18 U.S. Code § 175b - Possession by restricted persons

(a)
(1) No restricted person shall ship or transport in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or possess in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, any biological agent or toxin, or receive any biological agent or toxin that has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, if the biological agent or toxin is listed as a non-overlap or overlap select biological agent or toxin in sections 73.4 and 73.5 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 351A of the Public Health Service Act, and is not excluded under sections 73.4 and 73.5 or exempted under section 73.6 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations.
(2) Whoever knowingly violates this section shall be fined as provided in this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both, but the prohibition contained in this section shall not apply with respect to any duly authorized United States governmental activity.
(b) Transfer to Unregistered Person.—
(1) Select agents.— Whoever transfers a select agent to a person who the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe is not registered as required by regulations under subsection (b) or (c) ofsection 351A of the Public Health Service Act shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(2) Certain other biological agents and toxins.— Whoever transfers a biological agent or toxin listed pursuant to section 212(a)(1) of the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002 to a person who the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe is not registered as required by regulations under subsection (b) or (c) ofsection 212 of such Act shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(c) Unregistered for Possession.—
(1) Select agents.— Whoever knowingly possesses a biological agent or toxin where such agent or toxin is a select agent for which such person has not obtained a registration required by regulations under section 351A(c) of the Public Health Service Act shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(2) Certain other biological agents and toxins.— Whoever knowingly possesses a biological agent or toxin where such agent or toxin is a biological agent or toxin listed pursuant to section 212(a)(1) of the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002 for which such person has not obtained a registration required by regulations under section 212(c) of such Act shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.
(d) In this section:
(1) The term “select agent” means a biological agent or toxin to which subsection (a) applies. Such term (including for purposes of subsection (a)) does not include any such biological agent or toxin that is in its naturally-occurring environment, if the biological agent or toxin has not been cultivated, collected, or otherwise extracted from its natural source.
(2) The term “restricted person” means an individual who—
(A) is under indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year;
(B) has been convicted in any court of a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year;
(C) is a fugitive from justice;
(D) is an unlawful user of any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802));
(E) is an alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States;
(F) has been adjudicated as a mental defective or has been committed to any mental institution;
(G)
(i) is an alien (other than an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence) who is a national of a country as to which the Secretary of State, pursuant to section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 App. U.S.C. 2405 (j)),section 620A of chapter 1 of part M of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2371), or section 40 (d) of chapter 3 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2780 (d)), has made a determination (that remains in effect) that such country has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism, or
(ii) acts for or on behalf of, or operates subject to the direction or control of, a government or official of a country described in this subparagraph;
(H) has been discharged from the Armed Services of the United States under dishonorable conditions; or
(I) is a member of, acts for or on behalf of, or operates subject to the direction or control of, a terrorist organization as defined in section 212(a)(3)(B)(vi) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182 (a)(3)(B)(vi)).
(3) The term “alien” has the same meaning as in section 101(a)(3) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(3)).
(4) The term “lawfully admitted for permanent residence” has the same meaning as in section 101(a)(20) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(20)).

Source

(Added Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, § 817(2),Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 385; amended Pub. L. 107–188, title II, § 231(a), (b)(1), (c)(2),June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 660, 661; Pub. L. 107–273, div. B, title IV, § 4005(g),Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1813; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, § 6802(c), (d)(1),Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3767.)
References in Text

Section 351A of the Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1), is classified to section 262a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
Section 212 of the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2) and (c)(2), is classified to section 8401 of Title 7, Agriculture.
Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108–458, § 6802(d)(1), substituted “as a non-overlap or overlap select biological agent or toxin in sections 73.4 and 73.5 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 351A of the Public Health Service Act, and is not excluded under sections 73.4 and 73.5 or exempted under section 73.6 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations” for “as a select agent in Appendix A of part 72 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 351A of the Public Health Service Act, and is not exempted under subsection (h) ofsection 72.6, or Appendix A of part 72, of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations”.
Subsec. (d)(2)(G). Pub. L. 108–458, § 6802(c)(1), designated existing provisions as cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and struck out “or” at end.
Subsec. (d)(2)(H). Pub. L. 108–458, § 6802(c)(2), substituted “; or” for period at end.
Subsec. (d)(2)(I). Pub. L. 108–458, § 6802(c)(3), added subpar. (I).
2002—Pub. L. 107–273substituted “Possession by restricted persons” for “Select agents; certain other agents” in section catchline.
Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(b)(1)(B), substituted “Select agents; certain other agents” for “Possession by restricted persons” in section catchline.
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(a)(1), (c)(2)(A), designated existing provisions of subsec. (a) as par. (1) and substituted “shall ship or transport in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or possess in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, any biological agent or toxin, or receive any biological agent or toxin that has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, if the biological agent or toxin is listed as a select agent in Appendix A of part 72 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 351A of the Public Health Service Act, and is not exempted under subsection (h) ofsection 72.6, or Appendix A of part 72, of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations” for “described in subsection (b) shall ship or transport interstate or foreign commerce, or possess in or affecting commerce, any biological agent or toxin, or receive any biological agent or toxin that has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign commerce, if the biological agent or toxin is listed as a select agent in subsection (j) ofsection 72.6 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, pursuant to section 511(d)(l) of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–132), and is not exempted under subsection (h) of such section 72.6, or appendix A of part 72 of the Code of Regulations”.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(a)(2), (3), redesignated and transferred subsec. (c) as par. (2) of subsec. (a).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(a)(5), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (d).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(a)(5), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (a)(2).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(a)(4), redesignatedsubsec. (b) as (d).
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(b)(1)(A), substituted “The term ‘select agent’ means a biological agent or toxin to which subsection (a) applies. Such term (including for purposes of subsection (a)) does not include” for “The term ‘select agent’ does not include”.
Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 107–188, § 231(c)(2)(B), substituted “section 101(a)(3)” for “section 1010 (a)(3)”.
Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, § 6802(d)(2),Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3767, provided that: “The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect at the same time that sections 73.4, 73.5, and 73.6 of title 42, Code of Federal Regulations, become effective [probably means the effective date of the final rule revising sections 73.4, 73.5, and 73.6 of title 42, C.F.R., which was Apr. 18, 2005, see 70 F.R. 13294].”

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

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18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

 

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