18 U.S. Code § 3491 - Foreign documents

Any book, paper, statement, record, account, writing, or other document, or any portion thereof, of whatever character and in whatever form, as well as any copy thereof equally with the original, which is not in the United States shall, when duly certified as provided in section 3494 of this title, be admissible in evidence in any criminal action or proceeding in any court of the United States if the court shall find, from all the testimony taken with respect to such foreign document pursuant to a commission executed under section 3492 of this title, that such document (or the original thereof in case such document is a copy) satisfies the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence, unless in the event that the genuineness of such document is denied, any party to such criminal action or proceeding making such denial shall establish to the satisfaction of the court that such document is not genuine. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to require authentication under the provisions of section 3494 of this title of any such foreign documents which may otherwise be properly authenticated by law.


(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 834; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 52,63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 88–619, § 2,Oct. 3, 1964, 78 Stat. 995; Pub. L. 94–149, § 3,Dec. 12, 1975, 89 Stat. 806.)
Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act
Based on section 695a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 20, 1936, ch. 640, § 2,49 Stat. 1562.)
1949 Act
This section [section 52] corrects section 3491 of title 18, U.S.C., so that the references therein will be to the correct section numbers in title 28, U.S.C., as revised and enacted in 1948.
References in Text

The Federal Rules of Evidence, referred to in text, are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1975—Pub. L. 94–149substituted “the authentication requirements of the Federal Rules of Evidence” for “the requirements of section 1732 of Title 28”.
1964—Pub. L. 88–619struck out “and section 1741 of Title 28” after “section 3494 of this title” in two places.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, substituted “section 1741” for “section 695e” and “section 1732” for “section 695” wherever appearing.

The table below lists the classification updates, since Jan. 3, 2012, for this section. Updates to a broader range of sections may be found at the update page for containing chapter, title, etc.

The most recent Classification Table update that we have noticed was Tuesday, August 13, 2013

An empty table indicates that we see no relevant changes listed in the classification tables. If you suspect that our system may be missing something, please double-check with the Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

18 USCDescription of ChangeSession YearPublic LawStatutes at Large

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.

28 CFR - Judicial Administration



LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.