16 U.S. Code § 6401 - Purposes

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The purposes of this chapter are—
(1) to preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral reef ecosystems;
(2) to promote the wise management and sustainable use of coral reef ecosystems to benefit local communities and the Nation;
(3) to develop sound scientific information on the condition of coral reef ecosystems and the threats to such ecosystems;
(4) to assist in the preservation of coral reefs by supporting conservation programs, including projects that involve affected local communities and nongovernmental organizations;
(5) to provide financial resources for those programs and projects; and
(6) to establish a formal mechanism for collecting and allocating monetary donations from the private sector to be used for coral reef conservation projects.

Source

(Pub. L. 106–562, title II, § 202,Dec. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 2800.)
Short Title

Pub. L. 106–562, title II, § 201,Dec. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 2800, provided that: “This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000’.”
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Reserve

Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(4) [div. B, title I, § 144(f)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–249, provided that:
“(1) The President, after consultation with the Governor of the State of Hawaii, may designate any Northwestern Hawaiian Islands coral reef or coral reef ecosystem as a coral reef reserve to be managed by the Secretary of Commerce.
“(2) Upon the designation of a reserve under paragraph (1) by the President, the Secretary shall—
“(A) take action to initiate the designation of the reserve as a National Marine Sanctuary under sections 303 and 304 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1433[, 1434]);
“(B) establish a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Reserve Advisory Council under section 315 of that Act (16 U.S.C. 1445a), the membership of which shall include at least one representative from Native Hawaiian groups; and
“(C) until the reserve is designated as a National Marine Sanctuary, manage the reserve in a manner consistent with the purposes and policies of that Act [16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq.].
“(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no closure areas around the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands shall become permanent without adequate review and comment.
“(4) The Secretary shall work with other Federal agencies and the Director of the National Science Foundation, to develop a coordinated plan to make vessels and other resources available for conservation or research activities for the reserve.
“(5) If the Secretary has not designated a national marine sanctuary in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands under sections 303 and 304 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1433, 1434) before October 1, 2005, the Secretary shall conduct a review of the management of the reserve under section 304(e) of that Act (16 U.S.C. 1434 (e)).
“(6) No later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000], the Secretary shall submit a report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Resources [now Committee on Natural Resources], describing actions taken to implement this subsection, including costs of monitoring, enforcing, and addressing marine debris, and the extent to which the fiscal or other resources necessary to carry out this subsection are reflected in the Budget of the United States Government submitted by the President under section 1104 of title 31, United States Code.
“(7) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce to carry out the provisions of this subsection such sums, not exceeding $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005, as are reported under paragraph (5) [(6)] to be reflected in the Budget of the United States Government.”
Substantially identical provisions were contained in Pub. L. 106–513, § 6(g),Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2385.
Ex. Ord. No. 13089. Coral Reef Protection

Ex. Ord. No. 13089, June 11, 1998, 63 F.R. 32701, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America and in furtherance of the purposes of the Clean Water Act of 1977, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251,et seq.) [see Short title of 1977 Amendment note, set out under section 1451 of this title], Coastal Zone Management Act [of 1972] (16 U.S.C. 1451,et seq.), Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801,et seq.), National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321,et seq.), National Marine Sanctuaries Act, (16 U.S.C. 1431,et seq.), National Park Service Organic Act (16 U.S.C. 1,et seq.), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd–ee) [16 U.S.C. 668dd–668ee], and other pertinent statutes, to preserve and protect the biodiversity, health, heritage, and social and economic value of U.S. coral reef ecosystems and the marine environment, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 1. Definitions. (a) “U.S. coral reef ecosystems” means those species, habitats, and other natural resources associated with coral reefs in all maritime areas and zones subject to the jurisdiction or control of the United States (e.g., Federal, State, territorial, or commonwealth waters), including reef systems in the south Atlantic, Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific Ocean. (b) “U.S. Coral Reef Initiative” is an existing partnership between Federal agencies and State, territorial, commonwealth, and local governments, nongovernmental organizations, and commercial interests to design and implement additional management, education, monitoring, research, and restoration efforts to conserve coral reef ecosystems for the use and enjoyment of future generations. The existing U.S. Islands Coral Reef Initiative strategy covers approximately 95 percent of U.S. coral reef ecosystems and is a key element of the overall U.S. Coral Reef Initiative. (c) “International Coral Reef Initiative” is an existing partnership, founded by the United States in 1994, of governments, intergovernmental organizations, multilateral development banks, nongovernmental organizations, scientists, and the private sector whose purpose is to mobilize governments and other interested parties whose coordinated, vigorous, and effective actions are required to address the threats to the world’s coral reefs.
Sec. 2. Policy. (a) All Federal agencies whose actions may affect U.S. coral reef ecosystems shall: (a) identify their actions that may affect U.S. coral reef ecosystems; (b) utilize their programs and authorities to protect and enhance the conditions of such ecosystems; and (c) to the extent permitted by law, ensure that any actions they authorize, fund, or carry out will not degrade the conditions of such ecosystems.
(b) Exceptions to this section may be allowed under terms prescribed by the heads of Federal agencies:
(1) during time of war or national emergency;
(2) when necessary for reasons of national security, as determined by the President;
(3) during emergencies posing an unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible solution; or
(4) in any case that constitutes a danger to human life or a real threat to vessels, aircraft, platforms, or other man-made structures at sea, such as cases of force majeure caused by stress of weather or other act of God.
Sec. 3. Federal Agency Responsibilities. In furtherance of section 2 of this order, Federal agencies whose actions affect U.S. coral reef ecosystems, shall, subject to the availability of appropriations, provide for implementation of measures needed to research, monitor, manage, and restore affected ecosystems, including, but not limited to, measures reducing impacts from pollution, sedimentation, and fishing. To the extent not inconsistent with statutory responsibilities and procedures, these measures shall be developed in cooperation with the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force and fishery management councils and in consultation with affected States, territorial, commonwealth, tribal, and local government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community, and commercial interests.
Sec. 4. U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Commerce, through the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, shall co-chair a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (“Task Force”), whose members shall include, but not be limited to, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Attorney General, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Task Force shall oversee implementation of the policy and Federal agency responsibilities set forth in this order, and shall guide and support activities under the U.S. Coral Reef Initiative (“CRI”). All Federal agencies whose actions may affect U.S. coral reef ecosystems shall review their participation in the CRI and the strategies developed under it, including strategies and plans of State, territorial, commonwealth, and local governments, and, to the extent feasible, shall enhance Federal participation and support of such strategies and plans. The Task Force shall work in cooperation with State, territorial, commonwealth, and local government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community, and commercial interests.
Sec. 5. Duties of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force. (a) Coral Reef Mapping and Monitoring. The Task Force, in cooperation with State, territory, commonwealth, and local government partners, shall coordinate a comprehensive program to map and monitor U.S. coral reefs. Such programs shall include, but not be limited to, territories and commonwealths, special marine protected areas such as National Marine Sanctuaries, National Estuarine Research Reserves, National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges, and other entities having significant coral reef resources. To the extent feasible, remote sensing capabilities shall be developed and applied to this program and local communities should be engaged in the design and conduct of programs.
(b) Research. The Task Force shall develop and implement, with the scientific community, research aimed at identifying the major causes and consequences of degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This research shall include fundamental scientific research to provide a sound framework for the restoration and conservation of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. To the extent feasible, existing and planned environmental monitoring and mapping programs should be linked with scientific research activities. This Executive order shall not interfere with the normal conduct of scientific studies on coral reef ecosystems.
(c) Conservation, Mitigation, and Restoration. The Task Force, in cooperation with State, territorial, commonwealth, and local government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, the scientific community and commercial interests, shall develop, recommend, and seek or secure implementation of measures necessary to reduce and mitigate coral reef ecosystem degradation and to restore damaged coral reefs. These measures shall include solutions to problems such as land-based sources of water pollution, sedimentation, detrimental alteration of salinity or temperature, over-fishing, over-use, collection of coral reef species, and direct destruction caused by activities such as recreational and commercial vessel traffic and treasure salvage. In developing these measures, the Task Force shall review existing legislation to determine whether additional legislation is necessary to complement the policy objectives of this order and shall recommend such legislation if appropriate. The Task Force shall further evaluate existing navigational aids, including charts, maps, day markers, and beacons to determine if the designation of the location of specific coral reefs should be enhanced through the use, revision, or improvement of such aids.
(d) International Cooperation. The Secretary of State and the Administrator of the Agency for International Development, in cooperation with other members of the Coral Reef Task Force and drawing upon their expertise, shall assess the U.S. role in international trade and protection of coral reef species and implement appropriate strategies and actions to promote conservation and sustainable use of coral reef resources worldwide. Such actions shall include expanded collaboration with other International Coral Reef Initiative (“ICRI”) partners, especially governments, to implement the ICRI through its Framework for Action and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network at regional, national, and local levels.
Sec. 6. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
William J. Clinton.
Ex. Ord. No. 13178. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve

Ex. Ord. No. 13178, Dec. 4, 2000, 65 F.R. 76903, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13196, §§ 3, 4, Jan. 18, 2001, 66 F.R. 7395, 7396, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, (16 U.S.C. 1431et seq.), and the National Marine Sanctuaries Amendments Act of 2000, Public Law 106–513 [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 1431 of this title], and in furtherance of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801et seq.), Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act [of 1972] (33 U.S.C. 1401et seq. [16 U.S.C. 1431 et seq., 1447 et seq., 33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq., 2801 et seq.]), Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451et seq.), Endangered Species Act [of 1973] (16 U.S.C. 1531et seq.), Marine Mammal Protection Act [of 1972] (16 U.S.C. 1362 [1361] et seq.), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251et seq.), National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470et seq.), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd–ee), and other pertinent statutes, it is ordered as follows:
Section 1. Preamble. The world’s coral reefs—the rain forests of the sea—are in serious decline. These important and sensitive areas of biodiversity warrant special protection. While United States waters contain approximately 3 percent of the world’s coral reefs, approximately 70 percent of U.S. coral reefs are in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The 3.5 million acres of coral reefs around the remote, mostly uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are spectacular and almost undisturbed by humans. The approximately 1,200 mile stretch of coral islands, seamounts, banks, and shoals are unquestionably some of the healthiest and most extensive coral reefs in the United States. In their own right, the spectacular coral reefs and lands provide an amazing geological record of volcanic and erosive powers that have shaped this area. This vast area supports a dynamic reef ecosystem that supports more than 7,000 marine species, of which approximately half are unique to the Hawaiian Island chain. This incredibly diverse ecosystem is home to many species of coral, fish, birds, marine mammals, and other flora and fauna including the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, the threatened green sea turtle, and the endangered leatherback and hawksbill sea turtles. In addition, this area has great cultural significance to Native Hawaiians as well as linkages to early Polynesian culture—making it additionally worthy of protection and understanding. This is truly a unique and special place, a coral reef ecosystem like no place on earth, and a source of pride, inspiration, and satisfaction for all Americans, especially the people of Hawaii. It is fully worthy of our best efforts to preserve a legacy of America’s natural wonders for future generations. Due to the special significance of this area, I have determined that it is in the best interest of our Nation, and of future generations, to provide strong and lasting protection for the coral reef ecosystem of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
On May 26, 2000, I directed the Secretaries of Commerce and the Interior, working cooperatively with the State of Hawaii and consulting with the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council, to develop recommendations for a new, coordinated management regime to increase protection of the coral reef ecosystem of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and provide for sustainable use of the area. Upon consideration of their recommendations and comments received during the public visioning process on this initiative, and based on the statutory authorities set forth above, I am issuing this Executive Order.
Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of this Executive Order is to ensure the comprehensive, strong, and lasting protection of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species (resources) of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
Sec. 3. Establishment of Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. There is hereby established in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a coral reef ecosystem reserve to be known as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (Reserve). The Reserve shall include submerged lands and waters of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, extending approximately 1,200 nautical miles (nm) long and 100nm wide. The Reserve shall be adjacent to and seaward of the seaward boundaries of the State of Hawaii and the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, and shall overlay the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge to the extent that it extends beyond the seaward boundaries of the State of Hawaii. The boundaries of the Reserve are described in section 6 of this order.
Sec. 4. Management Principles. The Secretary of Commerce, or his designee, (hereafter “Secretary”) shall, subject to section 10(b) of this order, manage the Reserve in accordance with the following principles:
(a) The principal purpose of the Reserve is the long-term conservation and protection of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in their natural character;
(b) The Reserve shall be managed using available science and applying a precautionary approach with resource protection favored when there is a lack of information regarding any given activity, to the extent not contrary to law;
(c) Culturally significant, noncommercial subsistence, cultural, and religious uses by Native Hawaiians should be allowed within the Reserve, consistent with applicable law and the long-term conservation and protection of Reserve resources;
(d) The Reserve shall be managed using, when appropriate, geographical zoning and innovative management techniques to ensure that the Reserve resources are protected from degradation or harm;
(e) To the extent consistent with the primary purpose of the Reserve, the Reserve shall be managed to support, promote, and coordinate appropriate scientific research and assessment, and long-term monitoring of Reserve resources, and the impacts or threats thereto from human and other activities, to help better understand, protect, and conserve these resources and species for future generations;
(f) To the extent consistent with the primary purpose of the Reserve, the Reserve shall be managed to enhance public awareness, understanding, and appreciation of Reserve resources, and the impacts or threats thereto from human and other activities;
(g) The Reserve shall be managed to further restoration and remediation of degraded or injured Reserve resources; and
(h) The Reserve shall be managed to facilitate coordinated management among Federal and State agencies and other entities, as appropriate, to provide comprehensive (looking beyond jurisdictional boundaries) conservation of the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, consistent with applicable authorities and the Management Principles of this section.
Sec. 5. Implementation. (a) Management of the Reserve. The Secretary shall manage the Reserve under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act and in accordance with this order.
(b) Reserve Operations Plan. The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Governor of Hawaii, shall develop an operations plan to govern the management of the Reserve. In developing the Reserve Operations Plan the Secretary shall consider the advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council established pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section. The Reserve Operations Plan shall be directed at priority issues and actions that, at a minimum, provide for:
(1) Coordinated management among the Reserve, Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, and the State of Hawaii, consistent with relevant authorities;
(2) Coordination among Federal agencies and the Director of the National Science Foundation to make vessels and other resources available for conservation and research activities for the Reserve;
(3) The cleanup and prevention of marine debris in the Reserve;
(4) The restoration or remediation of any degraded or injured resources of the Reserve;
(5) Research, monitoring, and assessment of the Reserve;
(6) Education and outreach about the Reserve and its resources and efforts to conserve them;
(7) Enforcement and surveillance for the Reserve, including the use of new technologies and coordination with the United States Coast Guard and other relevant agencies;
(8) Identification and coordination with Native Hawaiian interests, regarding culturally significant, noncommercial subsistence, cultural, and religious uses and locations within the Reserve;
(9) Identification of potential tourism, recreational, and commercial activities within the Reserve and actions necessary to ensure that these activities do not degrade the Reserve’s resources or diminish the Reserve’s natural character;
(10) Use of vessel monitoring systems for any vessel entering or transiting the Reserve, if warranted. To this end, the Secretary in consultation with the Department of State, United States Coast Guard, and the Department of Defense, shall evaluate the need for the establishment of vessel monitoring systems and, if warranted, shall initiate the steps necessary to have the appropriate domestic agencies, and request that the International Maritime Organization, adopt a vessel monitoring system requirement for the Reserve;
(11) Any regulations, in addition to the conservation measures and Reserve Preservation Areas established under this order, that the Secretary determines are necessary to manage the Reserve in accordance with this order; and
(12) Coordination of all relevant activities with the process to designate the Reserve as a National Marine Sanctuary, as provided under paragraph (f) of this section.
(c) Conservation Measures. The Reserve Operations Plan shall also include the conservation measures in section 7 of this order and the Reserve Preservation Areas in section 8 of this order.
(d) Memorandum of Agreement. To further paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and subject to section 10(b) of this order, and in particular to promote coordinated management of the entirety of the shallow areas of the coral reef ecosystem throughout the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the Secretary shall work with the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii to enter into one or more memoranda of agreement for the coordinated conservation and management of the Reserve, Midway Atoll and Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuges, and State of Hawaii submerged lands and waters within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
(e) National Marine Sanctuary. The Secretary shall initiate the process to designate the Reserve as a national marine sanctuary pursuant to sections 303 and 304 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1433, 1434). In doing so the Secretary shall supplement or complement the existing Reserve. The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Governor of the State of Hawaii, determine whether State submerged lands and waters should be included as part of the sanctuary. In designating and managing the sanctuary, the Secretary shall consider the advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council established pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section.
(f) Council. After considering input from the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii, the Secretary shall establish a Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Council pursuant to section 315 of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (16 U.S.C. 1445a) to provide advice and recommendations on the Reserve Operations Plan and designation and management of any sanctuary. The Council shall include:
(1) Three Native Hawaiian representatives, including one Native Hawaiian elder, with experience or knowledge regarding Native Hawaiian subsistence, cultural, religious, or other activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
(2) Three representatives from the non-Federal science community with experience specific to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and with expertise in at least one of the following areas:
(A) Marine mammal science.
(B) Coral reef ecology.
(C) Native marine flora and fauna of the Hawaiian Islands.
(D) Oceanography.
(E) Any other scientific discipline the Secretary determines to be appropriate.
(3) Three representatives from nongovernmental wildlife/marine life, environmental, and/or conservation organizations.
(4) One representative from the commercial fishing industry that conducts activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
(5) One representative from the recreational fishing industry that conducts activities in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
(6) One representative from the ocean-related tourism industry.
(7) One representative from the non-Federal community with experience in education and outreach regarding marine conservation issues.
(8) One citizen-at-large representative.
(9) One representative from the State of Hawaii as appointed by the Governor.
(10) One representative each, as nonvoting, ex officio members, from the Department of the Interior, United States Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Department of State, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, National Science Foundation, Marine Mammal Commission, and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council.
(g) Report. The Secretary shall provide a progress report on the implementation of this order to the Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality within 1 year from the date of this order.
Sec. 6. Area of the Reserve. The Reserve includes the waters and submerged lands of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as follows:
(a) The seaward boundary of the Reserve is 50nm from the approximate center geographical positions of Nihoa Island, Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Maro Reef, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Midway Atoll, and Kure Island. Where the areas are not contiguous, parallel lines drawn tangent to and connecting those semi-circles of the 50nm areas that lie around such areas shall delimit the remainder of the Reserve.
(b) The inland boundary of the Reserve around each of the areas named in subparagraph (a) of this section is the seaward boundary of Hawaii State waters and submerged lands, and the seaward boundary of the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, as appropriate.
(c) The Reserve boundary is generally depicted on the map attached to this order. The Secretary, after consultation with the Governor of the State of Hawaii, may make technical modifications to the boundary of the Reserve, including providing straight-line boundaries for the Reserve for clarity and ease of identification, as appropriate.
Sec. 7. Protection and Conservation Measures. The conservation measures in this section apply throughout the Reserve.
(a)(1) Commercial Fishing. All currently existing commercial Federal fishing permits and current levels of fishing effort and take, which also includes the non-permitted level of trolling for pelagic species by currently permitted bottom fishers, as determined by the Secretary and pursuant to regulations in effect on December 4, 2000, shall be capped as follows:
(A) No commercial fishing may occur in Reserve Preservation Areas pursuant to section 8 of this order;
(B) There shall be no increase in the number of permits of any particular type of fishing (such as for bottomfishing) beyond the number of permits of that type in effect the year preceding the date of this order;
(C) The annual level of aggregate take under all permits of any particular type of fishing may not exceed the aggregate level of take under all permits of that type of fishing as follows:
(1) Bottomfishing—the annual aggregate level for each permitted bottomfisher shall be that permittee’s individual average taken over the 5 years preceding December 4, 2000, as determined by the Secretary, provided that the Secretary, in furtherance of the principles of the reserve, may make a one-time reasonable increase to the total aggregate to allow for the use of two Native Hawaiian bottomfishing permits;
(2) All other commercial fishing—the annual aggregate level shall be the permittee’s individual take in the year preceding December 4, 2000, as determined by the Secretary.
(D) There shall be no permits issued for any particular type of fishing for which there were no permits issued in the year preceding the date of this order; and
(E) The type of fishing gear used by any permit holder may not be changed except with the permission of the Secretary, as provided under paragraph 3 of this section.
(F) Trolling for pelagic species shall be capped based on reported landings for the year preceding December 4, 2000.
(2) Recreational Fishing. All currently existing (preceding the date of this order) levels of recreational fishing effort, as determined by the Secretary and pursuant to regulations in effect on the day of this order, shall be capped (i.e., no increase of take levels or levels of fishing effort, species targeted, or change in gear types) throughout the Reserve. However, fishing is further restricted as provided in section 8 of this order.
(3) The Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and Governor of the State of Hawaii, and after public review and comment and consideration of any advice or recommendations of the Reserve Council and Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, may further restrict the fishing activities under subparagraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section if necessary to protect Reserve resources, or may authorize or require alternate gear types if such gear would offer equal or greater protection for Reserve resources.
(b) In addition to the conservation measures in paragraph (a) of this section, the following activities are prohibited throughout the Reserve:
(1) Exploring for, developing, or producing oil, gas, or minerals;
(2) Having a vessel anchored on any living or dead coral with an anchor, an anchor chain, or an anchor rope when visibility is such that the seabed can be seen;
(3) Drilling into, dredging, or otherwise altering the seabed; or constructing, placing, or abandoning any structure, material, or other matter on the seabed, except as an incidental result of anchoring vessels;
(4) Discharging or depositing any material or other matter into the Reserve, or discharging or depositing any material or other matter outside the Reserve that subsequently enters the Reserve and injures any resource of the Reserve, except:
(A) fish parts (i.e., chumming materia [sic] or bait) used in and during fishing operations authorized under this order;
(B) biodegradable effluent incident to vessel use and generated by a marine sanitation device in accordance with section 312 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended [33 U.S.C. 1322];
(C) water generated by routine vessel operations (e.g., deck wash down and graywater as defined in section 312 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act), excluding oily wastes from bilge pumping; or
(D) cooling water from vessels or engine exhaust; and
(5) Removal, moving, taking, harvesting, or damaging any living or nonliving Reserve resources, except as provided under paragraph (a) of this section and sections 8(a) and 9 of this order.
(c) The Secretary may conduct, or authorize by permit the activities listed in subparagraphs (b)(3)–(5) of this section to the extent that they are necessary for research, monitoring, education, or management activities that further the Management Principles of section 4 of this order.
Sec. 8. Reserve Preservation Areas.
(a) To further protect Reserve resources, the following areas are hereby established as Reserve Preservation Areas until some or all are made permanent after adequate public review and comment, within which all activities referred to in paragraph (b) of this section are prohibited.
(1) From the seaward boundary of Hawaii State waters and submerged lands to a mean depth of 100 fathoms (fm) around:
(A) Nihoa Island, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 25 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(B) Necker Island, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 25 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(C) French Frigate Shoals;
(D) Gardner Pinnacles, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 25 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(E) Maro Reef, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 25 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(F) Laysan Island, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 50 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(G) Lisianski Island, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue seaward of a mean depth of 25 fm, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(H) Pearl and Hermes Atoll; and
(I) Kure Atoll.
(2) Twelve nautical miles around the approximate geographical centers of:
(A) The first bank immediately east of French Frigate Shoals;
(B) Southeast Brooks Bank, which is the first bank immediately west of French Frigate Shoals, provided that the closure area shall not be closer than approximately 3nm of the next bank immediately west;
(C) St. Rogatien Bank, provided that the closure area shall not be closer than approximately 3nm of the next bank immediately east, provided further that bottomfishing in accordance with the requirements of section 7(a)(1) of this order shall be allowed to continue, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment;
(D), (E) [Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 13196, § 4, Jan. 18, 2001, 66 F.R. 7396]
(F) Pioneer Bank, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, respectively, of this order [sic] shall be allowed to continue, unless and until the Secretary determines otherwise after adequate public review and comment.
(3) Twelve nautical miles around the approximate geographical centers of
(A) The first bank west of St. Rogation Bank, east of Gardner Pinnacles, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, shall be allowed to continue for a period of 5 years from the date of this order; and
(B) Raita Bank, provided that commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species in accordance with the requirements of sections 7(a)(1) and 7(a)(2) of this order, shall be allowed to continue for a period of 5 years from the date of this order; and
(C) Provided that both banks described above in (3)(A) and (3)(B) shall only continue to allow commercial bottomfishing and commercial and recreational trolling for pelagic species after the 5-year time period if it is determined that continuation of such activities will have no adverse impact on the resources of these banks.
(b) Activities Prohibited Within Reserve Preservation Areas.
(1) In addition to the conservation measures in section 7 of this order, which are applicable to the entire Reserve, the following activities are prohibited within the Reserve Preservation Areas listed in paragraph (a) of this section, except as expressly otherwise stated in this paragraph and sections (8)(a) and 9 of this order:
(A) Commercial and recreational fishing;
(B) Anchoring in any area that contains available mooring buoys, or anchoring outside an available anchoring area when such area has been designated by the Secretary;
(C) Any type of touching or taking of living or dead coral;
(D) Discharging or depositing any material or other matter except cooling water or engine exhaust; and
(E) Such other activities that the Secretary identifies after adequate public review and comment, and after consideration of any advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council.
(2) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in this paragraph, the Secretary may conduct, or authorize by permit, research, monitoring, education, or management activities within any Reserve Preservation Area that further the Management Principles of section 4 of this order.
(3) The Reserve Preservation Areas in this section are approximated using fathoms. The Secretary will develop straight line boundaries based on longitude and latitude coordinates to encompass each Reserve Preservation Area, to provide for clarity and ease of identification. The Secretary may make technical modifications to any such boundaries.
Sec. 9. Native Hawaiian Uses. Native Hawaiian noncommercial subsistence, cultural, or religious uses may continue, to the extent consistent with existing law, within the Reserve and Reserve Preservation Areas identified under section 8 of this order. The Secretary shall work with Native Hawaiian interests to identify those areas where such Native Hawaiian uses of the Reserve’s resources may be conducted without injury to the Reserve’s coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species, and may revise the areas where such activities may occur after public review and comment, and consideration of any advice and recommendations of the Reserve Council.
Sec. 10. National Wildlife Refuges.
(a) The Secretary of the Interior, in managing, through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuges pursuant to the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd–668ee) and other applicable laws, shall follow the Management Principles of section 4 of this order, to the extent consistent with applicable law.
(b) Wherever the Reserve overlaps the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, the Reserve shall be managed to supplement and complement management of the Refuge to ensure coordinated conservation and management of the Reserve and the Refuge, consistent with the purposes and policies of the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, the National Marine Sanctuaries Amendments Act of 2000, and this order, and the authorities of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee) and other laws with respect to management of the Refuge. Nothing in this order shall enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction or authority of the Secretary or Secretary of the Interior in managing the Reserve or Refuge, respectively.
(c) The Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, shall coordinate with the Secretary and the Governor of the State of Hawaii, as provided under section 5(b) of this order, to ensure coordinated protection and management among the Reserve, Refuges, and State, consistent with relevant authorities.
Sec. 11. Administration and Judicial Review.
(a) International Law. Management of the Reserve and any regulations issued pursuant thereto and all other provisions of this order shall be applied consistently with the 1983 Presidential Proclamation on the Exclusive Economic Zone [Proc. No. 5030, 16 U.S.C. 1453 note], the 1988 Presidential Proclamation on the Territorial Sea [Proc. No. 5928, 43 U.S.C. 1331 note], and the 1999 Presidential Proclamation on Contiguous Zone [Proc. No. 7219, 43 U.S.C. 1331 note] and in accordance with generally recognized principles of international law, and with the treaties, conventions, and other agreements to which the United States is a party. The Secretary shall consult with the Department of State in implementing this order.
(b) Agency Responsibilities. All Federal agencies whose actions may affect the Reserve and any National Marine Sanctuary established by the Secretary pursuant to this order shall carry out such actions in accordance with applicable laws, regulations and Executive Orders, including Executive Orders 13089 of June 11, 1998 [set out above], and 13158 of May 26, 2000 [16 U.S.C. 1431 note].
(c) National Security and Emergency Actions. Consistent with applicable law, nothing in this order is intended to apply to military activities (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard), including military exercises, conducted within or in the vicinity of the Reserve, consistent with the requirements of Executive Orders 13089 of June 11, 1998, and 13158 of May 26, 2000. Further, nothing in this order is intended to restrict the Department of Defense from conducting activities necessary during time of war or national emergency, or when necessary for reasons of national security as determined by the Secretary of Defense, consistent with applicable law. In addition, consistent with applicable law, nothing in this order shall limit agency actions to respond to emergencies posing an unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible solution.
(d) United States Coast Guard. Nothing in this order is intended to limit the authority of the United States Coast Guard to enforce any Federal law, or install or maintain aids to navigation.
(e) Funding. This order shall be carried out subject to the availability of appropriated funds and to the extent permitted by law.
(f) Territorial Waters. Nothing in this order shall enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction or authority of the State of Hawaii or the United States over submerged or other lands within the territorial waters off the coast of Hawaii.
(g) Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
William J. Clinton.
Ex. Ord. No. 13196. Final Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve

Ex. Ord. No. 13196, Jan. 18, 2001, 66 F.R. 7395, provided:
By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, (16 U.S.C. 1431et seq.), and the National Marine Sanctuaries Amendments Act of 2000, Public Law 106–513 [see Short Title of 2000 Amendment note set out under section 1431 of this title], and in furtherance of the purposes of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801et seq.), Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act [of 1972] (33 U.S.C. 1401et seq. [16 U.S.C. 1431et seq., 1447 et seq., 33 U.S.C. 1401et seq., 2801 et seq.]), Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451et seq.), Endangered Species Act [of 1973] (16 U.S.C. 1531et seq.), Marine Mammal Protection Act [of 1972] (16 U.S.C. 1362 [1361] et seq.), Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251et seq.), National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470et seq.), National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act (16 U.S.C. 668dd–e.e. [16 U.S.C. 668dd–668ee]), and other pertinent statutes, it is ordered as follows:
Sec. 1. Preamble. On December 4, 2000, I issued Executive Order 13178 [set out above] establishing the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (Reserve) pursuant to my authority under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act, as amended by the National Marine Sanctuary Amendments Act of 2000 (Act). In establishing the Reserve, I set forth a number of conservation measures and created specific Reserve Preservation Areas to protect the coral reef ecosystem and related marine resources and species (resources) of the Reserve. The Act provides that no closure areas can become permanent without adequate notice and comment. Accordingly, I proposed to make permanent the Reserve Preservation Areas and initiated a 30-day comment period on this proposal. I also sought comment on the conservation measures for the Reserve. On my behalf, the Secretary of Commerce received the public comments and held seven public hearings, including six throughout Hawaii. After considering the comments expressed at the hearings and received in writing, I have determined to make permanent the Reserve Preservation Areas with certain modifications set forth below. Further, I have modified certain conservation measures to address concerns raised, particularly regarding commercial and recreational fishing within the Reserve. With this action, the establishment of the Reserve under the Act, including the conservation measures and permanent Reserve Preservation Areas, is complete. The Secretary of Commerce will manage the Reserve pursuant to Executive Order 13178, as modified by this order, under the Act. The Secretary shall also initiate the process to designate the Reserve as a National Marine Sanctuary, as required by the Act.
Sec. 2. Purpose. The purpose of this order is to amend Executive Order 13178 [set out above], and to make permanent Reserve Preservation Areas, as modified below, to ensure the comprehensive, strong, and lasting protection of the resources of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.
[Secs. 3, 4. Amended Ex. Ord. No. 13178, set out above.]
Sec. 5. Reserve Preservation Areas. The Reserve Preservation Areas, as modified in sections 3 and 4 of this order, are hereby made permanent in accordance with the Act.
Sec. 6. Judicial Review. This order does not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable in law or equity by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.
William J. Clinton.

 

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