(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 765; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 35,63 Stat. 94; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, § 330016(1)(H),Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)
Historical and Revision Notes
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 518a (July 11, 1941, ch. 287, 55 Stat. 583
; May 15, 1945, ch. 126, 59 Stat. 168
; May 15, 1946, ch. 258, 60 Stat. 182
The word “whoever” was substituted for the words “person, corporation, partnership, or association” in conformity with section
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., General Provisions, as amended and without change of substance.
The provisions with reference to punishment of persons subject to military or naval law as provided in the Articles of War and the Articles for the Government of the Navy were omitted, as was the exception of such persons from the punishment provisions of this section. The Articles of War and Articles for the Government of the Navy are sufficiently complete in themselves to authorize the adequate punishment of military or naval personnel for violations of general criminal statutes as well as for disobedience of orders. See Articles of War, Article 96, section
1568 of title
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Army, and Articles for the Government of the Navy, Articles 1, 4, 22, 23, section
1200, of title
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Navy.
The revised section, in this respect, places violations on the same basis as other misdemeanors in violation of the general statutes of the United States and authorizes punishment of persons subject to military or naval law under such law, or in case the military or naval authorities turn the violator over to the civil authorities, the trial and punishment may be under the general law.
The phrase “and/or” appearing twice in section
581a of title
, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was deleted to avoid uncertainty and ambiguity.
Words “shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor” were omitted because of definition of misdemeanor in section
of this title.
Changes were made in phraseology.
This section [section
] makes the following changes in section
1. In the first paragraph, substitutes “Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Air Force, and any two or all of them” for “Secretary of the Army or the Secretary of the Navy, or both”, and substitutes “Army, the Navy, or the Air Force,” for “Army or the Navy, or both,”, in view of the establishment in 1947 of the Department of the Air Force, headed by a Secretary.
2. In the second paragraph, substitutes “The Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force” for “The Secretaries of the Army, and Navy”, for the same reason given in item 1 above.
3. In the third paragraph, substitutes “Department of the Army, Navy, or Air Force” for “War or Navy Department” for the same reason given in item 1 above.
1994—Pub. L. 103–322
substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $1,000” in first par.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, made section applicable to the Air Force which was established as a separate department in 1947, headed by a Secretary.
Transfer of Functions
Secretary and Department of Health, Education, and Welfare redesignated Secretary and Department of Health and Human Services by section
Functions of Federal Security Administrator transferred to Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and all agencies of Federal Security Agency transferred to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare by section 5 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18
, 67 Stat. 631
, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Federal Security Agency and office of Administrator were abolished by section 8 of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1953.