A person may not procure or cause to be prepared an investigative consumer report on any consumer unless—
(1)it is clearly and accurately disclosed to the consumer that an investigative consumer report including information as to his character, general reputation, personal characteristics, and mode of living, whichever are applicable, may be made, and such disclosure
(A) is made in a writing mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer, not later than three days after the date on which the report was first requested, and
(B) includes a statement informing the consumer of his right to request the additional disclosures provided for under subsection (b) of this section and the written summary of the rights of the consumer prepared pursuant to section
1681g(c) of this title; and
(2)the person certifies or has certified to the consumer reporting agency that—
(A)the person has made the disclosures to the consumer required by paragraph (1); and
(B)the person will comply with subsection (b) of this section.
(b) Disclosure on request of nature and scope of investigation
Any person who procures or causes to be prepared an investigative consumer report on any consumer shall, upon written request made by the consumer within a reasonable period of time after the receipt by him of the disclosure required by subsection (a)(1) of this section, make a complete and accurate disclosure of the nature and scope of the investigation requested. This disclosure shall be made in a writing mailed, or otherwise delivered, to the consumer not later than five days after the date on which the request for such disclosure was received from the consumer or such report was first requested, whichever is the later.
(c) Limitation on liability upon showing of reasonable procedures for compliance with provisions
No person may be held liable for any violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section if he shows by a preponderance of the evidence that at the time of the violation he maintained reasonable procedures to assure compliance with subsection (a) or (b) of this section.
A consumer reporting agency shall not prepare or furnish an investigative consumer report unless the agency has received a certification under subsection (a)(2) of this section from the person who requested the report.
A consumer reporting agency shall not make an inquiry for the purpose of preparing an investigative consumer report on a consumer for employment purposes if the making of the inquiry by an employer or prospective employer of the consumer would violate any applicable Federal or State equal employment opportunity law or regulation.
(3) Certain public record information
Except as otherwise provided in section
1681k of this title, a consumer reporting agency shall not furnish an investigative consumer report that includes information that is a matter of public record and that relates to an arrest, indictment, conviction, civil judicial action, tax lien, or outstanding judgment, unless the agency has verified the accuracy of the information during the 30-day period ending on the date on which the report is furnished.
(4) Certain adverse information
A consumer reporting agency shall not prepare or furnish an investigative consumer report on a consumer that contains information that is adverse to the interest of the consumer and that is obtained through a personal interview with a neighbor, friend, or associate of the consumer or with another person with whom the consumer is acquainted or who has knowledge of such item of information, unless—
(A)the agency has followed reasonable procedures to obtain confirmation of the information, from an additional source that has independent and direct knowledge of the information; or
(B)the person interviewed is the best possible source of the information.
1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, §§ 2408(d)(2),
2414(1), inserted “and the written summary of the rights of the consumer prepared pursuant to section
1681g(c) of this title” before the semicolon and substituted “and” for “or” at end.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2414(2), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “the report is to be used for employment purposes for which the consumer has not specifically applied.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2414(3), substituted “, make a complete” for “, shall make a complete”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208effective 365 days after Sept. 30, 1996, with special rule for early compliance, see section 2420 ofPub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section
1681a of this title.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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