(a)Whoever holds or returns any person to a condition of peonage, or arrests any person with the intent of placing him in or returning him to a condition of peonage, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both. If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.
(b)Whoever obstructs, or attempts to obstruct, or in any way interferes with or prevents the enforcement of this section, shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in subsection (a).
Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§ 444,
445 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §§ 269,
270,35 Stat. 1142).
Section consolidates sections 444 and 445 of said title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology to amplify and clarify their provisions.
Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal” in section
2 of this title.
2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386substituted “20 years” for “10 years” and inserted at end “If death results from the violation of this section, or if the violation includes kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or the attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, the defendant shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or life, or both.”
1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than $5,000”.
Effective Date of 1996 Amendment
Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title II, § 218(d),Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–574, provided that: “This section [amending this section and sections
1588 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section
994 of Title
28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the amendments made by this section shall apply with respect to offenses occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996].”
The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.
The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013
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