16 U.S. Code § 3113 - Definitions

As used in this Act, the term “subsistence uses” means the customary and traditional uses by rural Alaska residents of wild, renewable resources for direct personal or family consumption as food, shelter, fuel, clothing, tools, or transportation; for the making and selling of handicraft articles out of nonedible byproducts of fish and wildlife resources taken for personal or family consumption; for barter, or sharing for personal or family consumption; and for customary trade. For the purposes of this section, the term—
(1) “family” means all persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption, or any person living within the household on a permanent basis; and
(2) “barter” means the exchange of fish or wildlife or their parts, taken for subsistence uses—
(A) for other fish or game or their parts; or
(B) for other food or for nonedible items other than money if the exchange is of a limited and noncommercial nature.


(Pub. L. 96–487, title VIII, § 803,Dec. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 2423; Pub. L. 105–83, title III, § 316(b)(4), (d),Nov. 14, 1997, 111 Stat. 1593, 1595.)
References in Text

This Act, referred to in provision preceding par. (1), is Pub. L. 96–487, Dec. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 2371, as amended, known as the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

1997—Pars. (3) to (5). Pub. L. 105–83, § 316(b)(4), which directed the addition of pars. (3) to (5) was repealed by Pub. L. 105–83, § 316(d). Pars. (3) to (5) read as follows:
“(3) ‘customary and traditional uses’ means the noncommercial, long-term, and consistent taking of, use of, or reliance upon fish and wildlife in a specific area and the patterns and practices of taking or use of that fish and wildlife that have been established over a reasonable period of time, taking into consideration the availability of the fish and wildlife;
“(4) ‘customary trade’ means, except for money sales of furs and furbearers, the limited noncommercial exchange for money of fish and wildlife or their parts in minimal quantities; and
“(5) ‘rural Alaska resident’ means a resident of a rural community or area. A ‘rural community or area’ means a community or area substantially dependent on fish and wildlife for nutritional and other subsistence uses.” See Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment note below.
Effective and Termination Dates of 1997 Amendment

Until laws are adopted in Alaska which provide for definition, preference, and participation specified in sections 3113 to 3115 of this title, amendment by Pub. L. 105–83was effective only for purpose of determining whether State’s laws provide for such definition, preference, and participation, and such amendment was repealed on Dec. 1, 1998, because such laws had not been adopted, see section 316(d) ofPub. L. 105–83set out as a note under section 3102 of this title.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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16 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

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36 CFR - Parks, Forests, and Public Property


50 CFR - Wildlife and Fisheries



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