15 U.S. Code § 654 - Paul D. Coverdell drug-free workplace program

(a) Definitions
In this section:
(1) Drug-free workplace program
The term “drug-free workplace program” means a program that includes—
(A) a written policy, including a clear statement of expectations for workplace behavior, prohibitions against reporting to work or working under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol, prohibitions against the use or possession of illegal drugs in the workplace, and the consequences of violating those expectations and prohibitions;
(B) drug and alcohol abuse prevention training for a total of not less than 2 hours for each employee, and additional voluntary drug and alcohol abuse prevention training for employees who are parents;
(C) employee illegal drug testing, with analysis conducted by a drug testing laboratory certified by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, or approved by the College of American Pathologists for forensic drug testing, and a review of each positive test result by a medical review officer;
(D) employee access to an employee assistance program, including confidential assessment, referral, and short-term problem resolution; and
(E) continuing alcohol and drug abuse prevention education.
(2) Eligible intermediary
The term “eligible intermediary” means an organization—
(A) that has not less than 2 years of experience in carrying out drug-free workplace programs;
(B) that has a drug-free workplace policy in effect;
(C) that is located in a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory of the United States; and
(D)
(i) the purpose of which is—
(I) to develop comprehensive drug-free workplace programs or to supply drug-free workplace services; or
(II) to provide other forms of assistance and services to small business concerns; or
(ii) that is eligible to receive a grant under chapter 2 of the National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988 (21 U.S.C. 1521 et seq.).
(3) Employee
The term “employee” includes any—
(A) applicant for employment;
(B) employee;
(C) supervisor;
(D) manager;
(E) officer of a small business concern who is active in management of the concern; and
(F) owner of a small business concern who is active in management of the concern.
(4) Medical review officer
The term “medical review officer”—
(A) means a licensed physician with knowledge of substance abuse disorders; and
(B) does not include any—
(i) employee of the small business concern; or
(ii) employee or agent of, or any person having a financial interest in, the laboratory for which the illegal drug test results are being reviewed.
(b) Establishment
(1) In general
There is established a drug-free workplace demonstration program, under which the Administrator may make grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with, eligible intermediaries for the purpose of providing financial and technical assistance to small business concerns seeking to establish a drug-free workplace program.
(2) Additional grants for technical assistance
In addition to grants under paragraph (1), the Administrator may make grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements or contracts with, any grantee for the purpose of providing, in cooperation with one or more small business development centers, technical assistance to small business concerns seeking to establish a drug-free workplace program.
(3) 2-year grants
Each grant made under this subsection shall be for a period of 2 years, subject to an annual performance review by the Administrator.
(c) Promotion of effective practices of eligible intermediaries
(1) Technical assistance and information
The Administrator, after consultation with the Director of the Center for Substance Abuse and Prevention, shall provide technical assistance and information to each eligible intermediary under subsection (b) of this section regarding the most effective practices in establishing and carrying out drug-free workplace programs.
(2) Evaluation of program
(A) Data collection and analysis
Each eligible intermediary receiving a grant under this section shall establish a system to collect and analyze information regarding the effectiveness of drug-free workplace programs established with assistance provided under this section through the intermediary, including information regarding any increase or decrease among employees in drug use, awareness of the adverse consequences of drug use, and absenteeism, injury, and disciplinary problems related to drug use. Such system shall conform to such requirements as the Administrator, after consultation with the Director of the Center for Substance Abuse and Prevention, may prescribe. Not more than 5 percent of the amount of each grant made under subsection (b) of this section shall be used by the eligible intermediary to carry out this paragraph.
(B) Method of evaluation
The Administrator, after consultation with the Director of the Center for Substance Abuse and Prevention, shall provide technical assistance and guidance to each eligible intermediary receiving a grant under subsection (b) of this section regarding the collection and analysis of information to evaluate the effectiveness of drug-free workplace programs established with assistance provided under this section, including the information referred to in paragraph (1). Such assistance shall include the identification of additional information suitable for measuring the benefits of drug-free workplace programs to the small business concern and to the concern’s employees and the identification of methods suitable for analyzing such information.
(d) Evaluation and coordination
Not later than 18 months after October 21, 1998, the Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Director of National Drug Control Policy, shall—
(1) evaluate the drug-free workplace programs established with assistance made available under this section; and
(2) submit to Congress a report describing the results of the evaluation under paragraph (1).
(e) Contract authority
In carrying out this section, the Administrator may—
(1) contract with public and private entities to provide assistance related to carrying out the program under this section; and
(2) compensate those entities for provision of that assistance.
(f) Construction
Nothing in this section may be construed to require an employer who attends a program offered by an intermediary to contract for any service offered by the intermediary.
(g) Authorization
(1) In general
There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section (other than subsection (b)(2)), $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006. Amounts made available under this paragraph shall remain available until expended.
(2) Small business development centers
Of the total amount made available under paragraph (1) for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, not more than the greater of 10 percent or $500,000 may be used to carry out section 648 (c)(3)(T) of this title.
(3) Additional authorization for technical assistance grants
There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out subsection (b)(2) of this section, $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006. Amounts made available under this paragraph shall remain available until expended.
(4) Limitation on administrative costs
Not more than 5 percent of the total amount made available under this subsection for any fiscal year shall be used for administrative costs (determined without regard to the administrative costs of eligible intermediaries).

Source

(Pub. L. 85–536, § 2[27], as added Pub. L. 101–574, title III, § 310,Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2831; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IX, § 904,Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–708; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(9) [title V, § 503(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–695; Pub. L. 108–447, div. K, title I, §§ 123–126,Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3449–3451.)
References in Text

The National Narcotics Leadership Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(D)(ii), is subtitle A of title I of Pub. L. 100–690, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4181, as amended. Chapter 2 of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§ 1521 et seq.) of chapter 20 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under former section 1501 of Title 21 and Tables.
Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–447, § 125, amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: “the purpose of which is—
“(i) to develop comprehensive drug-free workplace programs or to supply drug-free workplace services; or
“(ii) to provide other forms of assistance and services to small business concerns.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–447, § 124, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–447, § 126, amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Each drug-free workplace program established with assistance made available under this section shall—
“(1) include, as reasonably necessary and appropriate, practices and procedures to ensure the confidentiality of illegal drug test results and of any participation by an employee in a rehabilitation program;
“(2) prohibit the mandatory disclosure of medical information by an employee prior to a confirmed positive illegal drug test; and
“(3) require that a medical review officer reviewing illegal drug test results shall report only the final results, limited to those drugs for which the employee tests positive, in writing and in a manner designed to ensure the confidentiality of the results.”
Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 108–447, § 123(a), substituted “(other than subsection (b)(2)), $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006. Amounts made available under this paragraph” for “, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003. Amounts made available under this subsection”.
Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 108–447, § 123(b), substituted “paragraph (1) for each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, not more than the greater of 10 percent or $500,000” for “this subsection, not more than the greater of 10 percent or $1,000,000”.
Subsec. (g)(3), (4). Pub. L. 108–447, § 123(c), (d), added pars. (3) and (4).
2000—Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(9) [title V, § 503(a)(1)], substituted “Paul D. Coverdell drug-free workplace program” for “Drug-free workplace demonstration program” in section catchline.
Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(9) [title V, § 503(a)(2)], substituted “$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2003” for “$10,000,000 for fiscal years 1999 and 2000”.
1998—Pub. L. 105–277amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subsecs. (a) to (c) authorizing Administration to make grants to conduct tourism demonstration programs, establishing purpose of program, placing a condition on grant recipients, authorizing appropriations, and requiring report to President and Congress.
Findings and Purposes of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IX, § 902,Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–707, provided that:
“(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—
“(1) 74 percent of adults who use illegal drugs are employed;
“(2) small business concerns employ over 50 percent of the Nation’s workforce;
“(3) in more than 88 percent of families with children under the age of 18, at least 1 parent is employed; and
“(4) employees who use and abuse addictive illegal drugs and alcohol increase costs for businesses and risk the health and safety of all employees because—
“(A) absenteeism is 66 percent higher among drug users than individuals who do not use drugs;
“(B) health benefit utilization is 300 percent higher among drug users than individuals who do not use drugs;
“(C) 47 percent of workplace accidents are drug-related;
“(D) disciplinary actions are 90 percent higher among drug users than among individuals who do not use drugs; and
“(E) employee turnover is significantly higher among drug users than among individuals who do not use drugs.
“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this title [see Short Title of 1998 Amendment note set out under section 631 of this title] are to—
“(1) educate small business concerns about the advantages of a drug-free workplace;
“(2) provide grants and technical assistance in addition to financial incentives to enable small business concerns to create a drug-free workplace;
“(3) assist working parents in keeping their children drug-free; and
“(4) encourage small business employers and employees alike to participate in drug-free workplace programs.”
Sense of Congress for 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title IX, § 903,Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–708, provided that: “It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1) businesses should adopt drug-free workplace programs;
“(2) States should consider incentives to encourage businesses to adopt drug-free workplace programs; and
“(3) such incentives may include—
“(A) financial incentives, including—
“(i) a reduction in workers’ compensation premiums;
“(ii) a reduction in unemployment insurance premiums; and
“(iii) tax deductions in an amount equal to the amount of expenditures for employee assistance programs, treatment, or illegal drug testing; and
“(B) other incentives, such as the adoption of liability limitations, as recommended by the President’s Commission on Model State Drug Laws.”

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