(a) Notification to financial institution of error
If a financial institution, within sixty days after having transmitted to a consumer documentation pursuant to section
1693d(a), (c), or (d) of this title or notification pursuant to section
1693d(b) of this title, receives oral or written notice in which the consumer—
(1)sets forth or otherwise enables the financial institution to identify the name and account number of the consumer;
(2)indicates the consumer’s belief that the documentation, or, in the case of notification pursuant to section
1693d(b) of this title, the consumer’s account, contains an error and the amount of such error; and
(3)sets forth the reasons for the consumer’s belief (where applicable) that an error has occurred,
the financial institution shall investigate the alleged error, determine whether an error has occurred, and report or mail the results of such investigation and determination to the consumer within ten business days. The financial institution may require written confirmation to be provided to it within ten business days of an oral notification of error if, when the oral notification is made, the consumer is advised of such requirement and the address to which such confirmation should be sent. A financial institution which requires written confirmation in accordance with the previous sentence need not provisionally recredit a consumer’s account in accordance with subsection (c) of this section, nor shall the financial institution be liable under subsection (e) of this section if the written confirmation is not received within the ten-day period referred to in the previous sentence.
(b) Correction of error; interest
If the financial institution determines that an error did occur, it shall promptly, but in no event more than one business day after such determination, correct the error, subject to section
1693g of this title, including the crediting of interest where applicable.
(c) Provisional recredit of consumer’s account
If a financial institution receives notice of an error in the manner and within the time period specified in subsection (a) of this section, it may, in lieu of the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, within ten business days after receiving such notice provisionally recredit the consumer’s account for the amount alleged to be in error, subject to section
1693g of this title, including interest where applicable, pending the conclusion of its investigation and its determination of whether an error has occurred. Such investigation shall be concluded not later than forty-five days after receipt of notice of the error. During the pendency of the investigation, the consumer shall have full use of the funds provisionally recredited.
(d) Absence of error; finding; explanation
If the financial institution determines after its investigation pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) of this section that an error did not occur, it shall deliver or mail to the consumer an explanation of its findings within 3 business days after the conclusion of its investigation, and upon request of the consumer promptly deliver or mail to the consumer reproductions of all documents which the financial institution relied on to conclude that such error did not occur. The financial institution shall include notice of the right to request reproductions with the explanation of its findings.
(e) Treble damages
If in any action under section
1693m of this title, the court finds that—
(1)the financial institution did not provisionally recredit a consumer’s account within the ten-day period specified in subsection (c) of this section, and the financial institution
(A) did not make a good faith investigation of the alleged error, or
(B) did not have a reasonable basis for believing that the consumer’s account was not in error; or
(2)the financial institution knowingly and willfully concluded that the consumer’s account was not in error when such conclusion could not reasonably have been drawn from the evidence available to the financial institution at the time of its investigation,
then the consumer shall be entitled to treble damages determined under section
1693m(a)(1) of this title.
(f) Acts constituting error
For the purpose of this section, an error consists of—
(1)an unauthorized electronic fund transfer;
(2)an incorrect electronic fund transfer from or to the consumer’s account;
(3)the omission from a periodic statement of an electronic fund transfer affecting the consumer’s account which should have been included;
(4)a computational error by the financial institution;
(5)the consumer’s receipt of an incorrect amount of money from an electronic terminal;
(6)a consumer’s request for additional information or clarification concerning an electronic fund transfer or any documentation required by this subchapter; or
(7)any other error described in regulations of the Bureau.
Amendment by Pub. L. 111–203effective on the designated transfer date, see section 1100H ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section
552a of Title
5, Government Organization and Employees.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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