of this section.
(f) More stringent lead paint ban
(1) In general
Effective on the date that is 1 year after August 14, 2008, the Commission shall modify section 1303.1 of its regulations (16 C.F.R. 1301.1) by substituting “0.009 percent” for “0.06 percent” in subsection (a) of that section.
(2) Periodic review and reduction
The Commission shall, no less frequently than every 5 years after the date on which the Commission modifies the regulations pursuant to paragraph (1), review the limit for lead in paint set forth in section 1303.1 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations (as revised by paragraph (1)), and shall by regulation revise downward the limit to require the lowest amount of lead that the Commission determines is technologically feasible to achieve.
(3) Methods for screening lead in small painted areas
In order to provide for effective and efficient enforcement of the limit set forth in section 1303.1 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, the Commission may rely on x-ray fluorescence technology or other alternative methods for measuring lead in paint or other surface coatings on products subject to such section where the total weight of such paint or surface coating is no greater than 10 milligrams or where such paint or surface coating covers no more than 1 square centimeter of the surface area of such products. Such alternative methods for measurement shall not permit more than 2 micrograms of lead in a total weight of 10 milligrams or less of paint or other surface coating or in a surface area of 1 square centimeter or less.
(4) Alternative methods of measuring lead in paint generally
(A) Study
Not later than 1 year after August 14, 2008, the Commission shall complete a study to evaluate the effectiveness, precision, and reliability of x-ray fluorescence technology and other alternative methods for measuring lead in paint or other surface coatings when used on a children’s product or furniture article in order to determine compliance with part 1303 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, as modified pursuant to this subsection.
(B) Rulemaking
If the Commission determines, based on the study in subparagraph (A), that x-ray fluorescence technology or other alternative methods for measuring lead in paint are as effective, precise, and reliable as the methodology used by the Commission for compliance determinations prior to August 14, 2008, the Commission may promulgate regulations governing the use of such methods in determining the compliance of products with part 1303 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, as modified pursuant to this subsection. Any regulations promulgated by the Commission shall ensure that such alternative methods are no less effective, precise, and reliable than the methodology used by the Commission prior to August 14, 2008.
(5) Periodic review
The Commission shall, no less frequently than every 5 years after the Commission completes the study required by paragraph (4)(A), review and revise any methods for measurement utilized by the Commission pursuant to paragraph (3) or pursuant to any regulations promulgated under paragraph (4) to ensure that such methods are the most effective methods available to protect children’s health. The Commission shall conduct an ongoing effort to study and encourage the further development of alternative methods for measuring lead in paint and other surface coating that can effectively, precisely, and reliably detect lead levels at or below the level set forth in part 1303 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, or any lower level established by regulation.
(6) No effect on legal limit
Nothing in paragraph (3), nor reliance by the Commission on any alternative method of measurement pursuant to such paragraph, nor any rule prescribed pursuant to paragraph (4), nor any method established pursuant to paragraph (5) shall be construed to alter the limit set forth in section 1303 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, as modified pursuant to this subsection, or provide any exemption from such limit.
(7) Construction
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect the authority of the Commission or any other person to use alternative methods for detecting lead as a screening method to determine whether further testing or action is needed.
(g) Treatment as a regulation under the FHSA
Any ban imposed by subsection (a) or rule promulgated under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, and section 1303.1 of title 16, Code of Federal Regulations (as modified pursuant to subsection (f)(1) or (2)), or any successor regulation, shall be considered a regulation of the Commission promulgated under or for the enforcement of section 2(q) of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261 (q)).


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “2052(a)))”.

Source

(Pub. L. 110–314, title I, § 101,Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3017; Pub. L. 112–28, §§ 1, 10 (b),Aug. 12, 2011, 125 Stat. 273, 283.)
References in Text

The Federal Hazardous Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 86–613, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 372, which is classified generally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1261 of this title and Tables.
The Consumer Product Safety Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 92–573, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1207, which is classified generally to chapter 47 (§ 2051 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2051 of this title and Tables.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is Pub. L. 110–314, Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3016, known as the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2008 Amendment note set out under section 2051 of this title and Tables.
Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, and not as part of the Federal Hazardous Substances Act which comprises this chapter.
Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–28, § 10(b), substituted “(as defined in section 3(a) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052 (a)))” for “(as defined in section 3(a)(16) of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052 (a)(16)))”.
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–28, § 1(a), added par. (3).
Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 112–28, § 1(b)(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Commission may, by regulation, exclude a specific product or material from the prohibition in subsection (a) if the Commission, after notice and a hearing, determines on the basis of the best-available, objective, peer-reviewed, scientific evidence that lead in such product or material will neither—
“(A) result in the absorption of any lead into the human body, taking into account normal and reasonably foreseeable use and abuse of such product by a child, including swallowing, mouthing, breaking, or other children’s activities, and the aging of the product; nor
“(B) have any other adverse impact on public health or safety.”
Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 112–28, § 1(b)(2), substituted “include” for “include to,”.
Subsec. (b)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 112–28, § 1(b)(3), added pars. (5) to (7) and redesignated former par. (5) as (8).
Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–28, § 11,Aug. 12, 2011, 125 Stat. 283, provided that: “Except as provided otherwise, the amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sections 2055a, 2056a, 2056b, 2057c, 2063, 2068, and 2076 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 2089 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 12, 2011].”
Definition

For definition of “Commission” used in this section, see section 2(a) ofPub. L. 110–314, set out as a note under section 2051 of this title.

 

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