15 U.S. Code § 78t - Liability of controlling persons and persons who aid and abet violations

(a) Joint and several liability; good faith defense
Every person who, directly or indirectly, controls any person liable under any provision of this chapter or of any rule or regulation thereunder shall also be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as such controlled person to any person to whom such controlled person is liable (including to the Commission in any action brought under paragraph (1) or (3) of section 78u (d) of this title), unless the controlling person acted in good faith and did not directly or indirectly induce the act or acts constituting the violation or cause of action.
(b) Unlawful activity through or by means of any other person
It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, to do any act or thing which it would be unlawful for such person to do under the provisions of this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder through or by means of any other person.
(c) Hindering, delaying, or obstructing the making or filing of any document, report, or information
It shall be unlawful for any director or officer of, or any owner of any securities issued by, any issuer required to file any document, report, or information under this chapter or any rule or regulation thereunder without just cause to hinder, delay, or obstruct the making or filing of any such document, report, or information.
(d) Liability for trading in securities while in possession of material nonpublic information
Wherever communicating, or purchasing or selling a security while in possession of, material nonpublic information would violate, or result in liability to any purchaser or seller of the security under any provisions of this chapter, or any rule or regulation thereunder, such conduct in connection with a purchase or sale of a put, call, straddle, option, privilege or security-based swap agreement with respect to such security or with respect to a group or index of securities including such security, shall also violate and result in comparable liability to any purchaser or seller of that security under such provision, rule, or regulation.
(e) Prosecution of persons who aid and abet violations
For purposes of any action brought by the Commission under paragraph (1) or (3) of section 78u (d) of this title, any person that knowingly or recklessly provides substantial assistance to another person in violation of a provision of this chapter, or of any rule or regulation issued under this chapter, shall be deemed to be in violation of such provision to the same extent as the person to whom such assistance is provided.
(f) Limitation on Commission authority
The authority of the Commission under this section with respect to security-based swap agreements shall be subject to the restrictions and limitations of section 78c–1 (b) of this title.

Source

(June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title I, § 20,48 Stat. 899; May 27, 1936, ch. 462, § 6,49 Stat. 1379; Pub. L. 88–467, § 9,Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 98–376, § 5,Aug. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 104–67, title I, § 104,Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 757; Pub. L. 105–353, title III, § 301(b)(12),Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5) [title II, § 205(a)(3), title III, § 303(i), (j)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–426, 2763A–456; Pub. L. 111–203, title VII, § 762(d)(6), title IX, §§ 929O, 929P(c),July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1761, 1862, 1865.)
Amendment of Section

Unless otherwise provided, amendment by subtitle B (§§ 761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, see 2010 Amendment notes and Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note below.
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original “this title”. See References in Text note set out under section 78a of this title.
Amendments

2010—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111–203, § 929P(c), inserted “(including to the Commission in any action brought under paragraph (1) or (3) of section 78u (d) of this title)” after “controlled person is liable”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–203, § 762(d)(6)(A), struck out “(as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)” after “security-based swap agreement”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–203, § 929O, inserted “or recklessly” after “knowingly”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 111–203, § 762(d)(6)(B), struck out “(as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act)” after “security-based swap agreements”.
2000—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5) [title III, § 303(i)], amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: “Wherever communicating, or purchasing or selling a security while in possession of, material nonpublic information would violate, or result in liability to any purchaser or seller of the security under any provision of this chapter, or any rule or regulation thereunder, such conduct in connection with a purchase or sale of a put, call, straddle, option,, privilege, or security futures product with respect to such security or with respect to a group or index of securities including such security, shall also violate and result in comparable liability to any purchaser or seller of that security under such provision, rule, or regulation.”
Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5) [title II, § 205(a)(3)], substituted “, privilege, or security futures product” for “or privilege”.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(5) [title III, § 303(j)], added subsec. (f).
1998—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 105–353redesignated subsec. (f) as (e).
1995—Pub. L. 104–67, § 104(1), substituted “liability of controlling persons and persons who aid and abet violations” for “Liabilities of controlling persons” in section catchline.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–67, § 104(2), added subsec. (f).
1984—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–376added subsec. (d).
1964—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–467extended application of provisions of subsec. (c) by substituting the prohibition against any officer or director of, or an owner of securities issued by, a company from hindering, delaying, or obstructing the preparation or filing of any report, document, or information required to be filed under this chapter for existing provisions applicable only to filings by companies with securities registered on a national securities exchange or subject to the provisions of section 78o (d) of this title.
1936—Subsec. (c). Act May 27, 1936, inserted “or any undertaking contained in a registration statement as provided in subsection (d) ofsection 78o of this title”.
Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by sections 929O and 929P(c) ofPub. L. 111–203effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5301 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.
Amendment by section 762(d)(6) ofPub. L. 111–203effective on the later of 360 days after July 21, 2010, or, to the extent a provision of subtitle B (§§ 761–774) of title VII of Pub. L. 111–203requires a rulemaking, not less than 60 days after publication of the final rule or regulation implementing such provision of subtitle B, see section 774 ofPub. L. 111–203, set out as a note under section 77b of this title.
Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–67not to affect or apply to any private action arising under this chapter or title I of the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a et seq.), commenced before and pending on Dec. 22, 1995, see section 108 ofPub. L. 104–67, set out as a note under section 77l of this title.
Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–376effective Aug. 10, 1984, see section 7 ofPub. L. 98–376, set out as a note under section 78c of this title.
Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–467effective Aug. 20, 1964, see section 13 ofPub. L. 88–467, set out as a note under section 78c of this title.
Construction of 1995 Amendment

Nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 104–67to be deemed to create or ratify any implied right of action, or to prevent Commission, by rule or regulation, from restricting or otherwise regulating private actions under this chapter, see section 203 ofPub. L. 104–67, set out as a Construction note under section 78j–1 of this title.

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12 CFR - Banks and Banking

12 CFR Part 10 - MUNICIPAL SECURITIES DEALERS

17 CFR - Commodity and Securities Exchanges

17 CFR Part 200 - ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS

17 CFR Part 230 - GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

17 CFR Part 249 - FORMS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

17 CFR Part 249b - FURTHER FORMS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

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