A debt collector may not use any false, deceptive, or misleading representation or means in connection with the collection of any debt. Without limiting the general application of the foregoing, the following conduct is a violation of this section:
(1)The false representation or implication that the debt collector is vouched for, bonded by, or affiliated with the United States or any State, including the use of any badge, uniform, or facsimile thereof.
(2)The false representation of—
(A)the character, amount, or legal status of any debt; or
(B)any services rendered or compensation which may be lawfully received by any debt collector for the collection of a debt.
(3)The false representation or implication that any individual is an attorney or that any communication is from an attorney.
(4)The representation or implication that nonpayment of any debt will result in the arrest or imprisonment of any person or the seizure, garnishment, attachment, or sale of any property or wages of any person unless such action is lawful and the debt collector or creditor intends to take such action.
(5)The threat to take any action that cannot legally be taken or that is not intended to be taken.
(6)The false representation or implication that a sale, referral, or other transfer of any interest in a debt shall cause the consumer to—
(A)lose any claim or defense to payment of the debt; or
(B)become subject to any practice prohibited by this subchapter.
(7)The false representation or implication that the consumer committed any crime or other conduct in order to disgrace the consumer.
(8)Communicating or threatening to communicate to any person credit information which is known or which should be known to be false, including the failure to communicate that a disputed debt is disputed.
(9)The use or distribution of any written communication which simulates or is falsely represented to be a document authorized, issued, or approved by any court, official, or agency of the United States or any State, or which creates a false impression as to its source, authorization, or approval.
(10)The use of any false representation or deceptive means to collect or attempt to collect any debt or to obtain information concerning a consumer.
(11)The failure to disclose in the initial written communication with the consumer and, in addition, if the initial communication with the consumer is oral, in that initial oral communication, that the debt collector is attempting to collect a debt and that any information obtained will be used for that purpose, and the failure to disclose in subsequent communications that the communication is from a debt collector, except that this paragraph shall not apply to a formal pleading made in connection with a legal action.
(12)The false representation or implication that accounts have been turned over to innocent purchasers for value.
(13)The false representation or implication that documents are legal process.
(14)The use of any business, company, or organization name other than the true name of the debt collector’s business, company, or organization.
(15)The false representation or implication that documents are not legal process forms or do not require action by the consumer.
(16)The false representation or implication that a debt collector operates or is employed by a consumer reporting agency as defined by section
1681a(f) of this title.
1996—Par. (11). Pub. L. 104–208amended par. (11) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (11) read as follows: “Except as otherwise provided for communications to acquire location information under section
1692b of this title, the failure to disclose clearly in all communications made to collect a debt or to obtain information about a consumer, that the debt collector is attempting to collect a debt and that any information obtained will be used for that purpose.”
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment
Section 2305(b) of div. A of Pub. L. 104–208provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996] and shall apply to all communications made after that date of enactment.”
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.