(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 758; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 26,63 Stat. 94; Pub. L. 89–707, § 1,Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1100; Pub. L. 90–284, title V, § 501,Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 80; Pub. L. 94–297, § 2,May 29, 1976, 90 Stat. 585; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, § 1009,Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2141; Pub. L. 99–303, May 15, 1986, 100 Stat. 438; Pub. L. 99–646, § 87(c)(5),Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3623; Pub. L. 99–654, § 3(a)(5),Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3663; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, § 7027,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4397; Pub. L. 103–322, title XVII, § 170201(e), title XXXIII, § 330021(1),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2043, 2150; Pub. L. 109–248, title II, § 215,July 27, 2006, 120 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 113–4, title IX, § 906(b),Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 125.)
Historical and Revision Notes
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 548,
(Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§ 328,
329,35 Stat. 1151
; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, § 291,36 Stat. 1167
; June 28, 1932, ch. 284, 47 Stat. 337
Section consolidates said sections
, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Section 548 of said title covered 10 crimes. Section 549 of said title covered the same except robbery and incest.
The 1932 amendment of section
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., constituting the last paragraph of the section, is omitted and section 549 of said title to which it applied likewise is omitted. The revised section therefore suffices to cover prosecution of the specific offenses committed on all reservations as intended by Congress.
Words “Indian country” were substituted for language relating to jurisdiction extending to reservations and rights-of-way, in view of definitive section
of this title.
Paul W. Hyatt, president, board of commissioners, Idaho State Bar, recommended that said section
be considered with other sections in title 25, Indians, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and revised to insure certainty as to questions of jurisdiction, and punishment on conviction. Insofar as the recommendation came within the scope of this revision, it was followed.
The proviso in said section
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., which provided that rape should be defined in accordance with the laws of the State in which the offense was committed, was changed to include burglary so as to clarify the punishment for that offense.
Venue provisions of said section
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in section
of this title.
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., conferred special jurisdiction on the United States District Court for South Dakota of all crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, assault with intent to kill, assault with a dangerous weapon, arson, burglary, and larceny committed within the limits of any Indian reservation within the State, whether by or against Indians or non-Indians. The Act of February 2, 1903, 32 Stat. 793
, from which said section
was derived, accepted the cession by South Dakota of such jurisdiction.
The effect of revised sections
of this title is to deprive the United States District Court for the District of South Dakota of jurisdiction of offenses on Indian reservations committed by non-Indians against non-Indians and to restore such jurisdiction to the courts of the State of South Dakota as in other States. This reflects the views of the United States attorney, George Philip, of the district of South Dakota.
Minor changes were made in translation and phraseology.
This section [section
] removes an ambiguity in section
, U.S.C., by eliminating the provision that the crime of rape in the Indian country is to be punished in accordance with the law of the State where the offense was committed, leaving the definition of the offense to be determined by State law, but providing that punishment of rape of an Indian by an Indian is to be by imprisonment at the discretion of the court. The offense of rape, other than rape of an Indian by an Indian within the Indian country, is covered by section
, U.S.C., and the offense of burglary by sections 1152 and 3242 of such title.
2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–4
substituted “a felony assault under section
” for “assault with intent to commit murder, assault with a dangerous weapon, assault resulting in serious bodily injury (as defined in section
of this title)”.
2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–248
inserted “felony child abuse or neglect,” after “years,”.
1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322
substituted “kidnapping” for “kidnaping” and inserted “(as defined in section
of this title), an assault against an individual who has not attained the age of 16 years” after “serious bodily injury”.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–690
substituted “maiming, a felony under chapter 109A, incest” for “ ‘maiming’ and all that follows through ‘incest’ ”, thus clarifying execution of amendment by Pub. L. 99–646
and Pub. L. 99–654
but resulting in no change in text. See 1986 Amendment note below.
1986—Pub. L. 99–646
and Pub. L. 99–654
which directed that section be amended identically by substituting in first par. “a felony under chapter 109A,” for “rape, involuntary sodomy, carnal knowledge of any female, not his wife, who has not attained the age of sixteen years, assault with intent to commit rape,” and by striking out in second and third pars. “, involuntary sodomy,” was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (a) for “rape, involuntary sodomy, felonious sexual molestation of a minor, carnal knowledge of any female, not his wife, who has not attained the age of sixteen years, assault with intent to commit rape,” to reflect the probable intent of Congress in view of prior amendment of this section by Pub. L. 99–303
, but amendment to second and third pars. could not be executed because such pars. were struck out by Pub. L. 99–303
Pub. L. 99–303
inserted section catchline which had been eliminated by general amendment by section 1009 ofPub. L. 98–473
, designated first par. as subsec. (a) and inserted “felonious sexual molestation of a minor,”, struck out second par. which provided that, as used in this section, the offenses of burglary, involuntary sodomy, and incest be defined and punished in accordance with the laws of the State in which such offense was committed as are in force at the time of such offense, and struck out third par. and restated the provisions thereof in a new subsec. (b), substituting “Any offense referred to in subsection (a) of this section that is” for “In addition to the offenses of burglary, involuntary sodomy, and incest, any other of the above offenses which are”.
1984—Pub. L. 98–473
amended section generally, inserting offenses of maiming, involuntary sodomy and a felony committed under section
of this title and striking out reference to larceny in first par., and inserting “, involuntary sodomy,” after “burglary” in third par.
1976—Pub. L. 94–297
made changes in phraseology, added offense of kidnapping to the enumerated list of offenses subjecting any Indian to the same laws and penalties as all other persons, struck out applicability to assault with a dangerous weapon and assault resulting in serious bodily injury from paragraph covering the offenses of burglary and incest only, and substituted paragraph, relating to offenses in addition to offenses of burglary and incest, for paragraph relating to offenses of rape and assault with intent to commit rape.
1968—Pub. L. 90–284
inserted offense of assault resulting in serious bodily injury.
1966—Pub. L. 89–707
inserted offenses of carnal knowledge and assault with intent to commit rape, defined and proscribed the punishment for assault with intent to commit rape in accordance with the laws of the State in which the offense was committed, and required assault with a dangerous weapon and incest to be defined and punished in accordance with the laws of the State in which the offense was committed.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, struck out provision that the crime of rape is to be punished in accordance with the law of the State where the offense was committed and in lieu inserted provision leaving punishment up to the discretion of the court.
Effective Date of 1986 Amendments
Amendments by Pub. L. 99–646
and Pub. L. 99–654
effective, respectively, 30 days after Nov. 10, 1986, and 30 days after Nov. 14, 1986, see section 87(e) ofPub. L. 99–646
and section 4 ofPub. L. 99–654
, set out as an Effective Date note under section
of this title.