18 U.S. Code § 112 - Protection of foreign officials, official guests, and internationally protected persons

(a) Whoever assaults, strikes, wounds, imprisons, or offers violence to a foreign official, official guest, or internationally protected person or makes any other violent attack upon the person or liberty of such person, or, if likely to endanger his person or liberty, makes a violent attack upon his official premises, private accommodation, or means of transport or attempts to commit any of the foregoing shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. Whoever in the commission of any such act uses a deadly or dangerous weapon, or inflicts bodily injury, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.
(b) Whoever willfully—
(1) intimidates, coerces, threatens, or harasses a foreign official or an official guest or obstructs a foreign official in the performance of his duties;
(2) attempts to intimidate, coerce, threaten, or harass a foreign official or an official guest or obstruct a foreign official in the performance of his duties; or
(3) within the United States and within one hundred feet of any building or premises in whole or in part owned, used, or occupied for official business or for diplomatic, consular, or residential purposes by—
(A) a foreign government, including such use as a mission to an international organization;
(B) an international organization;
(C) a foreign official; or
(D) an official guest;
congregates with two or more other persons with intent to violate any other provision of this section;
shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than six months, or both.
(c) For the purpose of this section “foreign government”, “foreign official”, “internationally protected person”, “international organization”, “national of the United States”, and “official guest” shall have the same meanings as those provided in section 1116 (b) of this title.
(d) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed or applied so as to abridge the exercise of rights guaranteed under the first amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
(e) If the victim of an offense under subsection (a) is an internationally protected person outside the United States, the United States may exercise jurisdiction over the offense if
(1) the victim is a representative, officer, employee, or agent of the United States,
(2) an offender is a national of the United States, or
(3) an offender is afterwards found in the United States. As used in this subsection, the United States includes all areas under the jurisdiction of the United States including any of the places within the provisions of sections 5 and 7 of this title and section 46501 (2) of title 49.
(f) In the course of enforcement of subsection (a) and any other sections prohibiting a conspiracy or attempt to violate subsection (a), the Attorney General may request assistance from any Federal, State, or local agency, including the Army, Navy, and Air Force, any statute, rule, or regulation to the contrary, notwithstanding.

Source

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 688; Pub. L. 88–493, § 1,Aug. 27, 1964, 78 Stat. 610; Pub. L. 92–539, title III, § 301,Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1072; Pub. L. 94–467, § 5,Oct. 8, 1976, 90 Stat. 1999; Pub. L. 95–163, § 17(b)(1),Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 95–504, § 2(b),Oct. 24, 1978, 92 Stat. 1705; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, § 6478,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4381; Pub. L. 103–272, § 5(e)(2),July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1373; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, § 320101(b), title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(G), (K),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2108, 2147; Pub. L. 104–132, title VII, § 721(d),Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1298; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, § 604(b)(12)(A),Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507.)
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 255 of title 22, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Foreign Relations and Intercourse (R.S. § 4062).
Punishment provision was rewritten to make it more definite by substituting a maximum of $5,000 in lieu of the words “fined at the discretion of the court.” As thus revised this provision conforms with the first punishment provision of section 111 of this title. So, also, the greater punishment provided by the second paragraph of section 111 was added to this section for offenses involving the use of dangerous weapons.
Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–294repealed Pub. L. 103–322, § 320101(b)(1). See 1994 Amendment note below.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–132, § 721(d)(1), inserted “ ‘national of the United States’,” before “and ‘official guest’ ”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–132, § 721(d)(2), inserted first sentence and struck out former first sentence which read as follows: “If the victim of an offense under subsection (a) is an internationally protected person, the United States may exercise jurisdiction over the offense if the alleged offender is present within the United States, irrespective of the place where the offense was committed or the nationality of the victim or the alleged offender.”
1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, § 330016(1)(K), substituted “under this title” for “not more than $5,000” before “or imprisoned not more than three years”.
Pub. L. 103–322, § 320101(b)(2), (3), inserted “, or inflicts bodily injury,” after “weapon” and substituted “under this title” for “not more than $10,000” before “or imprisoned not more than ten years”.
Pub. L. 103–322, § 320101(b)(1), which provided for amendment identical to Pub. L. 103–322, § 330016(1)(K), above, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–294, § 604(b)(12)(A).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, § 330016(1)(G), in concluding provisions, substituted “under this title” for “not more than $500”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–272substituted “section 46501 (2) of title 49” for “section 101(38) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended (49 U.S.C. 1301(38))”.
1988—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–690struck out “but outside the District of Columbia” after “United States”.
1978—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–504substituted reference to section 101(38) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 for reference to section 101(35) of such Act.
1977—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–163substituted reference to section 101(35) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 for reference to section 101(34) of such Act.
1976—Pub. L. 94–467substituted “official guests, and internationally protected persons” for “and official guests” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–467substituted “official guest, or internationally protected person” for “or official guest” and inserted provision including any other violent attack on the person or the liberty of such official, guest, or protected person, his official premises, private accommodation, or means of transport, or any attempt thereof, as acts subject to fine or imprisonment.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–467restructured subsec. (b) and added pars. (2) and (3).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–467redesignated subsec. (d) as (c), inserted “internationally protected persons”, and struck out reference to section 1116 (c) of this title. Former subsec. (c), which related to punishment for intimidating or harassing demonstrations against foreign officials or any combination of two or more persons for such purposes, within one hundred feet of any buildings or premises owned by a foreign government located within the United States but outside the District of Columbia, was struck out.
Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 94–467added subsecs. (e) and (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (c) and (d), respectively.
1972—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–539substituted “Protection of foreign officials and official guests” for “Assaulting certain foreign diplomatic and other official personnel” in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and substituted “a foreign official or official guest” for “the person of a head of foreign state or foreign government, foreign minister, ambassador or other public minister” and “act” for “acts”.
Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 92–539added subsecs. (b) to (e).
1964—Pub. L. 88–493included heads of foreign states or governments and foreign ministers.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) ofPub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.
Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–467, § 1,Oct. 8, 1976, 90 Stat. 1997, provided: “That this Act [enacting section 878 of this title, amending this section and sections 11, 970, 1116, and 1201 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Act for the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Internationally Protected Persons’.”
Short Title of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–539, § 1,Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1070, provided: “That this Act [enacting sections 970, 1116, and 1117 of this title, amending this section and section 1201 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] may be cited as the ‘Act for the Protection of Foreign Officials and Official Guests of the United States’.”
State and Local Laws Not Superseded

Pub. L. 94–467, § 10,Oct. 8, 1976, 90 Stat. 2001, provided that: “Nothing contained in this Act [see Short Title of 1976 Amendment note above] shall be construed to indicate an intent on the part of Congress to occupy the field in which its provisions operate to the exclusion of the laws of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia, on the same subject matter, nor to relieve any person of any obligation imposed by any law of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia, including the obligation of all persons having official law enforcement powers to take appropriate action, such as effecting arrests, for Federal as well as non-Federal violations.”
Congressional Findings and Declaration of Policy

Pub. L. 92–539, § 2,Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1070, provided that:
“The Congress recognizes that from the beginning of our history as a nation, the police power to investigate, prosecute, and punish common crimes such as murder, kidnaping, and assault has resided in the several States, and that such power should remain with the States.
“The Congress finds, however, that harassment, intimidation, obstruction, coercion, and acts of violence committed against foreign officials or their family members in the United States or against official guests of the United States adversely affect the foreign relations of the United States.
“Accordingly, this legislation is intended to afford the United States jurisdiction concurrent with that of the several States to proceed against those who by such acts interfere with its conduct of foreign affairs.”
Federal Preemption

Pub. L. 92–539, § 3,Oct. 24, 1972, 86 Stat. 1073, provided that: “Nothing contained in this Act [see Short Title of 1972 Amendment note above] shall be construed to indicate an intent on the part of Congress to occupy the field in which its provisions operate to the exclusion of the laws of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia on the same subject matter, nor to relieve any person of any obligation imposed by any law of any State, Commonwealth, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.”
Immunity From Criminal Prosecution

Pub. L. 88–493, § 5,Aug. 27, 1964, 78 Stat. 610, provided that: “Nothing contained in this Act [amending this section and section 1114 of this title, and enacting section 170e–1 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees] shall create immunity from criminal prosecution under any laws in any State, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, territory, possession, or the District of Columbia.”

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18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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