(1)whales are a unique resource of great aesthetic and scientific interest to mankind and are a vital part of the marine ecosystem;
(2)whales have been overexploited by man for many years, severely reducing several species and endangering others;
(3)the United States has extended its authority and responsibility to conserve and protect all marine mammals, including whales, out to a two hundred nautical mile limit by enactment of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act [16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.];
(4)the conservation and protection of certain species of whales, including the California gray, bowhead, sperm, and killer whale, are of particular interest to citizens of the United States;
(5)increased ocean activity of all types may threaten the whale stocks found within the two hundred-mile jurisdiction of the United States and added protection of such stocks may be necessary;
(6)there is inadequate knowledge of the ecology, habitat, requirements, and population levels and dynamics of all whales found in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; and
(7)further study of such matters is required in order for the United States to carry out its responsibilities for the conservation and protection of marine mammals.
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 94–265, Apr. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 331, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 38 (§ 1801 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section
1801 of this title and Tables.
1996—Par. (3). Pub. L. 104–208substituted “Magnuson-Stevens Fishery” for “Magnuson Fishery”.
1980—Par. (3). Pub. L. 96–561substituted “Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act” for “Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976”.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment
Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, § 101(a) [title II, § 211(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009, 3009–41, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective 15 days after Oct. 11, 1996.
Effective Date of 1980 Amendment
Pub. L. 96–561, title II, § 238(b),Dec. 22, 1980, 94 Stat. 3300, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective 15 days after Dec. 22, 1980.
Pub. L. 94–532, § 1,Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2491, provided: “That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Whale Conservation and Protection Study Act’.”
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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Description of Change
Statutes at Large
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