Subject to subsection (c) of this section, any person who destroys, causes the loss of, or injures any park system resource is liable to the United States for response costs and damages resulting from such destruction, loss, or injury.
(b) Liability in rem
Any instrumentality, including but not limited to a vessel, vehicle, aircraft, or other equipment that destroys, causes the loss of, or injures any park system resource or any marine or aquatic park resource shall be liable in rem to the United States for response costs and damages resulting from such destruction, loss, or injury to the same extent as a person is liable under subsection (a) of this section.
A person is not liable under this section if such person can establish that—
(1)the destruction, loss of, or injury to the park system resource was caused solely by an act of God or an act of war;
(2)such person acted with due care, and the destruction, loss of, or injury to the park system resource was caused solely by an act or omission of a third party, other than an employee or agent of such person; or
(3)the destruction, loss, or injury to the park system resource was caused by an activity authorized by Federal or State law.
The provisions of this section shall be in addition to any other liability which may arise under Federal or State law.
2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–176inserted “or” after “park system resource”.
1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–333inserted “any marine or aquatic park resource” after “any park system resource”.
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.
Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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