(Pub. L. 96–480, § 11,Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2318; renumbered § 10 and amended Pub. L. 99–502, §§ 3–5,
(e)(1),Oct. 20, 1986, 100 Stat. 1787, 1789, 1791, 1797; renumbered § 11 and amended Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §§ 5115(b)(2),
5163(c)(1), (3),Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1433, 1438, 1450, 1451; Pub. L. 100–519, title II, §§ 201(d)(3),
(a)(4),Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2594, 2595; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXI, § 3133(e),Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1679; Pub. L. 102–245, title III, §§ 301,
303,Feb. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 19, 20; Pub. L. 104–66, title III, § 3001(f),Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 734; Pub. L. 104–113, §§ 3,
9,Mar. 7, 1996, 110 Stat. 775, 779; Pub. L. 105–394, title II, § 212(d),Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3655; Pub. L. 106–404, §§ 7(5), (6),
(a),Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1745–1747; Pub. L. 110–69, title III, § 3002(c)(4),Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 586.)
References in Text
The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (h), is Pub. L. 103–62
, Aug. 3, 1993, 107 Stat. 285
, which enacted section
, Government Organization and Employees, sections
, Money and Finance, and sections
, Postal Service, amended section
, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections
. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note set out under section
2007—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–69
struck out “through the Under Secretary, and” after “The Secretary,” in introductory provisions.
2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 10(a)(1), struck out at end “The agency head shall submit to Congress at the time the President submits the budget to Congress an explanation of the agency’s technology transfer program for the preceding year and the agency’s plans for conducting its technology transfer function for the upcoming year, including plans for securing intellectual property rights in laboratory innovations with commercial promise and plans for managing such innovations so as to benefit the competitiveness of United States industry.”
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 7(5), substituted “in cooperation with Federal laboratories” for “in cooperation with Federal Laboratories” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 10(a)(2), added subsec. (f).
Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 10(a)(3), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: “Two years after October 20, 1986, and every two years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a summary report to the President and the Congress on the use by the agencies and the Secretary of the authorities specified in this chapter. Other Federal agencies shall cooperate in the report’s preparation.”
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 10(a)(4), added subsec. (h).
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–404
, § 7(6), substituted “a gift under this section” for “a gift under the section”.
1998—Subsec. (e)(1)(K). Pub. L. 105–394
added subpar. (K).
1996—Subsec. (e)(7)(B). Pub. L. 104–113
, § 3, amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: “A transfer shall be made by any Federal agency under subparagraph (A), for any fiscal year, only if—
“(i) the amount so transferred by that agency (as determined under such subparagraph) would exceed $10,000; and
“(ii) such transfer is made with respect to the fiscal year 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, or 1996.”
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–113
, § 9, inserted “loan, lease, or” before “give”.
1995—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–66
struck out heading and text of subsec. (f). Text read as follows: “Each Federal agency which operates or directs one or more Federal laboratories shall report annually to the Congress, as part of the agency’s annual budget submission, on the activities performed by that agency and its Federal laboratories pursuant to the provisions of this section.”
1992—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 102–245
, § 301(a), inserted “senior” before “representative”.
Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 102–245
, § 301(b), inserted at end “Such report shall include an annual independent audit of the financial statements of the Consortium, conducted in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.”
Subsec. (e)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 102–245
, § 301(c), substituted “1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, or 1996” for “or 1991”.
Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 102–245
, § 301(d), struck out former par. (8) which read as follows:
“(A) The Consortium shall use 5 percent of the funds provided in paragraph (7)(A) to establish demonstration projects in technology transfer. To carry out such projects, the Consortium may arrange for grants or awards to, or enter into agreements with, nonprofit State, local, or private organizations or entities whose primary purposes are to facilitate cooperative research between the Federal laboratories and organizations not associated with the Federal laboratories, to transfer technology from the Federal laboratories, and to advance State and local economic activity.
“(B) The demonstration projects established under subparagraph (A) shall serve as model programs. Such projects shall be designed to develop programs and mechanisms for technology transfer from the Federal laboratories which may be utilized by the States and which will enhance Federal, State, and local programs for the transfer of technology.
“(C) Application for such grants, awards, or agreements shall be in such form and contain such information as the Consortium or its designee shall specify.
“(D) Any person who receives or utilizes any proceeds of a grant or award made, or agreement entered into, under this paragraph shall keep such records as the Consortium or its designee shall determine are necessary and appropriate to facilitate effective audit and evaluation, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition of such proceeds and the total cost of the project in connection with which such proceeds were used.”
Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–245
, § 303, added subsec. (i).
1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189
struck out “after September 30, 1981,” after “(2)”, substituted “sufficient funding, either as a separate line item or from the agency’s research and development budget,” for “not less than 0.5 percent of the agency’s research and development budget”, struck out “agency head may waive the requirement set forth in clause (2) of the preceding sentence. If the agency head waives such requirement, the” after “transfer process. The”, and substituted “agency’s technology transfer program for the preceding year and the agency’s plans for conducting its technology transfer function for the upcoming year, including plans for securing intellectual property rights in laboratory innovations with commercial promise and plans for managing such innovations so as to benefit the competitiveness of United States industry” for “reasons for the waiver and alternate plans for conducting the technology transfer function at the agency”.
1988—Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 100–418
, § 5163(c)(3), added par. (6).
Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 100–418
, § 5115(b)(2), substituted “National Institute of Standards and Technology” for “National Bureau of Standards” and “Institute” for “Bureau”.
Subsec. (e)(7)(A). Pub. L. 100–418
, § 5162(b), substituted “0.008 percent of the budget of each Federal agency from any Federal source, including related overhead, that is to be utilized by or on behalf of” for “0.005 percent of that portion of the research and development budget of each Federal agency that is to be utilized by”.
Pub. L. 100–418
, § 5115(b)(2), substituted “National Institute of Standards and Technology” for “National Bureau of Standards” and “Institute” for “Bureau”.
Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 100–519
, § 201(d)(3), inserted reference to the Under Secretary.
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–519
, § 212(a)(4), struck out subsec. (h) which read as follows: “None of the activities or functions of the National Technical Information Service which are not performed by contractors as of September 30, 1987, shall be contracted out or otherwise transferred from the Federal Government unless such transfer is expressly authorized by statute, or unless the value of all work performed under the contract and related contracts in each fiscal year does not exceed $250,000.”
Pub. L. 100–418
, § 5163(c)(1), added subsec. (h).
1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(b)(1), substituted “200 or more full-time equivalent scientific, engineering, and related technical positions shall provide one or more full-time equivalent positions” for “a total annual budget exceeding $20,000,000 shall provide at least one professional individual full-time”, inserted “Furthermore, individuals filling positions in an Office of Research and Technology Applications shall be included in the overall laboratory/agency management development program so as to ensure that highly competent technical managers are full participants in the technology transfer process.”, substituted “requirement set forth in clause (2) of the preceding sentence” for “requirements set forth in (1) and/or (2) of this subsection”, and substituted “such requirement” for “either requirement (1) or (2)”.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(b)(2)(A), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “to prepare an application assessment of each research and development project in which that laboratory is engaged which has potential for successful application in State or local government or in private industry;”.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(b)(2)(B), substituted “the National Technical Information Service, the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer,” for “the Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology” and struck out “and” after the semicolon.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(b)(2)(C), substituted “to State and local government officials; and” for “in response to requests from State and local government officials.”.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(b)(2)(D), added par. (5).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(c)(1), substituted “The National Technical Information Service shall” for “There is hereby established in the Department of Commerce a Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology. The Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology shall” in introductory par.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(c)(2), (3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out “existing” before “Federal Laboratory”. Former par. (2), which required the Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology to coordinate the activities of the Offices of Research and Technology Applications of the Federal laboratories, was struck out.
Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(c)(4), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).
Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(c)(4)–(6), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and substituted “subsection (c)(3)” for “subsection (c)(4)”. Former par. (4), which required the Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology to receive requests for technical assistance from State and local governments and refer those requests to the appropriate Federal laboratories, was struck out.
Subsec. (d)(5), (6). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 4(c)(5), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively.
Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 99–502
, §§ 3,
, added subsec. (e), redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f), substituted “report annually to the Congress, as part of the agency’s annual budget submission, on the activities” for “prepare biennially a report summarizing the activities”, and struck out “The report shall be transmitted to the Center for the Utilization of Federal Technology by November 1 of each year in which it is due.”.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–502
, § 5, added subsec. (g).
Ex. Ord. No. 12591. Facilitating Access to Science and Technology
Ex. Ord. No. 12591, Apr. 10, 1987, 52
, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12618, Dec. 22, 1987, 52
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–502) [see Short Title of 1986 Amendments note set out under section
of this title], the Trademark Clarification Act of 1984 (Public Law 98–620) [see Short Title of 1984 Amendment note set out under section
of this title], and the University and Small Business Patent Procedure Act of 1980 (Public Law 96–517) [see Tables for classification], and in order to ensure that Federal agencies and laboratories assist universities and the private sector in broadening our technology base by moving new knowledge from the research laboratory into the development of new products and processes, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Transfer of Federally Funded Technology.
(a) The head of each Executive department and agency, to the extent permitted by law, shall encourage and facilitate collaboration among Federal laboratories, State and local governments, universities, and the private sector, particularly small business, in order to assist in the transfer of technology to the marketplace.
(b) The head of each Executive department and agency shall, within overall funding allocations and to the extent permitted by law:
(1) delegate authority to its government-owned, government-operated Federal laboratories:
(A) to enter into cooperative research and development agreements with other Federal laboratories, State and local governments, universities, and the private sector; and
(B) to license, assign, or waive rights to intellectual property developed by the laboratory either under such cooperative research or development agreements and from within individual laboratories.
(2) identify and encourage persons to act as conduits between and among Federal laboratories, universities, and the private sector for the transfer of technology developed from federally funded research and development efforts;
(3) ensure that State and local governments, universities, and the private sector are provided with information on the technology, expertise, and facilities available in Federal laboratories;
(4) promote the commercialization, in accord with my Memorandum to the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies of February 18, 1983, of patentable results of federally funded research by granting to all contractors, regardless of size, the title to patents made in whole or in part with Federal funds, in exchange for royalty-free use by or on behalf of the government;
(5) administer all patents and licenses to inventions made with federal assistance, which are owned by the non-profit contractor or grantee, in accordance with Section
of the United States Code as amended by Public Law 98–620, without regard to limitations on licensing found in that section prior to amendment or in Institutional Patent Agreements now in effect that were entered into before that law was enacted on November 8, 1984, unless, in the case of an invention that has not been marketed, the funding agency determines, based on information in its files, that the contractor or grantee has not taken adequate steps to market the inventions, in accordance with applicable law or an Institutional Patent Agreement;
(6) implement, as expeditiously as practicable, royalty-sharing programs with inventors who were employees of the agency at the time their inventions were made, and cash award programs; and
(7) cooperate, under policy guidance provided by the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, with the heads of other affected departments and agencies in the development of a uniform policy permitting Federal contractors to retain rights to software, engineering drawings, and other technical data generated by Federal grants and contracts, in exchange for royalty-free use by or on behalf of the government.
Sec. 2. Establishment of the Technology Share Program. The Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall select one or more of their Federal laboratories to participate in the Technology Share Program. Consistent with its mission and policies and within its overall funding allocation in any year, each Federal laboratory so selected shall:
(a) Identify areas of research and technology of potential importance to long-term national economic competitiveness and in which the laboratory possesses special competence and/or unique facilities;
(b) Establish a mechanism through which the laboratory performs research in areas identified in Section
as a participant of a consortium composed of United States industries and universities. All consortia so established shall have, at a minimum, three individual companies that conduct the majority of their business in the United States; and
(c) Limit its participation in any consortium so established to the use of laboratory personnel and facilities. However, each laboratory may also provide financial support generally not to exceed 25 percent of the total budget for the activities of the consortium. Such financial support by any laboratory in all such consortia shall be limited to a maximum of $5 million per annum.
Sec. 3. Technology Exchange—Scientists and Engineers. The Executive Director of the President’s Commission on Executive Exchange shall assist Federal agencies, where appropriate, by developing and implementing an exchange program whereby scientists and engineers in the private sector may take temporary assignments in Federal laboratories, and scientists and engineers in Federal laboratories may take temporary assignments in the private sector.
Sec. 4. International Science and Technology. In order to ensure that the United States benefits from and fully exploits scientific research and technology developed abroad,
(a) The head of each Executive department and agency, when negotiating or entering into cooperative research and development agreements and licensing arrangements with foreign persons or industrial organizations (where these entities are directly or indirectly controlled by a foreign company or government), shall, in consultation with the United States Trade Representative, give appropriate consideration:
(1) to whether such foreign companies or governments permit and encourage United States agencies, organizations, or persons to enter into cooperative research and development agreements and licensing arrangements on a comparable basis;
(2) to whether those foreign governments have policies to protect the United States intellectual property rights; and
(3) where cooperative research will involve data, technologies, or products subject to national security export controls under the laws of the United States, to whether those foreign governments have adopted adequate measures to prevent the transfer of strategic technology to destinations prohibited under such national security export controls, either through participation in the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) or through other international agreements to which the United States and such foreign governments are signatories.
(b) The Secretary of State shall develop a recruitment policy that encourages scientists and engineers from other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and industry to apply for assignments in embassies of the United States; and
(c) The Secretaries of State and Commerce and the Director of the National Science Foundation shall develop a central mechanism for the prompt and efficient dissemination of science and technology information developed abroad to users in Federal laboratories, academic institutions, and the private sector on a fee-for-service basis.
Sec. 5. Technology Transfer from the Department of Defense. Within 6 months of the date of this Order [Apr. 10, 1987], the Secretary of Defense shall identify a list of funded technologies that would be potentially useful to United States industries and universities. The Secretary shall then accelerate efforts to make these technologies more readily available to United States industries and universities.
Sec. 6. Basic Science and Technology Centers. The head of each Executive department and agency shall examine the potential for including the establishment of university research centers in engineering, science, or technology in the strategy and planning for any future research and development programs. Such university centers shall be jointly funded by the Federal Government, the private sector, and, where appropriate, the States and shall focus on areas of fundamental research and technology that are both scientifically promising and have the potential to contribute to the Nation’s long-term economic competitiveness.
Sec. 7. Reporting Requirements. (a) Within 1 year from the date of this Order [Apr. 10, 1987], the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall convene an interagency task force comprised of the heads of representative agencies and the directors of representative Federal laboratories, or their designees, in order to identify and disseminate creative approaches to technology transfer from Federal laboratories. The task force will report to the President on the progress of and problems with technology transfer from Federal laboratories.
(b) Specifically, the report shall include:
(1) a listing of current technology transfer programs and an assessment of the effectiveness of these programs;
(2) identification of new or creative approaches to technology transfer that might serve as model programs for Federal laboratories;
(3) criteria to assess the effectiveness and impact on the Nation’s economy of planned or future technology transfer efforts; and
(4) a compilation and assessment of the Technology Share Program established in Section
and, where appropriate, related cooperative research and development venture programs.
Sec. 8. Relation to Existing Law. Nothing in this Order shall affect the continued applicability of any existing laws or regulations relating to the transfer of United States technology to other nations. The head of any Executive department or agency may exclude from consideration, under this Order, any technology that would be, if transferred, detrimental to the interests of national security.