18 U.S. Code § 3181 - Scope and limitation of chapter

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(a) The provisions of this chapter relating to the surrender of persons who have committed crimes in foreign countries shall continue in force only during the existence of any treaty of extradition with such foreign government.
(b) The provisions of this chapter shall be construed to permit, in the exercise of comity, the surrender of persons, other than citizens, nationals, or permanent residents of the United States, who have committed crimes of violence against nationals of the United States in foreign countries without regard to the existence of any treaty of extradition with such foreign government if the Attorney General certifies, in writing, that—
(1) evidence has been presented by the foreign government that indicates that had the offenses been committed in the United States, they would constitute crimes of violence as defined under section 16 of this title; and
(2) the offenses charged are not of a political nature.
(c) As used in this section, the term “national of the United States” has the meaning given such term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(22)).

Source

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 822; Pub. L. 104–132, title IV, § 443(a),Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1280.)
Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 658 (R.S. § 5274).
Minor changes were made in phraseology.
Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–132designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).
Extradition Treaties Interpretation

Pub. L. 105–323, title II, Oct. 30, 1998, 112 Stat. 3033, provided that:
“SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.
“This title may be cited as the ‘Extradition Treaties Interpretation Act of 1998’.
“SEC. 202. FINDINGS.
“Congress finds that—
“(1) each year, several hundred children are kidnapped by a parent in violation of law, court order, or legally binding agreement and brought to, or taken from, the United States;
“(2) until the mid-1970’s, parental abduction generally was not considered a criminal offense in the United States;
“(3) since the mid-1970’s, United States criminal law has evolved such that parental abduction is now a criminal offense in each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia;
“(4) in enacting the International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act of 1993 (Public Law 103–173; 107 Stat. 1998; 18 U.S.C. 1204), Congress recognized the need to combat parental abduction by making the act of international parental kidnapping a Federal criminal offense;
“(5) many of the extradition treaties to which the United States is a party specifically list the offenses that are extraditable and use the word ‘kidnapping’, but it has been the practice of the United States not to consider the term to include parental abduction because these treaties were negotiated by the United States prior to the development in United States criminal law described in paragraphs (3) and (4);
“(6) the more modern extradition treaties to which the United States is a party contain dual criminality provisions, which provide for extradition where both parties make the offense a felony, and therefore it is the practice of the United States to consider such treaties to include parental abduction if the other foreign state party also considers the act of parental abduction to be a criminal offense; and
“(7) this circumstance has resulted in a disparity in United States extradition law which should be rectified to better protect the interests of children and their parents.
“SEC. 203. INTERPRETATION OF EXTRADITION TREATIES.
“For purposes of any extradition treaty to which the United States is a party, Congress authorizes the interpretation of the terms ‘kidnaping’ and ‘kidnapping’ to include parental kidnapping.”
Judicial Assistance to International Tribunal for Yugoslavia and International Tribunal for Rwanda

Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, § 1342,Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 486, as amended by Pub. L. 111–117, div. F, title VII, § 7034(t),Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3364, provided that:
“(a) Surrender of Persons.—
“(1) Application of united states extradition laws.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the provisions of chapter 209 of title 18, United States Code, relating to the extradition of persons to a foreign country pursuant to a treaty or convention for extradition between the United States and a foreign government, shall apply in the same manner and extent to the surrender of persons, including United States citizens, to—
“(A) the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia, pursuant to the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia; and
“(B) the International Tribunal for Rwanda, pursuant to the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda.
“(2) Evidence on hearings.—For purposes of applying section 3190 of title 18, United States Code, in accordance with paragraph (1), the certification referred to in that section may be made by the principal diplomatic or consular officer of the United States resident in such foreign countries where the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda may be permanently or temporarily situated.
“(3) Payment of fees and costs.—(A) The provisions of the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia and of the Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda shall apply in lieu of the provisions of section 3195 of title 18, United States Code, with respect to the payment of expenses arising from the surrender by the United States of a person to the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda, respectively, or from any proceedings in the United States relating to such surrender.
“(B) The authority of subparagraph (A) may be exercised only to the extent and in the amounts provided in advance in appropriations Acts.
“(4) Nonapplicability of the federal rules.—The Federal Rules of Evidence [set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] and the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure [set out in the Appendix to this title] do not apply to proceedings for the surrender of persons to the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia or the International Tribunal for Rwanda.
“(b) Assistance to Foreign and International Tribunals and to Litigants Before Such Tribunals.—[Amended section 1782 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]
“(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:
“(1) International tribunal for yugoslavia.—The term ‘International Tribunal for Yugoslavia’ means the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, as established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 of May 25, 1993.
“(2) International tribunal for rwanda.—The term ‘International Tribunal for Rwanda’ means the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighboring States, as established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 of November 8, 1994.
“(3) Agreement between the united states and the international tribunal for yugoslavia.—The term ‘Agreement Between the United States and the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia’ means the Agreement on Surrender of Persons Between the Government of the United States and the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, signed at The Hague, October 5, 1994, as amended.
“(4) Agreement between the united states and the international tribunal for rwanda.—The term ‘Agreement between the United States and the International Tribunal for Rwanda’ means the Agreement on Surrender of Persons Between the Government of the United States and the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighboring States, signed at The Hague, January 24, 1995.”
Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Model Comprehensive Antidrug Laws

Pub. L. 100–690, title IV, § 4605,Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4290, which directed greater emphasis on updating of extradition treaties and on negotiating mutual legal assistance treaties with major drug producing and drug-transit countries, and called for development of model treaties and anti-narcotics legislation, was repealed by Pub. L. 102–583, § 6(e)(1),Nov. 2, 1992, 106 Stat. 4933.
Pub. L. 100–204, title VIII, § 803,Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1397, provided that: “The Secretary of State shall ensure that the Country Plan for the United States diplomatic mission in each major illicit drug producing country and in each major drug-transit country (as those terms are defined in section 481(i) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2291 (i)]) includes, as an objective to be pursued by the mission—
“(1) negotiating an updated extradition treaty which ensures that drug traffickers can be extradited to the United States, or
“(2) if an existing treaty provides for such extradition, taking such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the treaty is effectively implemented.”
Pub. L. 99–93, title I, § 133,Aug. 16, 1985, 99 Stat. 420, provided that: “The Secretary of State, with the assistance of the National Drug Enforcement Policy Board, shall increase United States efforts to negotiate updated extradition treaties relating to narcotics offenses with each major drug-producing country, particularly those in Latin America.”
EXTRADITION AGREEMENTS

The United States currently has bilateral extradition agreements with the following countries:

 
Country Date signed Entered into force Citation
Albania Mar. 1, 1933 Nov. 14, 1935 49 Stat. 3313.
Antigua and Barbuda June 3, 1996 July 1, 1999 TIAS.
Argentina June 10, 1997 June 15, 2000 TIAS 12866.
Australia Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
May 14, 1974 May 8, 1976 27 UST 957.
Sept. 4, 1990 Dec. 21, 1992 1736 UNTS 344.
Austria Jan. 8, 1998 Jan. 1, 2000 TIAS 12916.
July 20, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Bahamas Mar. 9, 1990 Sept. 22, 1994 TIAS.
Barbados Feb. 28, 1996 Mar. 3, 2000 TIAS.
Belgium Apr. 27, 1987 Sept. 1, 1997 TIAS.
Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
Belize Mar. 30, 2000 Mar. 27, 2001 TIAS.
Bolivia June 27, 1995 Nov. 21, 1996 TIAS.
Brazil Jan. 13, 1961 Dec. 17, 1964 15 UST 2093.
June 18, 1962 Dec. 17, 1964 15 UST 2112.
Bulgaria Mar. 19, 1924 June 24, 1924 43 Stat. 1886.
June 8, 1934 Aug. 15, 1935 49 Stat. 3250.
Sept. 19, 2007 May 21, 2009
Burma Dec. 22, 1931 Nov. 1, 1941 47 Stat. 2122.
Canada Dec. 3, 1971 Mar. 22, 1976 27 UST 983.
June 28, July 9, 1974 Mar. 22, 1976 27 UST 1017.
Jan. 11, 1988 Nov. 26, 1991 TIAS.
Jan. 12, 2001 Apr. 30, 2003
Chile Apr. 17, 1900 June 26, 1902 32 Stat. 1850.
Colombia Sept. 14, 1979 Mar. 4, 1982 TIAS.
Congo (Brazzaville)
Jan. 6, 1909
Jan. 15, 1929
Apr. 23, 1936
July 27, 1911
May 19, 1929
Sept. 24, 1936
37 Stat. 1526.
46 Stat. 2276.
50 Stat. 1117.
Costa Rica Dec. 4, 1982 Oct. 11, 1991 TIAS.
Cuba Apr. 6, 1904 Mar. 2, 1905 33 Stat. 2265.
Dec. 6, 1904 Mar. 2, 1905 33 Stat. 2273.
Jan. 14, 1926 June 18, 1926 44 Stat. 2392.
Cyprus June 17, 1996 Sept. 14, 1999 TIAS.
Jan. 20, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Czech Republic 1
July 2, 1925
Apr. 29, 1935
Mar. 29, 1926
Aug. 28, 1935
44 Stat. 2367.
49 Stat. 3253.
May 16, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Denmark June 22, 1972 July 31, 1974 25 UST 1293.
June 23, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Dominica Oct. 10, 1996 May 25, 2000 TIAS.
Dominican Republic June 19, 1909 Aug. 2, 1910 36 Stat. 2468.
Ecuador June 28, 1872 Nov. 12, 1873 18 Stat. 199.
Sept. 22, 1939 May 29, 1941 55 Stat. 1196.
Egypt Aug. 11, 1874 Apr. 22, 1875 19 Stat. 572.
El Salvador Apr. 18, 1911 July 10, 1911 37 Stat. 1516.
Estonia Nov. 8, 1923 Nov. 15, 1924 43 Stat. 1849.
Oct. 10, 1934 May 7, 1935 49 Stat. 3190.
Feb. 8, 2006 Apr. 7, 2009
European Union June 25, 2003 Feb. 1, 2010
Fiji Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
July 14, 1972, Aug. 17, 1973 Aug. 17, 1973 24 UST 1965.
Finland June 11, 1976 May 11, 1980 31 UST 944.
Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
France Apr. 23, 1996 Feb. 1, 2002 TIAS.
Sept. 30, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
Gambia Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Germany June 20, 1978 Aug. 29, 1980 32 UST 1485.
Oct. 21, 1986 Mar. 11, 1993 TIAS.
Apr. 18, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Ghana Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Greece May 6, 1931 Nov. 1, 1932 47 Stat. 2185.
Sept. 2, 1937 Sept. 2, 1937 51 Stat. 357.
Jan. 18, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Grenada May 30, 1996 Sept. 14, 1999 TIAS.
Guatemala Feb. 27, 1903 Aug. 15, 1903 33 Stat. 2147.
Feb. 20, 1940 Mar. 13, 1941 55 Stat. 1097.
Guyana Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Haiti Aug. 9, 1904 June 28, 1905 34 Stat. 2858.
Honduras Jan. 15, 1909 July 10, 1912 37 Stat. 1616.
Feb. 21, 1927 June 5, 1928 45 Stat. 2489.
Hong Kong Dec. 20, 1996 Jan. 21, 1998 TIAS.
Hungary Dec. 1, 1994 Mar. 18, 1997 TIAS.
Nov. 15, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Iceland Jan. 6, 1902 May 16, 1902 32 Stat. 1096.
Nov. 6, 1905 Feb. 19, 1906 34 Stat. 2887.
India June 25, 1997 July 21, 1999 TIAS 12873.
Iraq June 7, 1934 Apr. 23, 1936 49 Stat. 3380.
Ireland July 13, 1983 Dec. 15, 1984 TIAS 10813.
July 14, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Israel Dec. 10, 1962 Dec. 5, 1963 14 UST 1707.2
July 6, 2005 Jan. 10, 2007
Italy Oct. 13, 1983 Sept. 24, 1984 35 UST 3023.
May 3, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Jamaica June 14, 1983 July 7, 1991 TIAS.
Japan Mar. 3, 1978 Mar. 26, 1980 31 UST 892.
Jordan Mar. 28, 1995 July 29, 1995 TIAS.
Kenya Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
May 14, Aug. 19, 1965 Aug. 19, 1965 16 UST 1866.
Kiribati June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 227.
Latvia Oct. 16, 1923 Mar. 1, 1924 43 Stat. 1738.
Oct. 10, 1934 Mar. 29, 1935 49 Stat. 3131.
Dec. 7, 2005 Apr. 15, 2009
Lesotho Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Liberia Nov. 1, 1937 Nov. 21, 1939 54 Stat. 1733.
Liechtenstein May 20, 1936 June 28, 1937 50 Stat. 1337.
Lithuania Oct. 23, 2001 Mar. 31, 2003 TIAS 13166.
June 15, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Luxembourg Oct. 1, 1996 Feb. 1, 2002 TIAS 12804.
Feb. 1, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Malawi Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Dec. 17, 1966, Jan. 6, Apr. 4, 1967 Apr. 4, 1967 18 UST 1822.
Malaysia Aug. 3, 1995 June 2, 1997 TIAS.
Malta Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
May 18, 2006 July 1, 2009
Marshall Islands Apr. 30, 2003 May 1, 2004
Mauritius Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Mexico May 4, 1978 Jan. 25, 1980 31 UST 5059.
Nov. 13, 1997 May 21, 2001 TIAS 12897.
Micronesia, Federated States of May 14, 2003 June 25, 2004
Monaco Feb. 15, 1939 Mar. 28, 1940 54 Stat. 1780.
Nauru Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Netherlands June 24, 1980 Sept. 15, 1983 35 UST 1334.
Sept. 29, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
New Zealand Jan. 12, 1970 Dec. 8, 1970 22 UST 1.
Nicaragua Mar. 1, 1905 July 14, 1907 35 Stat. 1869.
Nigeria Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Norway June 9, 1977 Mar. 7, 1980 31 UST 5619.
Pakistan Dec. 22, 1931 Mar. 9, 1942 47 Stat. 2122.
Panama May 25, 1904 May 8, 1905 34 Stat. 2851.
Papua New Guinea Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 30, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Feb. 2, 23, 1988 Feb. 23, 1988 TIAS.
Paraguay Nov. 9, 1998 Mar. 9, 2001 TIAS 12995.
Peru July 26, 2001 Aug. 25, 2003
Philippines Nov. 13, 1994 Nov. 22, 1996 TIAS.
Poland July 10, 1996 Sept. 17, 1999 TIAS.
June 9, 2006 Feb. 1, 2010
Portugal May 7, 1908 Nov. 14, 1908 35 Stat. 2071.
July 14, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Romania July 23, 1924 Apr. 7, 1925 44 Stat. 2020.
Nov. 10, 1936 July 27, 1937 50 Stat. 1349.
Sept. 10, 2007 May 8, 2009
Saint Kitts and Nevis Sept. 18, 1996 Feb. 23, 2000 TIAS 12805.
Saint Lucia Apr. 18, 1996 Feb. 2, 2000 TIAS.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Aug. 15, 1996 Sept. 8, 1999 TIAS.
San Marino Jan. 10, 1906 July 8, 1908 35 Stat. 1971.
Oct. 10, 1934 June 28, 1935 49 Stat. 3198.
Seychelles Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Sierra Leone Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Singapore Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Apr. 23, June 10, 1969 June 10, 1969 20 UST 2764.
Slovakia 1
July 2, 1925
Apr. 29, 1935
Feb. 6, 2006
Mar. 29, 1926
Aug. 28, 1935
Feb. 1, 2010
44 Stat. 2367.
49 Stat. 3253.
Slovenia 1 Oct. 17, 2005 Feb. 1, 2010
Solomon Islands June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 277.
South Africa Sept. 16, 1999 June 25, 2001 TIAS.
South Korea June 9, 1998 Dec. 20, 1999 TIAS 12962.
Spain May 29, 1970 June 16, 1971 22 UST 737.
Jan. 25, 1975 June 2, 1978 29 UST 2283.
Feb. 9, 1988 July 2, 1993 TIAS.
Mar. 12, 1996 July 25, 1999 TIAS.
Dec. 17, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
Sri Lanka Sept. 30, 1999 Jan. 12, 2001 TIAS.
Suriname June 2, 1887 July 11, 1889 26 Stat. 1481.
Jan. 18, 1904 Aug. 28, 1904 33 Stat. 2257.
Swaziland Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
May 13, July 28, 1970 July 28, 1970 21 UST 1930.
Sweden Oct. 24, 1961 Dec. 3, 1963 14 UST 1845.
Mar. 14, 1983 Sept. 24, 1984 35 UST 2501.
Dec. 16, 2004 Feb. 1, 2010
Switzerland Nov. 14, 1990 Sept. 10, 1997 TIAS.
Tanzania Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Nov. 30, Dec. 6, 1965 Dec. 6, 1965 16 UST 2066.
Thailand Dec. 14, 1983 May 17, 1991 TIAS.
Tonga Dec. 22, 1931 Aug. 1, 1966 47 Stat. 2122.
Mar. 14, Apr. 13, 1977 Apr. 13, 1977 28 UST 5290.
Trinidad and Tobago Mar. 4, 1996 Nov. 29, 1999 TIAS.
Turkey June 7, 1979 Jan. 1, 1981 32 UST 3111.
Tuvalu June 8, 1972 Jan. 21, 1977 28 UST 227.
Apr. 25, 1980 32 UST 1310.
United Kingdom
Mar. 31, 2003
Dec. 16, 2004
Apr. 26, 2007
Feb. 1, 2010
Uruguay Apr. 6, 1973 Apr. 11, 1984 35 UST 3197.
Venezuela Jan. 19, 21, 1922 Apr. 14, 1923 43 Stat. 1698.
Yugoslavia 1 Oct. 25, 1901 June 12, 1902 32 Stat. 1890.
Zambia Dec. 22, 1931 June 24, 1935 47 Stat. 2122.
Zimbabwe July 25, 1997 Apr. 26, 2000
1 Status of agreements with successor states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia is under review; inquire of the Treaty Office of the United States Department of State.
2 Typographical error corrected by diplomatic notes exchanged Apr. 4 and 11, 1967. See 18 UST 382, 383.

Convention on Extradition

The United States is a party to the Multilateral Convention on Extradition signed at Montevideo on Dec. 26, 1933, entered into force for the United States on Jan. 25, 1935. 49 Stat. 3111.
Other states which have become parties: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

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18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

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22 CFR - Foreign Relations

22 CFR Part 95 - IMPLEMENTATION OF TORTURE CONVENTION IN EXTRADITION CASES

 

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